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he

of the phenomena of nature by direct observation and ex- has consisted largely of papers on the theory of groups, to periment, an integral and essential part of all education in which he has made most valuable additions. In 1897 he this country.

published a volume “On the Theory of Groups of Finite I proceed to the award of the medals.

Order,” which is a standard authority on that subject. Two

recent papers on the same theory, published in 1903, may be Copley Medal.

specially mentioned. In one of these he succeeded in estabThe Copley Medal is awarded to Sir William Crookes, lishing by direct methods, distinguished by great conciseness F.R.S., for his experimental researches in chemistry and of treatment, the important subsidiary theory of groupphysics, extending over more than fifty years. Ever since characteristics, which had been originally arrived at by his discovery of the element thallium in the early days of very indirect and lengthy processes. In the other he proved spectrum analysis, he has been in the front rank as regards quite shortly the important result that all groups of which the refined application of that weapon of research in the order is the product of powers of two primes are soluble. found in an attempt to improve weighings, by conducting Prof. Burnside has published work on various branches of the operation in high vacua, were tracked out by him to à pure and applied mathematics. His work on automorphic repulsion arising from radiation, which was ultimately

functions dealt with an important and difficult special case ascribed by theory to the action of the residual gas. This which was not included in the theory of these functions as phenomenon, illustrated by the radiometer, opened up a new previously worked out. The paper on Green's function for and fascinating chapter in the dynamical theory of rarefied a system of non-intersecting spheres was perhaps the first gases, which the genius of Maxwell, O. Reynolds, and work by any writer in which the notions of automorphic others, has left still incomplete. The improvements in

functions and of the theory of groups were applied to a vacua embodied in the Crookes tube led him to a detailed physical problem. He has also made_important contribuand brilliant experimental analysis of the phenomena of the tions to the theory of functions, non-Euclidean geometry, electric discharge across exhausted spaces; in this, backed and the theory of waves on liquids. His work is distinby the authority of Stokes, he adduced long ago powerful guished by great acuteness and power, as well as by unusual cumulative evidence that the now familiar kathode rays, elegance and most admirable brevity. previously described by C. F. Varley, must consist of projected streams of some kind of material substance. His

Royal Medal. simple but minutely careful experiments on the progress of The other Royal Medal is awarded to Colonel David the ultimate falling off in the viscosity of rarefied gases, Bruce, F.R.S., who, since 1884, has been engaged in from the predicted constant value of Maxwell, at very high prosecuting to a successful issue researches into the causation exhaustions, gave, in Stokes's hands, an exact account of of a number of important diseases affecting man and the trend of this theoretically interesting phenomenon, which animals. When he went to Malta in 1884 the exact nature had already been approached in the investigations of Kundt of the widely prevalent “ Malta," " Rock," or Mediterand Warburg, using Maxwell's original method of vibrating ranean" fever was entirely unknown. After some years' discs.

work at the etiology of this disease, he discovered in 1887 These examples, not to mention recent work with radium, the organism causing it, and succeeded in cultivating the convey an idea of the acute observation, experimental skill, Micrococcus melitensis outside the body. This discovery and persistent effort, which have enabled Sir William has been confirmed by many other workers, and is one of Crookes to enrich physical science in many departments. great importance from all points of view, and perhaps more

especially as, thanks to it, Malta fever can now be separated Rumford Medal.

from other diseases, e.g. typhoid, remittent, and malarious The Rumford Medal is awarded to Prof. Ernest Ruther- | fevers, with which it had hitherto been confounded. ford, F.R.S., on account of his researches on the properties During the next few years he was engaged in researches of radio-active matter, in particular for his capital discovery of value on cholera, and on methods of immunisation against of the active gaseous emanations emitted by such matter, this disease. He also carried out some work on the leucoand his detailed investigation of their transformations. The cytes in the blood, published in the Proceedings of the Royal idea of radiations producing ionisation, of the type originally Society, 1894. discovered by Röntgen, and the idea of electrified particles, In 1894 he was requested by the Governor of Natal to likr the kathode rays of vacuum tubes, projected from radio investigate the supposed distinct diseases of

nagana” active bodies, had gradually become familiar through the and the tsetse-fly disease. In the short time of two months work of a succession of recent investigators, when Ruther- he made the most important discovery that these two disford's announcement of a very active substance, diffusing

eases were one and the same, and dependent upon the like a gas with a definite atomic mass, emitted by compound

presence of a protozoan organism in the blood, known as a of thorium, opened up yet another avenue of research with trypanosome. Some six months later Bruce was enabled to reference to these remarkable bodies. The precise interpre

return to Zululand, and remained there two years, studying tation of the new phenomena, so promptly perceived by

the disease and making the discovery that the tsetse fly Rutherford, was quickly verified, for radium and other sub

acted as the carrier of the organism which caused it. He stances, by various observers, and is now universally ac

was thus the first to show that an insect might carry a cepted. The modes of degradation, and the enormous con

protozoan parasite that was pathogenic. This observation comitant radio-activity, of these emanations, have been in

was made in 1895. vestigated mainly by Rutherford himself, with results

Bruce not only determined the nature and course of embodied in his treatise on radio-activity and his recent

nagana,” but in addition he studied the disease in a large Bakerian lecture on the same subject. It perhaps still

number of domestic animals, and also observed the malady remains a task for the future to verify or revise the details in a latent form in the wild animals of South Africa. Subof these remarkable transformations of material substances,

sequent observers have found but little to add to Bruce's resulting apparently in the appearance of chemical elements

work on this subject. not before present; but, however that may issue, by the de

In 1900 Bruce was ordered to join a commission investitection and description of radio-active emanations and their

gating the outbreak of dysentery in the Army in South transformations, Prof. Rutherford has added an unexpected

Africa, and a great part of the laboratory work performed domain of transcendent theoretical interest to physical

by this commission was carried out by him. science.

In 1903 Colonel Bruce went, at the request of the Royal Royal Medal.

Society, to Uganda, to investigate further the nature of

sleeping sickness. It was very largely, if not entirely, A Royal Medal is awarded to Prof. W. Burnside, F.R.S., owing to him that the work of the Royal Society's comon the ground of the number, originality, and importance of mission was brought to a successful issue. At the time his contributions to mathematical science. The section of when he arrived a trypanosome had been observed by our "Catalogue of Scientific Papers" for the period 1883- Castellani in a small number of cases of this disease ; thanks iyoo enumerates fifty-three papers by Prof. Burnside, the to Bruce's energy and scientific insight, these observations first dated 1885, and the “ International Catalogue of Scien- were rapidly extended, and the most conclusive evidence 6$e Literature " thirteen more. His mathematical work obtained, that in all cases of the disease the trypanosome was present. He showed further that a certain tsetse fly, Of other publications displaying not only extraordinary the Glossina palpalis, acted as the carrier of the trypano- experimental skill but close reasoning and the power of some, and obtained evidence showing that the distribution interpreting results, mention may be made of Dr. Perkin's of the disease and of the fly were strikingly similar. memorable researches on the constitution of dehydracetic

Bruce has therefore been instrumental in discovering and acid, berberine, brasilin, and hæmatoxylin respectively. establishing the exact nature and cause of three widespread During the present year (1904), Dr. Perkin has made diseases of man and of animals, and in two of these, nagana perhaps the most remarkable addition to the long list of and Malta fever, he discovered the causal organism. In his achievements by successfully synthesising terpin, inactive the third; sleeping sickness, he was not the first to see the terpineol, and dipentene, substances, which had previously organism, but he was quick to grasp and work out the dis- engaged the attention of some of the greatest masters of covery, and he made the interesting discovery of the carrier organic chemistry. of the pathogenic organism, and thus discovered the mode In conclusion it may be stated that Prof. Perkin is not of infection and of spread of the malady, matters of the only the author of the above and numerous other important highest importance as regards all measures directed to arrest researches which are outside the scope of this brief sumthe spreading of the disease.

mary, but that he has also created a school of research in All this research work has been done whilst serving in organic chemistry, which stands in the very highest rank. the Royal Army Medical Corps, and engaged in the routine work of the Service.

Darwin Medal.
Davy Medal.

The Darwin Medal is awarded to Mr. William Bateson, The Davy Medal is awarded to Prof. W. H. Perkin, jun., F.R.S., for his researches on heredity and variation. F.R.S., for his masterly and fruitful researches in the domain

Mr. Bateson began his scientific career as a morphologist, of synthetic organic chemistry, on which he has been con

and distinguished himself by researches on the structure tinuously engaged during the past twenty-five years.

and development of Balanoglossus, which have had a farDr. Perkin's name is identified with the great advances

reaching influence on morphological science, and which which have been made during the past quarter of a century

established to the satisfaction of most anatomists the affinity in our knowledge of the ring or cyclic compounds of carbon.

of the Enteropneusta to the Chordate phylum. Dissatisfied, Thus, in the year 1880, the cyclic carbon compounds known however, with the methods of morphological research as a to chemists were chiefly restricted to the unsaturated group

means of advancing the study of evolution, he set himself ings of six carbon atoms met with in benzene and its deri- resolutely to the task of finding a new method of attacking vatives, whilst the number of compounds in which saturated

the species problem. Recognising the fact that variation carbon rings had been recognised was very limited, and it

was the basis upon which the theory of evolution rested, he was indeed considered very doubtful whether compounds

turned his attention to the study of that subject, and entered containing carbon rings with more or less than six atoms

upon a series of researches which culminated in the publicaof carbon were capable of existence.

tion in 1894 of his well-known work, entitled "Materials The starting point for Dr. Perkin's researches in this for the Study of Variation, &c.” This book broke new field of inquiry was his investigation of the behaviour of the ground. Not only was it the first systematic work which di-halogen derivatives of various organic radicals with the had been published on variation, and, with the exception of sodium compounds of malonic, aceto-acetic, and benzoyl- Darwin's . Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestiacetic esters, which led to the synthesis of the cyclic poly- cation," the only extensive work dealing with it; but it was methylene compounds up to those of hexamethylene, whilst

the first serious attempt to establish the importance of the heptamethylene derivatives were obtained by an adaptation principle of discontinuity in variation in its fundamental of the well known reduction of ketonic bodies leading to

bearing upon the problem of evolution, a principle which he pinacones. The reactions thus introduced by Perkin are constantly and successfully urged when the weight of now classical, having proved themselves of the highest authority was against it. In this work he collected and importance for synthetical purposes, and having been in systematised a great number of examples of discontinuous strumental in stimulating the further investigation of the variation, and by his broad and masterly handling of them cyclic compounds of carbon.

he paved the way for those remarkable advances in the study Dr. Perkin also extended the same methods to the syn- of heredity which have taken place in the last few years, and thetical formation of carbon rings of the aromatic series,

to which he has himself so largely contributed. He was the obtaining by means of ingeniously designed reactions deri- first in this country to recognise the importance of the work vatives of hydriodonaphthene and tetrahydronaphthalene.

of Mendel, which, published in 1864, and for a long time But whilst the above achievements depend mainly on

completely overlooked by naturalists, contained a clue happily 'conceived and brilliantly executed extensions of the

to the labyrinth of facts which had resulted from the malonic and aceto-acetic ester syntheses, Perkin has, by a

labours of his predecessors. He has brought these remarkable development of the Frankland and Duppa re

results prominently forward in England in his imaction for the synthesis of hydroxyacids, been successful in portant reports to the Evolution Committee of the Royal building up the important camphoronic acid in such a man

Society, and in papers before the Royal and other societies, ner a's to place its constitution beyond doubt (1897).

and also before horticulturists and breeders of animals. He Dr. Perkin has further devoted much attention to the im- has gathered about him a distinguished body of workers, portant subject of the constitution of camphor, towards the and has devoted himself with great energy and with all elucidation of which he has contributed valuable experi- his available resources to following out lines of work similar mental evidence embodied in,a most important and elaborate

to those of Mendel. The result has been the supporting of paper, containing, the results of many years' work in con- Mendel's conclusions and the bringing to light of a much junction with numerous pupils, entitled “ Sulphocamphylic / wider range of facts in general harmony with them. It is Acid and Isolauronolic Acid, with Remarks on the Con

not too much to say that Mr. Bateson has developed a school stitution of Camphor and Some of its 'Derivatives " (1898).

of research to, which many biologists are now looking as Bearing on the same subject are later communications on

the source from which the 'next great advance in our knowcamphoric acid and isocamphoronic acid.

ledge of organic evolution will come. About the year 1900, Perkin, in prosecuting his researches on the constitution of camphor compounds, succeeded in

Sylvester Medal. devising synthetical methods for the production of what he The Sylvester Medal is awarded to Georg Cantor, pro has termed " bridged rings," of which a simple example is fessor in the University of Halle, on account of his refurnished by the hydrocarbon dicyclopentane

searches in pure mathematics. His work shows originality CH-CH,

of the highest order, and is of the most far-reaching imCH, ,

portance. He has not only created a new field of matheCH-CH,

matical investigation, but his ideas, in their application to

analysis, and in some measure The universal 'admiration of organic chemists has been weapon of the utmost power and precision for dealing with

to geometry, furnish a 'called forth by these investigations: they reveal, indeed, a the foundations of mathematics, and for formulating the wonderful capacity for devising reactions which coerce necessary limitations to which many results of mathematics carbon atoms to fall into the desired groupings.

are subject.

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In 1870 he succeeded in solving a question which was then attracting much attention-the question of the unique circumstances, the intake of food, and the output of waste

measured accurately, upon healthy persons in uniform ness of the representation of a function by Fourier's series. The extension of the result to cases in which the convergence

and work, and has endeavoured to determine the modes and of the series fails, at an infinite number of suitably dis- rates of 'conversion of foods into bodily and mental energy. tributed points, led him to construct a theory of irrational Much of this expenditure of energy is upon an excess of food numbers, which has since become classical. From the same

taken beyond the needs of the individual. Such excess (or starting point he developed, in a series of masterly memoirs, an entirely new branch of mathematics-the theory of sets

not more than 4 per cent. of it) does not escape mechanically of points.

and cheaply from the body, but is absorbed, distributed, Having established the fundamental distinction between and excreted ; to this process no little energy is diverted. those aggregates which can be counted and those which In this useless effort energy is chiefly wasted by the nitrocannot, Cantor showed that the aggregates of all rational

genous foods. Excessive starches and sugars are burned numbers and of all algebraic numbers belong to the former

Prof. class, and that the arithmetic continuum belongs to the

off in the lungs almost directly, and at far less cost. latter class, and further, that the continuum of any number

Atwater teaches that the ordinary man eats too much, and of dimensions can be represented point for point by the

in so doing wastes energy which he might have used to linear continuum. Proceeding with these researches he in- profit. Prof. Chittenden comes to a like conclusion by sometroduced and developed his theory of " transfinite ordinal what different methods. He will publish shortly tables to and cardinal numbers, thus creating an arithmetic of the infinite. His later abstract theory of the order-types of

show how, on a closer adjustment of kinds and quantities aggregates, in connection with which he has given a purely

of food to the useful work required, not only is this much ordinal theory of the arithmetic continuum, has opened up

work still sustained, but, by release of energy ordinarily a field of research of the greatest interest and importance. dissipated in the demolition of food excess, the sum of work Hughes Medal.

put out is prodigiously increased, in some cases even by so The Hughes Medal is awarded to Sir Joseph Wilson

much as 60 per cent. or 70 per cent. It is clear enough Swan, F.R.S., for his invention of the incandescent electric already that one of the chief factors of physical well-being lamp, and his other inventions and improvements in the is to know what to eat, and what quantity of it results in the practical applications of electricity. Not as directly in production of the maximum of useful energy. Until this cluded in the award, his inventions in dry-plate photography, which have so much increased our powers of experimental

is known with more exactitude than is common to-day, investigation.

systems of physical education must be tentative and im

perfectly conceived. NOTES.

Prof. S. Newcomb has been elected corresponding The council of the Royal Society of Edinburgh at its

member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. recent meeting decided to award Sir James Dewar, F.R.S.,

Prof. Fehr contributes to l'Enseignement mathématique the Gunning Victoria Jubilee prize for 1900-4 for his re

for November 15 a list of the principal exhibits of models Searches on the liquefaction of gases extending over the

and books at the mathematical congress last August. Among last quarter of a century, and on the chemical and physical properties of substances at low temperatures.

the publishing firms exhibiting books, Germany was repre

sented by six, Austria by two, France by four, Italy by five, The Times reports that a telegram by wireless telegraphy Switzerland, Belgium and Denmark each by one. This is has been transmitted by Mr. Marconi from the Marconi exclusive of books exhibited by societies and individuals, Company's station at Poldhu, Cornwall, to a station belong- under which category we find the solitary British exhibit, by ing to the Italian Government at Ancona, Italy. The the Royal Irish Academy. Among the exhibitors of models distance between Poldhu and Ancona, about 1000 miles, is our country was represented by Prof. Greenhill. almost entirely overland, and in order to reach their destination the ether waves had to pass over nearly the whole The Belgian Government has decided upon the construcof France and a considerable part of Italy, including some

tion of a turbine steamer for its Channel fleet. Gradually of the highest mountains of the Alps.

the 19-knot steamers on this international service will be

replaced by new turbine boats, with a speed of 23 knots, 50 The will of the late Dr. Frank McClean, F.R.S., in

that eventually even the slowest mail "boats under the cludes the following bequests :-5000l. to the University of

Belgian flag will have a speed of 213 knots, or 24 miles Cambridge to be expended in improving the instrumental

an hour. The steamer which will inaugurate this departure equipment of the Newall Observatory, 5000l. to the University of Birmingham (in addition to his previous sub

in the progress of the service is at the present moment on

the stocks at Hoboken, near Antwerp, and it will shortly scription) to be applied in the department of physical science,

be launched. Until quite recently,' all steamships in the 2008). to the Royal Society, 2000l. to the Royal Institution,

Channel and Irish Sea services were of the paddle-wheel 2000l. to the Royal Astronomical Society, and to the University of Cambridge for presentation to the 'Fitzwilliam

type, a class admirably adapted for these comparatively Musrum all the testator's illuminated or other manuscripts

short journeys. Drawing little water, they were able to

enter any of the shallow harbours, and, at the same time, and early printed books, and all objects of mediæval or

were capable of developing a speed altogether out of proearly art which the director of the museum may select as

portion to their draught. Since the introduction of turbines being of permanent interest to the museum.

the diminution of the diameter of the propeller and' of the In a recent letter to the Times Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt weight of the engines has been rendered possible, so that directs attention to the paramount importance of consider what was until lately considered a mechanical impossibility, ing i ke question of diet in all schemes of physical education. namely, to construct a steamer drawing only 98 feet and It is important that there should be no hasty legislation in developing 12,000 indicated horse-power, may now be taken this matter, especially in view of the important researches as a problem solved. The new Dover-Ostend mail boat which are now approaching completion. Prof. Allbutt gives will be a triple-screw steamer driven by Parsons' marine in his ferter a brief account of the results at which Prof. steam turbines. There will be three turbines-a highArwater, of Middletown, Connecticut, and Prof. Chittenden, pressure one in the centre, receiving the steam direct from of Yale University, have arrived. Prof. Atwater has the boilers, and a low-pressure one on each side, driven by

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