« PreviousContinue »
he got hold of a gardener to give him some practical
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. advice. However, with this slight drawback, the book is admirably designed for the teacher who wishes to (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions work out an elementary course of instruction for a expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake country school, either as an introduction to practical to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected life or to a more special study of agriculture and horti
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. culture.
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.]
A Note on the Coloration of Spiders.
It is well known that in a large number of animals, both Pp. 250; price 6s. net. By Sir William R. Gowers, vertebrate and invertebrate, the colour of the flanks and
ventral side of the body differs from that of the dorsal. In M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S. (London: J. and A.
the majority of cases the dorsal surface is most darkly Churchill, 1895 and 1904.)
tinted, the ventral palest, and the flanks intermediate in In these two volumes Sir William Gowers has collected depth of tone between these two. This gradation of colourin revised form a number of clinical lectures which ing has the effect of neutralising the shadows that are cast have appeared in various medical journals. In the by the upper upon the lower portions of the body. Thus the latter volume he has also printed the Bowman lecture animal does not stand out in prominent relief, but is, so to on subjective visual sensations delivered to the speak, artistically flattened, and thereby rendered less Ophthalmological Society, and the Bradshaw lecture conspicuous. on the subjective sensations of sound. The clinical To this general rule I have recently observed an interestlectures deal with many subjects in neurology; some
ing exception which affords strong evidence in favour of are mainly descriptive, some speculative. In reading the truth of the above interpretation. The spiders belong
ing to the genus Linyphia are, almost without exception, them one not only appreciates the original and darkly coloured upon the ventral surface; their flanks are suggestive way in which the facts are presented, but variously slashed with oblique white bars and stripes, while also the finished literary style. In a short notice it is their dorsal surface is yet more freely speckled with white impossible to deal with them 'in detail. The two or pale spots and lines. In these spiders, then, the scheme lectures on the subjective sensations of vision and hear- of coloration is the exact opposite to that which prevails ing are perhaps of wider scientific interest than the elsewhere. Now the Linyphiidæ spin horizontal webs, in clinical lectures. In the first the visual phenomena the centre of which they rest inverted, clinging to the lower experienced by sufferers from migraine are described side. Thus it is the ventral side of a Linyphia that is ex
posed to the strongest light, the dorsal side being in the and figured, and there is an admirable résumé of
deepest shadow. physiological teaching with reference to vision.
The inversion of attitude at once fully the second lecture the phenomena of tinnitus, of explains the inverted shading of the body.
Oswald H. LATTER. auditory vertigo, and other labyrinthine sensations are
Charterhouse, Godalming, October 30. discussed in a luminous and attractive way. Both neurologists and physiologists will find much in these volumes to assist and to stimulate them in researches
Sir J. Eliot's Address at Cambridge. into nervous phenomena.
AGAINST some of the main conclusions of Sir J. Eliot's Lectures Scientifiques. A French Reader for Science opening address before Section A (subsection : cosmical
Students containing Extracts from Modern French physics) may be set the facts that south-east winds are rare Scientific works in Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, on the south-east coast of South Africa, and that the rain Physiology and Botany, with a Glossary of Technical of the greater part of the tableland and south-east coast Terms. By W. G. Hartog, B.A. Pp. vii + 371.
comes mostly from some northerly direction. (London : Rivingtons, 1904.) Price 5s.
My concern, however, is chiefly with the following reThe University of London now insists that candidates
marks, reported in NATURE of August 25 last :
“The chief features of the rainfall of the period 1895for a degree in science shall be able to read and under
1902, in the Indo-oceanic region were as follows :stand accounts in the original of French and German There was a marked tendency in each year for late comscientific work. In compiling this book Mr. Hartog mencement and early withdrawal of the monsoon currents, has had the needs of such students in mind so far as and for deficient rainfall throughout the whole season over French is concerned, and he has succeeded in bring- the greater part of India. These features were very proing together a varied and representative collection of nounced in the years 1896, 1899, and 1901. The most reextracts from French scientific works and scientific markable feature of the period was that the region to the periodicals. Among the latter the Revue générale des south of the equator, including South and East Africa, Sciences takes a very prominent position, contributing Hutchins, Conservator of Forests, Cape Town, states that to Mr. Hartog's collection as many as fifteen extracts. | drought prevailed more or less persistently over the Karroo The book should be of service not only to the under region in South Africa from 1896 to 1903, and that cattle graduates referred to, but also to students of science and sheep perished by millions. He also states that the everywhere, for it is now more than ever necessary that drought extended to British Central Africa from 1898 to the man of science should be able to acquaint himself 1903 The previous statements evidence the continuity, at first hand with the results of fellow-workers abroad. extension, and intensity of the drought. . : . The preceding L'Industrie oléicole_ (Fabrication de l'Huile d'Olive). longed periods similar in character have occurred, and may
statements have shown that variations of rainfall for proBy J. Dugast. Pp. 176. (Paris : Gauthier-Villars hence occur again, over the very large area including the and Masson et Cie., n.d.) Price 3 francs.
Southern Asian peninsulas, East and South Africa, This little volume, which belongs to the Aide-Mémoire Australia, and perhaps the Indian Ocean. The abnormal series, is a practical account of the manufacture of actions or conditions giving rise to these large and prolonged olive oil, and indicates several directions in which the variations must hence be persistent for long periods, and results of scientific research have been utilised to im- be effective over the whole of that extensive area." prove technical processes. The formation and compo
Now the question is, what is a drought? From one Sition of olives are first explained, then the methods of point of view there is nothing but drought over a very large extracting the oil are described and an account given print, showing the variation of the mean actual rainfall of the appliances necessary for the purpose. properties and methods of preservation of olive oil and and prolonged general dryness setting up marked economic
The from the normal in India, that by drought is meant unusual the utilisation of the oil-cake are also considered. results such as large loss of cattle and great loss of
NO. 1827, VOL. 71]
capital," and so forth. If that interpretation is correct, then there has been no such drought in South Africa in the years stated.
This is proved by the accompanying table. It shows the average rainfall over each of the twenty rainfall districts of South Africa, during each year, in percentages of the means. These means have been computed for 160 stations having long records of twenty years, more or less, and are fully given and explained in my Introduction to the Study of South African Rainfall." The information from which they are derived is open to all who take the trouble to look for it in the annual reports of the Cape Meteorological Commission.
The great mortality among cattle and stock can be explained without assuming that there has been a prolonged drought. In farming matters we live from hand to mouth. Farmers of the Karroo prefer to pray for rain rather than take the trouble to store it up when it comes. Therefore, if the rain is short in the late summer, and late in coming in the next spring, they have reserve to fall back upon, and their cattle die. One year's drought kills off the stock almost as surely as fifty years' would. For instance, there was great loss of stock in 1897. Yet what were the facts of rainfall? At my station, where the annual mean is about 18.5 inches, the fall in December, 1896, was 8.42 inches; in the whole of 1897 it was 8.85 inches, and in January,
Percentages of Rainfall in the Various Districts of South Africa during the Years 1891 to 1902.
1898, it was 8.43 inches. Thus there was a drought during 1897, many cattle died, and there was much praying for rain. The year 1903 was probably almost the same as 1897, the fall at Kimberley being only some 65 per cent. of the mean, whereas the fall during the last half of 1902 was good, and during the first half of 1904 excellent. But with the exception of these years there has been nothing that can properly be called drought, in the sense of Sir J. Eliot's address, over any extended region of South Africa within the past fifteen years at least. Thus there is nothing to justify the statement that we have been under the same influence as that which set up the prolonged drought in Australia and the dry years in India. J. R. SUTTON.
It is pretty plain that the area of winter rains, including the west coast and Cape Peninsula, was short of rain in 1896; that 1897 was a dry year over the area of summer rains, which comprises the greater part of South Africa; and that the south coast and adjacent districts, where the rainfall is fairly uniform throughout the year, had a dry year in 1899, and one not very wet in 1895. The area of summer rains, being so much greater than the rest, of course sets the tone of the mean rainfall of the whole country, making 1897 a dry year on the whole, and 1891 a very wet year.
There seem to be dry areas somewhere or other in pretty well every year. For example, the rainfall was short in the western part of the area of summer rains in 1902, although the fall was good enough further east. It was short over the east-central Karroo and south-east in 1899 in sympathy with the dryness of the south in that year. Even in 1891 there was a short fall over an extensive region.
I fancy that the impression of unusual dryness over South Aírica in recent years arises from the misleading mean values used by the Meteorological Commission for comparative purposes. These are taken from Buchan's rather futile " Rainfall of South Africa,” and average fully two inches (equal to perhaps 10 per cent.) too great. Buchan used only the rainfall of the ten years 1885-94 in constructing his results, and therefore got inflated averages in consequence of the heavy rainfall of 1891; whence the rainfalls of recent years are made to appear minus as compared with what is called the mean, whereas, as compared with the better means of longer periods, they would be often plus.
I TRUST to your courtesy to give my reply to Mr. Sutton's criticisms on certain portions of my address at the recent British Association meeting.
My address was in part based on an investigation I have had on hand for nearly two years, and which will be shortly published as a paper in the Indian Meteorological Memoirs. In that will be found a statement of the chief features of the meteorology of South Africa during the period 1892–1902. It is confessedly based upon' very imperfect informationpartly derived from newspaper reports, partly from data in certain meteorological reports received from Cape Town by the Calcutta Meteorological Office, and partly from data obtained from Mr. Hutchins, Conservator of Forests, Cape Colony, with whom I have been in correspondence for many years on the meteorology of South Africa and
its relation to that of India. Mr. Hutchins was for some usual unsuited to the staple crops. Local knowledge of years in the Madras Forest Department before he went to the agricultural and economic conditions is hence of the the Cape some fifteen or twenty years ago. He has made greatest importance in estimating the probable effect of a a special study of the rainfall of South Africa, and is a given variation of rainfall in any area. Mr. Hutchins, I careful and enthusiastic investigator in rainfall problems. have every reason to suppose, possesses such knowledge for He is, from his double experience in India and South Africa South Africa, and hence I attach the highest value to his and his present official work and position, eminently qualified information on such matters. to form a judgment on the abnormal features of rainfall The evidence I have collected, a small portion of which distribution in either area, and on their economic effect. was given in my address, appears to me to have established It is hence, as I hope to show later, very satisfactory that that during the period 1895-1902 there was a marked Mr. Sutton's figures confirm the general inferences I made tendency to more or less continuous deficiency of rainfall about South African rainfall, based chiefly
Mr. over the Indo-oceanic area, most pronounced in dry inland Hutchins's information, in my address.
districts, and which in India intensified into severe droughts Before discussing Mr. Sutton's data and inferences, in the years 1896, 1899, and 1901, diminishing the crop perhaps I may be permitted to deal with two or three im- returns over large areas to such an extent that it was portant issues raised in Mr. Sutton's letter.
necessary to resort to famine relief on a large scale during The first is contained in the opening paragraph, in which the twelve months succeeding each period of crop failure.
“south-east winds are rare on the south-east coast I was unable to make as precise statements for either of South Africa, and the rain of the greater part of the Australia or South Africa, but the scanty facts and informtableland and north-east coast comes mostly from some ation at my disposal appeared to justify the statement that northerly direction.” If these casual remarks have any these areas were similarly affected. I also pointed out that point at all, I think I am correct in assuming that they this period stood in marked contrast to a preceding period imply that Mr. Sutton considers the rainfall in the areas of three years, 1892-4, when the precipitation was apparently mentioned is not due to humid currents from the Indian in general excess over the same large area. Ocean, but from the dry interior to the north of the table- I give in the following table a comparison between the land. I have examined the rainfall charts of South Africa rainfall variations of India, and the area of spring, given in Bartholomew's “ Meteorological Atlas," and they summer, and autumn rains in South Africa, which, so far certainly indicate to me that the aqueous vapour, the con- as I can judge, is mainly dependent on the Indian Ocean densation of which gives rainfall in the eastern half of South supplies of aqueous vapour. I give, in the absence of the Africa, is brought up by air movement from the Indian number of stations for each area, the arithmetic means of Ocean, and occurs as a summer precipitation. Hence, so the second and third horizontal rows of figures in Mr. far as I can reasonably judge, that area forms a part of Sutton's summary of his data :what I have termed the Indo-oceanic region. I might add, in further reply, that rain in certain parts of India during Period of general excess of rain Period of general deficiency of rain the south-west monsoon chiefly occurs with easterly and
Percentage variation north-easterly, and even with northerly winds. But these
India S. Africa facts have not yet been utilised by anyone to prove that the 1892 + 12
+ 8 1895 - 5
9 rainfall is not brought up from the adjacent seas and oceans 1893
- 5 by the south-west monsoon circulation.
+ 4 1897 normal Mr. Sutton in a later paragraph says he fancies that
- 9 “the impression of unusual dryness over South Africa in
- 18 recent years arises from the misleading mean values used
+ 2 by the Meteorological Commission for comparative purposes
1901 - 10
+ 7 which are taken from Buchan's rather futile · Rainfall of
5 South Africa,' and average fully two inches (equal to perhaps 10 per cent.) too great.' There is an air of These figures show that the eastern half of South Africa certainty about this statement which I am unable to share had heavier rain than usual during the same period (1892-4) without further proof. Buchan's means are based on ten as India, that it was steadily in defect during the first years' data, Mr. Sutton's on twenty years' data. It does five years of the period of persistent deficiency of rain in not necessarily follow that twenty years' means are better India, and was especially deficient in the years 1897 and representatives of normal or average conditions than ten 1899, the former being the year and rainfall season following years means. It depends entirely upon whether the ten the first severe drought year of the period in India, and the years may or may not be accepted as representing the normal latter the same year as that of the greatest drought expericonditions, and whether the additional ten years' data are for enced in India during the past 100 years at least. The an abnormal period or not. The fact that the two sets of parallelism between the two sets of figures is, indeed, more means differ on the average of the whole area by 10 per complete than I anticipated, and hence I consider not only cent. indicates to an outsider on South African meteorology that Mr. Sutton's conclusion to the effect that “ there is like myself that it is quite as probable the ten years' nothing to justify the statement that South Africa has additional data erred in defect as that the ten years' data been under the same influence as that which set up the employed by Dr. Buchan erred in excess. There hence prolonged drought in Australia and the dry years in India " appears to be in the absence of any proof) an element of is neither in accordance with what I hold to be the general doubt in his means, just as he asserts to be the case in the meteorological conditions and relations of the whole Indo“ rather futile" means of Dr. Buchan.
oceanic area nor even with the data which Mr. Sutton Again, if I read Mr. Sutton's letter rightly, he considers furnishes. The probability, so far as I can judge, is at that the question as to whether the crops have failed over least twenty to one that there is some relation such as I large areas being due to drought is settled by a consideration have suggested. The chief object of my address was, I of percentage variations. It is certainly not the case in may add, to urge the necessity for the coordination and interIndia. A percentage variation gives no certain indication comparison of the meteorological observations of the whole unless considered in relation to the normal fall, and also to Indo-oceanic area and their discussion as a whole by an its time-distribution. A deficiency of 25 per cent. is of abso- efficient scientific staff in London. The question at issue lutely no economic importance in such areas as Sind (with between Mr. Sutton and myself, for example, could be an average rainfall of about four inches) or such as Arakan authoritatively settled by such an investigating office. (with an average of more than 200 inches). The former In conclusion, I hope that my remarks may not be interarea depends solely on irrigation for cultivation, and the preted as in any way depreciating the value of Mr. Sutton's latter is so abundantly supplied for the rice crop that it work in collecting and discussing as a whole the rainfall bears a loss of fifty inches lightly. On the other hand, in data of South Africa, and in utilising the data to obtain the regions termed the dry zones in India, where the mean normal means for purposes of comparison. His work will, rainfall ranges between fifteen inches and thirty inches, a I am confident, be appreciated by all interested in African deficiency of 20 per cent. is usually a serious matter, more meteorology from any point of view. JOHN Eliot especially if it accompanies more irregular distribution than Bon Porto, Cavalaire, Var, France.
The Origin of Life.
struck her that the noise was like a cat's jump from a ALTHOUGH to the evolutionist it must necessarily appear height. - Procuring light she found the cat standing by the more than probable that at some time or other non-living
door. She then saw that the curtains, where folded on the matter has by evolution acquired the properties of life, and
bed, had been a little disturbed, put in her hand, and found to him the only question is as to how this has come about,
three soft warm kittens! They were immediately put into ret, for all that, he has been in the habit of admitting that
a basket with flannel, and set by the kitchen fire; but as the complete failure of all experiment in this direction makes
soon as the lady had gone downstairs she met the cat, with the negative evidence very strong indeed. My present object
a kitten in her mouth, on her way back to the bedroom. is to suggest that the negative evidence, so far from being Why did she select that room? She was not petted by the strong, is so weak that perhaps it can hardly be said to lady, nor friendly to her. The housemaid was safe, busy exist.
waiting at table. In the experiments the first step has always been, and, so
Debarred from this resource, she hid the kittens. again far as one can see, must always be, to destroy all existing
while the family were at dinner, and apparently felt so sure life and all existing germs of life. Suppose the agent to
that they were safe, that she went and sat by the kitchen be heat. How does the experimenter know that the very
fire, awaiting the usual scraps. Of course a search was means he employs to destroy in living matter the property
made in all likely hiding places and corners frequented by of life are not equally efficacious in destroying the peculiar
the young people, who were very fond of this cat, and
A piteous, faint squealing property or properties of matter that is just on the point thought she was fond of them. of transmutation? For all that we certainly know to the betrayed the poor little creatures on the floor behind the contrary, dead matter may be changing into living every
largest folios in the library. The space above the books day in every pool, especially every warm pool, on the face
was so small that it is difficult to think how the cat got in of the earth. If so, the difference between the last state
with a kitten in her mouth, or even without it. This was of the non-living and the first state of the living must, by
the one room into which the housemaid seldom came, the evolutionist's hypothesis, be extremely small; and it is especially in the evening, as the master sat there. He did probable—to my mind most probable--that both would be
not pet the cat at any time, and she took no notice of him. similarly affected by an unusual degree of heat, or what
But though securely hidden, the kittens could hardly have Fer other agent is calculated to destroy life; the precaution
lived in that cold place; their mother seemed to have overeliminating life and its potentiality at one stroke. But the
looked their need of warmth. After this failure she subvalue of the negative evidence is precisely in inverse pro
mitted to have them kept in the basket in the kitchen.
Y. N. portion to this probability. If the probability is thought great, the negative evidence will necessarily be thought small. I submit that the probability is very great indeed,
Fish.passes and Fish.ponds. and consequently that we are pretty much in the same posi
In your issue of August 18, in an article dealing with Don as to the possible evolution of life from non-living fish-passes and fish-ponds, the following statement is matter as we should have been if no experiments had been
made :made. Certainly, so far as the logic of the matter is con
“Much of the information as to the construction of merced, there is no need yet to consider the hypothesis of
ponds and their inlets and overflows is, of course, ancient, life having been imported here from another planet.
and can be found in such books as the History of HowieBirmingham, October 25.
(by the late Sir James Ramsay Gibson Maitland, Bart.).
The above statement may easily cause the incorrect inThinking Cats.
ference that the information in Sir James Ramsay Gibson I Have known three cats which behaved as if they thought.
Maitland's work is now obsolete. Perhaps you may care to The first, a large, sleek tabby, belonged to a private family make it known that this is, of course, not the case, although living in the City. Between 1846 and 1858 the owner,
no doubt with lapse of time improvements and modifications Mr. l. S., was surprised by his manservant coming to his are introduced.
HOWIETOUN FISHERY Co. office at the back of the house in business hours and asking, Howietoun Fishery, Stirling, N.B., October 24. ** Did you ring, sir?" "No, I have not been into the horse, was his answer. This occurred repeatedly. At Average Number of Kinsfolk in each Degree. last the man watched, and observed that, the family being s other rooms, the dining room bell rang, and when he
I THANK Dr. Galton for his explanation (p. 626), which answered it the cat ran out of the door. He then purposely only shows how easy, it is to make mistakes in things which erat ber into the room. A leather easy chair was so placed
appear perfectly trivial. The discrepancy can be accounted that by getting on the seat, and then standing on the
for, however, more simply still by the fact that families arm, she could reach the knob with her front paw; and she
containing boys only have to be left out of account, and continued to practise this accomplishment as often as she
therefore in the families which contain at least one girl
there are on an average more girls than boys altogether. was shut up in the room.
G. H. BRYAN. The second cat, also a large tabby, lived at Blackheath. Her master often sat up late writing. The cook, a good old servant," also now and then sat late, sewing or read
Misuse of Words and Phrases. ing, in the kitchen. One night after twelve Mr. H. F. It is quite true, as Mr. Basset says, that in English was interrupted by the cat running into the library (the door considerable care is often required in the arrangement of being open), mewing and clawing him, then running a sentence, so as to avoid ambiguity"; but he seems to go towards the door, and repeating these acts. He got up too far when he says that “ brevity ought always to be and followed the cat, which now ran into the kitchen. The aimed at." Too much brevity will often, as we are warned rook was sitting asleep close to the fender, a piece of coal by Horace, lead to obscurity : “ brevis laboro : had fallen on her dress, and it was burning. No harm obscurus fia”; and the absence of inflections and genders happened, thanks to the cat.
renders it impossible to write English in the brief, epigramThe third was a very small, slight cat, white and tabby, matic style that is common in Latin. a good mouser and bird catcher, and not at all afraid of To Mr. Basset's rules the following may be advantagea rat. On one occasion the servant, exasperated by the ously added : that new words of foreign origin should not trouble caused by the cat's selection of a birthplace for be employed when English words will suit the purpose as kittens, drowned them all, for which she was duly rebuked. well or better. For instance, autotomic and anautotomic, The next family arrived in a suitable corner, but, when two, as applied to curves, are objectionable, because self-cutting or three days old, disappeared, as well as their mother. and non-self-cutting express precisely the same ideas in As the cat was never allowed to go upstairs, it was supposed simpler and more familiar words. I am at a loss to know that, like another cat once before, she had made a lair in on what ground Mr. Basset objects to the phrase nonthe garden, where she spent most of her time. At dusk the singular cubic curve"; does he think the epithet is untrestress of the house went up to dress for dinner. As soon couth
inelegant or “ inaccurate"? as she entered her room she heard something fall, and it
T. B. S.
FLOODS IN THE MISSISSIPPI.
Missouri and Kansas remained no longer rivers, but
became merged into an inland sea. When the flood E have on previous occasions directed attention subsided there was revealed a condition of general ruin
to the reports issued by the Department of and desolation. Holes had been gouged in the streets Agriculture of the United States, and to the valuable some 30 feet deep; railroad tracks had been torn to information they afford to the officers engaged in the pieces; an oil tank, 50 feet in diameter and 30 feet high, different departments. We have now been favoured made of iron plates, had been torn from its foundations with a copy of a report issued by the Weather Bureau and tossed about like a frail shanty; freight cars
had been broken up and carried away down the river; heavy locomotive engines had been rolled over and were discovered lying in mud banks; and mud from 2 feet to 4 feet deep covered everything. An approximate estimate of the loss in this district was put at 3} million pounds. In the vicinity of Kansas City the losses were placed at upwards of three million pounds, while the value of the bridges destroyed was more than 150,000l. In previous floods the losses have fallen principally on the
the agricultural districts, but this time the loss to the farmers was less than one-third of the total, and about the same proportion was borne by the railroads.
But great as the losses were, they would have been far greater but for the property saved owing to timely warnings issued by the
Weather Bureau. Owing to the Fig. 1.-Kansas City, Missouri. Scene in the freight yard of the St. Louis and San Francisco careful records kept of previous Railway after subsidence of the flood.
floods the department was enabled
to forecast the time at which the on the floods in the Mississippi watershed in the spring flow would reach the various towns situated on the of 1903," which gives an interesting and detailed river, and the height to which it would probably rise, account of the most disastrous floods in this district of and so could send out timely warnings. In the lower which there is any record.
district alone the value of the property saved by reThese floods are described as marking a new epoch moval to places of safety was estimated at 5 million in the economic history of the country. When previous pounds. The forecasts as to the probable height of floods occurred they ran harmlessly over unbroken the flood were issued in the higher districts at least forests, and bottoms tenanted only by the beasts of the field, except over a limited area where there were small farms tenanted by French colonists. The floods of 1903 descended upon fertile and highly cultivated fields, and upon rich valleys filled to overflowing with vast industries devoted with never ceasing energy to the fulfilment of the insatiable demands of commerce. The resulting ruin and desolation were beyond description. Along the lower Mississippi 6820 square miles of country were inundated. In Kansas City five square miles of territory were overflowed; large portions of the manufacturing towns of Venice and Madison were flooded to a considerable depth; more than 3000 square miles of territory, one-half of which was under cultivation, were
Fig. 2.-Repairing levee at Lagrange, Mississippi. overflowed and the crops ruined.
The towns' of Armourdale, Argentine, and Harlem four days in advance, and in the lower part, at New were covered from 8 feet to 12 feet with water, and had Orleans, twenty-eight days in advance. By these to be abandoned. Twenty thousand people in this warnings the people were kept well informed of what district were made homeless. All public utilities were they might expect in the way of high water. The put out of service; sixteen out of seventeen bridges work of the River and Flood Service in furnishing over the river Kaw were washed away. The information regarding this food was complete and 1 "The Floods of the Spring of 1903 in the Mississippi Watershed.' By
satisfactory. By the use of the Post Office, telegraph H. C. Frankenfeld. (Washington : Weather Bureau, 1904.)
and telephone lines, and the daily Press, and with the