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RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, BREAD STREET HILL. E.C., AND

BUNGAY, SUFFOLK.

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A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

" To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye." - WORDSWORTH.

No. 1827, VOL. 71] THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 3, 1904. [PRICE 15 CENTS. Registered as a Newspaper at the General Post Office.)

(All Rights are Reserved. MORTON & WRIGHT'S RECTIFIER (PATENT)

VERLAG VON GUSTAV FISCHER IN JENA. For converting alternating into continuous current for charging accumulators and working coils.

Praktikum für morphologische und systematische Botanik. Hilfsbuch bei praktischen

- Uebungen und Anleitung zu selbständigen Studien in der Morphologie und Systematik der Pflanzenwelt. Von . Prof. Dr. KÁRL SCHUMANN, weil. Kustos am Koniglichen Boianischen Museum und Privatdozent an der Universität zu Berlin. Mit 154 Figuren im Text. Preis: 13 Mark, geb. 14 Mark.

Soeben erschien Heft 2 der II. Reihe der : Vegetationsbilder. Von Dr. G. KARSTEN, Prof.

an der Universität Bonn, und Dr. H. SCHENCK, Prof. an der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt. Preis des Heftes für Abnehmer der zweiten Reihe 2,50 Mk. Einzelne Hefte 4 Mark.

Inhalt: G. Karsten, Die Mangrove-Yegetation. Particulars on application.

Tafel 7: Küstensaum von Rhizophora mucronata. NEWTON & CO

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THE SIR JOHN CASS TECHNICAL NORTHERN POLYTECHNIC
INSTITUTE,

INSTITUTE,
JEWRY STREET, ALDGATE, E.C.

HOLLOWAY, LONDON, N.
Principal

CHARLES A. Kohn, M.Sc., Ph.D., F.I.C. (Close to Holloway Stn., G.N.R., and Highbury Stn., N.L.R.) EVENING CLASSES in CHEMISTRY, METALLURGY, LONDON UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PHYSICS and MATHEMATICS design to meet the requirements of

DEGREES. those engaged in CHEMICAL, METALLURGICAL and ELECTRICAL

Day and Evening Courses in the above under recognised teachers inINDUSTRIES and in trades associated therewith. Also preparation for the B.Sc. Examination of London Uni.

MATHEMATICS, versity.

PHYSICS,
Chemistry

{ , ,
CHARLES A. KOHN, M.Sc., Ph.D., F.I.C.,

CHEMISTRY,
Physics
R. S. Willows, D.Sc., M.A.

ENGINEERING.
Metallurgy
C. 0. BANNISTER, Assoc. R.S.M.

Separate Laboratories for Elementary, Advanced and Honours students, Mathematics G. M. K. LEGGETT, B.A.

exceptionally large and well equipped. Every facility for special and advanced practical work in well-equipped laboratories both in the afternoon and evening.

RESEARCH. NEW SESSION began MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 26.

Accommodation and apparatus provided for research in either Pure or The Institute is readily accessible and near to Fenchurch Street, Liver- Applied Chemistry and Physics, and Engineering, in rooms specially pool Street, Broad Street and Metropolitan Railway Stations.

adapted for this purpose, For details of the Classes apply at the Office of the Institute, or by Full particulars at the Institute or sent on receipt of postcard. letter to the PRINCIPAL.

REG. S. CLAY, D.Sc., Principal. W. H. DAVISON, M.A., Clerk to the Governing Body.

FOR WOMEN. At the

BEDFORD COLLEGE
SOUTH-WESTERN POLYTECHNIC,
Manresa Road, Chelsea, S.W., Day College Courses of thirty hours

(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.)
per week will be conducted in preparation for the London University
Degrees of B.Sc. in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, in Chemis.

YORK PLACE, BAKER STREET, W. try, Physics and the Natural Sciences. The composition fee for the The HALF TERM begins on MONDAY, NOVEMBER 14. Session of three terms, 1904-1905, is 1915. These Courses are recog; The College provides instruction for Students preparing for the Uninised for "Internal Students of the University, and consist of versity of London Degrees in Arts, Science, and Preliminary Medicine, lecture and laboratory instruction. The Courses are conducted by : also instruction in subjects of General Education. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, W. W. F. Pullen and L. D. There is a Training Department for Teachers, a Hygiene Department, Coueslant; ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, A. J. Makower; and an Art School. CHEMISTRY, J. B. Coleman, J. C. Crocker, and F. H. Lowe; Students can reside in the College, MATHEMATICS and PHYSICS, S. Skinner, W. H. Eccles, J. Lister Particulars on application to the PRINCIPAL. and L. Lownds; BOTANY, H. B. Lacey and T. G. Hill; GEO. LOGY, A. J. Maslen. In the evenings similar Courses will be con. ducted, but at reduced sees. Also TECHNICAL DAY COURSES

BEDFORD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. of three years' duration bave been arranged as a preparation for the

(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.) Engineering, Electrical and Chemical and Metallurgical professions, The Laboratories and Workshop are open for RESEARCH under the

YORK PLACE, BAKER STREET, W. direction of the Principal and the Heads of Departments. Further particulars may be obtained on application to the Secretary,

DEPARTMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN

TEACHING. who will send either the Day College Prospectus and Calendar or the Evening Class Prospectus for 3d. The Prospectus may be had at

Head of the Department: Miss H. ROBERTSON, B.A. the Office for id.

Students are admitted to the Training Course in October and January,

The Course includes full preparation for the Examinations for the UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW.

Teaching Diplomas granted by the Universities of London and Cambridge, ADDITIONAL EXAMINERSHIPS.

held annually in December.

A Course of Lectures on School Hygiene is held on Saturday mornings. The University Court of the University of Glasgow will shortly proceed Full particulars on application to Miss ROBERTSON. to appoint the following Additional Examiners :(a) For Degrees in Arts and Science-ONE EXAMINER in MATHE. BEDFORD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. MATICS. Annual salary, 670.

(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.) (() For Degrees in Arts, Science and Medicine-ONE EXAMINER in NATURAL PHILOSOPHY (including Practical Physics).

YORK PLACE, BAKER STREET, W. Annual salary, 670. Candidates should be qualified both on the The Council are about to appoint a Lady as HEAD of the TRAINING Mathematical and Experimental side.

DEPARTMENT. ONE EXAMINER in CHEMISTRY. Annual salary, £50.

Applications must be sent by November 25 to the SECRETARY of the The appointments will be for three or four years from January 1, 1905,

College, from whom further information may be obtained. and in addition to the above mentioned salaries, hotel and travelling

H. WALTON, Secretary. expenses will be paid.

Candidates should lodge twenty copies of their application and testimonials with the undersigned on or before November 12, 1904.

PRACTICE)
ALAN E. CLAPPERTON,

In BIOLOGY, BOTANY, CHEMISTRY and PHYSIOLOGY for Secretary, Glasgow University Court. MEDICAL EXAMS. 91 West Regent Street, Glasgow.

Especial Course of Instruction in THERAPEUTICS, PHARMA

COLOGY and MICROSCOPY for INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY SWINEY LECTURES ON GEOLOGY.

EXAM.

Mr. FREDERICK DAVIS, The Laboratories, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE (Registered in Column B (Advanced Education), Teachers Registration BRITISH MUSEUM.

Council, Board of Education, S.W.), A Course of Twelve Lectures on “GEOLOGY-THE RECORD 49 and 51 IMPERIAL BUILDINGS, LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.C. AND ITS INTERPRETATION" will be delivered by John S. Flett, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., in the Lecture Theatre of the Victoria and Albert TO SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICAL Museum, South Kensington (by permission of the Board of Education), on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 5 p.m., beginning Monday,

MASTERS.- January (1905) Vacancies.-Graduates and other well November 7, and ending Friday, Deceinber 2. Each Lecture will be illus.

qualified Masters seeking posts in Public and other Schouls for next trated by means of Lantern Slides and Lime-light. Admission to the

term should apply at once, giving full details as to qualifications, &c.x Course free. Entrance from Exhibition Road.

to Messrs. GRIFFITHS, Smith, Powell & SMITH, Tutorial Agents

(Estd. 1833), 34 Bedford Street, Strand, London. Immediate notice By order of the Trustees,

of all the best vacancies will be sent. E. RAY LANKESTER, Director. British Museum (Natural History),

Wanted for Protestant Irish School after Cromwell Road, London, S.W.

the Christmas holidays, a Master to teach Modern Languages and UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON.

Auxiliary Subjects. An Englishman who has resided abroad preferred.

Salary, £150 per annum ; non-resident. Also a Science Master with (UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.)

Certificates for the teaching of Drawing. Salary, 6150 per annum;

non-resident Applications, with copies of Testimonials and Photos if A Course of Eight Lectures on "Current Theories of the Hereditary possible, to be sent to HEAD MASTER, Office of this paper. Process" will be given at Five o'clock on the following Tuesdays :November 22 and 29, December 6 and 13, January 24 and 31, February SCIENCE & MATHL. APPTS.-(1) Public and 14, by W. F R. Weldon, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the University of Oxford.

Scb., Nat. Sc. and Drawg.. 6150 + fees; valuable post to good man. Syllabuses and Cards of Admission may be obtained gratis by members (2) Chem. and Physics--little English. Games preferred. £120, res. of the University and of Schools of the University, and on payment of (3) Chem. + Magnetism and Electricity. £100, res. Mary January 1os. 6d. by others.

Appts. – Messrs. NEEDES & SELLICKS, Scholastic Agents, Clock WALTER W. SETON, M.A., Acting Secretary. House, Arundel Street, Strand.

COACHING (THEORY AND

BROWNING'S ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES

annum.

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extra

“UNIVERSITY” TELESCOPE (as figured), with 3 in.

0.G., 3 eyepieces, star finder, vertical steadying rod, and fixing on claw stand

in case £10 10 0 Do. do. with 3in. O.G.

£15 15 0 "LUNAR” TELESCOPE, with (Case 15/-) £5 10 O

3 in. 0.G. and 2 eyepieces “COLLEGE” TELESCOPE, with 3 in.

selected O.G., 3 eyepieces on claw stand, in case £6 10 0 “STUDENT'S" TELESCOPE

£5

5 Brass Body ALT-AZIMUTH TELESCOPE

£30 0 EQUATORIAL TELESCOPE, 3 in.

O.G., best Equatorial mounting, on
strong oak stand

£25 0 0 PRICE LISTS POST FREE.

4 in.

JOHN BROWNING, Omeletten 78 STRAND, LONDON. .

WOOLWICH POLYTECHNIC.

Principal ... WILLIAM GANNON, M.A. The Governors invite applications for the following appointments : (a) TEACHER of MATHEMATICS and EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS Commencing salary, £160 per

Experience of secradary school work essential.

(2) TEACHER of MATHEMATICS and EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS. Commencing salary, 6150 per annum. Experience of tech. sical school work essential

Further particulars and application forms may be obtained from the PRINCIPAL on receipt of a stamped addressed foolscap envelope. Last day for receiving applications is November 7.

A. J. NAYLOR, Clerk to the Governors. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NORTH

WALES, BANGOR. (A CONSTITUENT COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WALES.)

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. An ASSISTANT LECTURER in AGRICULTURE will shortly be appointed Applications should be sent in not later than November 7. For further particulars apply to

JOHN EDWARD LLOYD, M.A., October 12. 1904

Secretary and Registrar. BRUNTS' TECHNICAL SCHOOL,

MANSFIELD. A FIRST ASSISTANT MISTRESS is required in the above Secondary fred School, to commence duties after the Christmas Holidays. Subjects essential. General Biology and English. Capacity to teach Physical Exercise will be a recommendation. Salary: £100 per annum, advancing to £150.

Furber particulars and forms of application may be obtained from the undersigned.

W. N. SARLL. Bab Lane, Mansfield. BRUNT'S TECHNICAL SCHOOL,

MANSFIELD. An ASSISTANT MASTER is required to teach Woodwork and Lower Fara Sabjects. Salary, £95 per annum. Apply, stating age, qualifications and experience, with names of three references, to

C. E. STACEY, B.A., B.Sc., Head Master. THE VERDIN TECHNICAL SCHOOL.

SECONDARY DAY SCHOOL. The Winsford Higher Education Committee invite applications for the post of ASSISTANT MASTER in the above Secondary Day School, at a comencing salary of £120 per annum. Special qualification, Chemistry; but applicants must be able to give instruction in English subjects (or other available subjects of the School Curriculum). The Master appointed will farzber be required to teach Chemistry on two evenings per week during the winter months in the Evening Technical School, and will be expected to take part in the School Games (Hockey and Cricket). Applications, endorsed " Assistant Master," stating age, accompanied by copies of not more than three testimonials, should be delivered to the HEADMASTER, Verdin Technical Schools, Winsford, Cheshire, not later ekan Monday, November 14.

JNO. H. COOKE, Winsford, Cheshire,

Clerk to the Committee. November 1. 1904. OLDBURY SECONDARY SCHOOL AND

PUPIL TEACHERS' CENTRE. The Governors require, after Christmas, an ASSISTANT MASTER to teach ordinary Form Subjects and Science or Mathematics. Salary, kes per annum

Farther particulars may be obtained from the SECRETARY, to whom applications should be forwarded on or before November 26, 1904.

H. A. ANDERSON, Secretary. Tochsical Schools, Oldbury. SMETHWICK PUPIL TEACHERS'

CENTRE,

NEAR BIRMINGHAM. AS ASSISTANT MASTER is required who shall have special qualifi. catives in Science. Salary, £130, rising to £150. Applications, with textansnials, &c., to be sent in not later than November 7 to

J. N. BIRCH, B.A., Principal. CITY OF BIRMINGHAM.

MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL. The services of a LECTURER in ELECTRICITY and PHYSICS *e required in January next. The commencing salary offered is 6140. The last date for sending in applications is November 19 next. Full particulars of the post will be forwarded on application to

GEO. MELLOR, Secretary. Ofices of the School, Suffolk Street October 17, 1904.

OWEN'S SCHOOL, ISLINGTON. WANTED in January, PHYSICS MASTER and CHEMISTRY MASTER. Must have had experience in good laboratories, and be able tra lectare and illustrate by experiments in an efficient manner. There are twe Science Masters on each side. Commencing salary, £150. Apply at

, giving age, qualification, experience, and copies of ihree recent testi.

SANGER-SHEPHERD NEW PATTERN AUTOMATIC ARC-LAMP

FOR

LABORATORY WORK. 125 Candle Power.

.

A low power Lamp, invaluable as

white light illuminant for

Microscopic,

Spectroscopic, and Photographic Work. SPECIFICATION. - Automatic Arc Lamp in nickel-plated ventilated cover, suspended on adjustable stand with self-contained resistance, fine centreing adjustment by screwed nut suspension. As open or closed arc, requires only if amperes on 100/110 volt direct current circuit. Complete with flexible cord and plug, for instant attachment to

ordinary bayonet lamp socket. Burns 20 hours without attention.

With Stand (as shown), £4 : 10 : 0

Lamp only, £2 : 15 : 0 Also supplied for 200

volts.

SANCER-SHEPHERD & CO.,

5, 6 & 7, Gray's Inn Passage, Red Lion St., Holborn, London, W.O.

REYNOLDS & BRANSON, LTD.,

THE NEW AITCHISON PATENT PRISM BINOCULAR. MANY IMPROVEMENTS. LARGE OBJECT GLASSES.

VARIABLE DIAPHRAGMS, &c.

Scientific Instrument Makers to the Indian Government and Science and Art Department.

LABORATORY FURNISHERS AND

MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS.

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Lieut. W. R. LEDCARD, R.N., H.M.S. THETIS,

China Station, writes, May 10, 1904:

«Το “Messrs Aitchison & Co.,

"London. "I received the Prism Binoculars (Aitchison No. 12), and am very pleased with them, and find them very efficient for both day and night work."

NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC DARK ROOM LAMP

THE "RYSTOS " ELECTRIC LAMP

(No. 1) For Standing or Hanging, with Cord and Plug to fit ordinary lamp socket, and Reversing Switch. The insulated switch handle on top will be found safe and well adapted for turning on the current to either ruby or white light, or instantly exchanging the one for the other. The white light is convenient when making bromide prints, transparencies, &c. The ruby glass provided is of special quality, being spectroscopically tested. It gives a soft diffused light, while its semicircular shape secures the illumination of the

whole developing table. HEYNOLDS & BRANSON LE

Dimensions, 4 in. x 81 in.

Price £i ls. (When ordering, please mention voltage.)

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LAMPS FOR GAS ALSO WITH BYE-PASS.

New Photographic Requisite List on application.

AITCHISON & CO.,

14 COMMERCIAL STREET, LEEDS.

MR. EDWARD ARNOLD'S NEW BOOKS. THE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

OF VITAL PRODUCTS

SCOTTISH PROVIDENT

INSTITUTION.

AND THE INTER-RELATIONS BETWEEN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

By R. MELDOLA, F.R.S., Y.P.C.S., F.I.C., &c., Professor of Chemistry in the City and Guilds of London

Technical College, Finsbury.

Super Royal 8vo. 21S. net. THE BECQUEREL RAYS AND THE PROPERTIES OF RADIUM.

By the Hon. R. J. STRUTT,

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Demy Svo.

With Diagrams. 8s. 6d. net. THE THEORY OF OPTICS. By ARTHUR SCHUSTER, Ph.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., Professor of Physics at the University of Manchester.

Demy Svo. With numerous Diagrams. 155. net. ENGLISH ESTATE FORESTRY.

By A. C. FORBES, Lecturer on Forestry, Durham College of Science. Demy 8vo. With Illustrations. 128. 6d. net. THE ELECTRIC FURNACE.

By HENRI MOISSAN, Professor of Chemistry at the Sorbonne. Translated by A. T. de MOUILPIED, M.Sc., Ph.D. Demy 8vo. With numerous Illustrations, ros. Ed. net. London : EDWARD ARNOLD, 41 X 43 Maddox Street, w.

IN this SOCIETY are combined the ADVANTAGES of Mutual Assurance with Moderate Premiums. The Premiums are so moderate that at most ages an Assurance of £1,200 or £1,250 may generally be secured. from the first for the same yearly payment which would elsewbere assure (with profits) £1,000 only.

The Whole Surplus goes to the Policyholders on a system at once safe and equitable, no share being given to those by whose early death there is a loss.

Surplus at last Investigation, €1,581,000. Over 60 per cent. of the Members who died during last Septennium were entitled to Bonuses which, notwithstanding that the Premiums do not as a rule exceed the non. proft rates of other Omoes, were, on the average, equal to an addition of over 50 per cent. to the Original Assurances. ENDOWMENT ASSURANCE-WITH BONUS

-SPECIAL CLASS. PROSPECTUSES, with full information, may be had on application.

Accumulated Funds exceed £13,000,000. HEAD OFFICE: 6 ST. ANDREW SQUARE, EDINBURGH, LONDON Office: 17 King William STREET, E.C.

WEST END BRANCH: 17 PALL MALL, S.W.

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