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is that a temporary star results from the collision of a dark

Paris. body with a nebula, the chances of such a collision being Academy of Sciences, November 28.-M. Mascart in the much greater than the collision of two dark bodies. A

chair.—On the possibility of chemical reactions : M. necessary consequence will be an intense superficial heating de Forcrand. The author contends that the rigid appliwith an atmospheric expansion in all directions. In what- cation of the thermodynamical condition of the possibility ever direction an observer may be situated, spectroscopic of a chemical reaction is neither practical nor necessary, and observations will show, (1) a displacement violet-wards of that the empirical rule that the disengagement of heat absorption lines or bands due to the absorptive action of settles the course of a reaction is the only possible experithe expanding and cooling atmosphere advancing in the mental criterion of the possibility of chemical reactions.direction of the observer with the hotter interior parts of On the prediction of chemical reactions : M. de Forcrand. the star as background; and (2) bright bands due to the In general, accurate prediction of the course of a chemical expanding atmosphere to right and left of the body of the reaction is impossible, but there are two rules or principles, star, there being in this case no brighter background and one rigorous the other approximate. The latter, the prinno spectral shift. Dr. Halm now imagines that the collision ciple of maximum work, is a simplification of the first, and is due to the advance of the dark body into a stream of ought to be considered as the only practical guide.-M. nebulous matter passing obliquely

the dark

Dastre was elected a member in the section of medicine and body's path. This will at once give rise to a circulation surgery in the place of the late M. Marey.-The Leonids of parts of the nebula round the star, and these, of course, in 1904: Lucien Libert. Details of observations made at will also be highly heated. The portions moving transverse Havre on the nights of November 14, 15, and 15, 16. to the line of sight across the face of the star will produce meteors were observed and the trajectories measured.-On absorption bands in their normal position in the spectrum, the singularities of uniform analytical functions: D. while the marginal portions moving on the one side towards Pompeiu.-On a new class of ions : G. Moureau. In the observer and on the other side from him will produce a previous paper it has been shown that a saline vapour a shift of bright bands both towards the red and towards becomes conducting after passing through a porcelain tube the violet end of the spectrum. By compounding the effects heated to about 1000° C., and remains conducting at much of these two conditions, namely, the simple expansion of lower temperatures, possessing the properties of an ionised the atmosphere equally in all directions and the swirl of gas. In the present paper the mobilities of these new ions incandescent matter due to oblique collision, Dr. Halm have been measured. It was found that in the neighbourshowed that the two types of spectra obtained in the cases hood of the region of ionisation the mobilities of the vapours of the recent Novæ were at once obtained.—Three papers by are of the same order as the ions of the gases issuing from Dr. Thomas Muir were also communicated, the titles being a flame.-On the genesis of temporary radio-activity : Ed. “ The Sum of the Signed Primary Minors of a Deter- Sarasin, Th. Tommasina, and F. J. Micheli. The minant," " Continuants Resolved into Linear Factors, authors conclude from the results of their work that a very and “The Three-line Determinants of a Six-by-Three close relation appears to exist between ionisation and the Array."

production of temporary radio-activity. The two phenoNovember 21.—Lord M'Laren in the chair.—Mr. George mena would appear to be reversible, the production of the Romanes, C.E., read a paper on a possible explanation of temporary radio-activity of a body being due to the absorpthe formation of the moon. The general idea was that the tion, or, perhaps, adsorption of an emanation which is noon had grown to its present form and size by the gradual formed during the ionisation of a gas. On this view, the agglomeration of what was originally a ring of satellites radio-activity would consist in the loss by radiation of the broadly similar to what we know to exist in the case of emanation adhering to radio-active bodies, this causing, in Saturn. On this hypothesis it was easily shown that the

its turn, the ionisation of a gas.-Stereoscopy without a process of agglomeration of a comparatively small body like stereoscope : A. Berthier. The author points out that he tbe moon could not be accompanied with an evolution of has already published a description of a method similar in heat sufficient to produce a molten globe, and that in con- principle to that given by M. Ives in the Comptes rendus sequence the ordinary assumption of intense volcanic action of October 24 last.-On the colloidal state of matter : G. E. to explain the so-called craters was difficult to accept. But Malfitano. The author regards colloidal matter as it seemed possible to account for the rugged mountainous system formed of an electrolyte dissociated into ions and surface of the moon with the “ seas," ridges, “craters,' insoluble molecules grouped round these ions.—The influence and peaks by means of the bombardment of those meteoric exerted by the removal of the moisture from the air supplied masses, large and small, which in virtue of the combined 10 the blast furnace : A. Lodin. The results obtained by action of moon, earth, and sun were precipitated from time Gailey at the Isabella blast furnaces, near Pittsburg, on to time upon the lunar surface. In the absence of an atmo- he effect of drying the air forced into the furnace, have sphere the masses so precipitated would impinge upon the attracted much attention in Europe, not unmixed with surface with high enough velocities to render the material scepticism. The author makes a comparison of the heat in the immediate vicinity liquid, the impinging mass also balances in the two cases, and shows where the economy itself being liquefied wholly or rtially according to circum- is effected. One indirect effect of the drying process is to stances. The author entered into a detailed examination increase the temperature of the ingoing air, and a considerof some of the most striking features of the moon's surface, able portion of the economy effected may be attributed to and showed how this hypothesis accounted for them. He this cause. In Europe, where it is usual to work with the also exhibited a mass of lead into which small bullets had air entering the tuyeres at a much higher temperature than been shot at various incidences. The indentations repro- at the Isabella furnaces, the relative economy which would duced the leading characteristics of the lunar“ craters, be produced by drying the air would be too small to justify pren to the small hill in the middle of the main depression. the capital expenditure required to introduce the necessary It was also noticed that at the instant of impact the rim plant.-On the use of dry air in blast furnaces : Henri of lead thrown up all round was made red hot. The Le Chatelier. The economy claimed for the use of dry miesterious streaks so characteristic of Tycho in certain air is ascribed by the inventor of the process to the fact that aspects were explained as due to great splashes of material the moisture of the undried air transforms a certain prowhich settled down in thin crystalline layers capable of portion of the coke into hydrogen and oxide of carbon. throwing off the reflected sunlight in definite directions.- From the figures of the amount of water removed it is Prof. Coker described a laboratory apparatus for measuring possible to calculate exactly this loss; it is 5 per cent., or the lateral strains in tension and compression members. By only one-fourth of the amount claimed. It is certain, then, a well designed combination of levers and mirror attach- either that the economy claimed is incorrect, or else that ment an apparatus capable of being fixed to the bar itself the true cause is to be sought for elsewhere. The author had been constructed, which was sufficiently rigid and yet shows that the quality of the iron produced, especially as sensitive enough to measure a change of 1/20,000th of an regards its sulphur impurity, is an important factor, and inch. Some experiments on steel, iron, and brass bars that when the sulphur is to be kept down to a certain perwere described, in which the new apparatus was used in centage the economy of fuel claimed by Gailey may be real. conjunction with Ewing's extensometer, and values of --On wood spirit from Thuya articulata, Algeria : Emilien Poisson's ratio were given to three significant figures. The Grimal. Carvacrol, thymohydroquinone, and thymosalues varied from one-third to one-fourth.

quinone were isolated from the product of the distillation

a

of this wood with steam.-The formation and distribution Royal GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-Explorations in Bolivia : Dr. H.

Hoek. of the essential oil in an annual plant : Eug. Charabot

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 13. and G. Laloue. During the formation of the flower the

ZOOLOGICAL Society, at 8.30.-Some Notes on Anthropoid Apes : Home increase of essential oil by the flower corresponds to a loss Walter Rothschild. On the Cranial Osteology of the Clupeord Fishes. of oil by the green parts. After the seed is formed, and Dr. W. G. Ridewood. - The Characters and Synonymy of the British there is no longer a flow of nutritive principles towards the

Species of Leucosolenia : Prof. E. A. Minchin.

SociologICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-The School in Some of its Relations to flower, the essential oil returns to the green organs.-Floral

Social Organisation and to National Life: Prof. M. E. Sadler. abnormalities produced by parasites acting at a distance : INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.-On the Construction of a Marin Molliard. The atrophy of the stamens, and the

Concrete Railway-Viaduct : A. Wood-Hill and E. D. Pain. conversion of the sepals, petals, and carpels into green

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 14. foliaceous leaves, a phenomenon frequently met with in

CHEMICAL Society, at 5:30.-Hydrolysis of Ammonium Salts. V. H. Veley.

- The Viscosity of Liquid Mixtures. Part ii. : A. E. Danstan.-The Trifolium repens, is shown to be due to the burrowing of Diazo-reaction in the Diphenyl Series. Part ii. : Ethoxybenzidine: J. C. a larva (probably of Hylastinus obscurus) at the base of Cain.-The Sulphate and the Phosphate_of the Dimercurammonium the stem of the plant.-Xylotrechus quadrupes and its

Series: P. C. Rây:-A Method for the Direct Production of certain

Aminoazo-compounds : R. Meldola and L. Eynon. ravages on the coffee plant of Tonkin : L. Boutan.--The

SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.-The Patent Laws: C. D. Abel. individuality of the complex particle in a crystal : M.

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 15. Wallerant.-On the lakes of the Grimsel and of the St. Royal Society, at 4:30. -- Probable' Papers :- An Analysis of the Results Gothard massif : André Delebecque.-The degree of saline

from the Falmouth Magnetographs on "Quiet " Days during the Twelve concentration of the blood serum of the eel in sea water and

Years 1897 to 1902 : Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S.-The Halogen Hydrides as

Conducting Solvents. Part_iii.: B. D. Steele.- The Halogen Hydrides in fresh water, after its experimental passage from the as Conducting Solvents. Part iv.: B. D. Steele, D. Mclotosb, and former to the latter : René Quinton. The percentage of E. H. Archibald.- Effects of Temperature and Pressure on the Thermal salt in the blood serum of the eel varies in accordance with

Conductivities of Solids. Part_i., The Effect of Temperature on the

Thermal Conductivities of some Electrical Insulators : Dr. C. H. Lees.the degree of salinity of the water in which it is placed, The Basic Gamma Function and the Elliptic Functions: Rev. F. H and is an example of the fact that the saline concentration Jackson.-On the Normal Series satisfying Linear Differential Equa of fresh water fishes is that of their marine ancestors, re

tions : E. Cunningham. duced simply by the influence of the new medium in which

INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.- Discussion on Mr.

Searle's Paper, Studies in Magnetic Testing ; Followed by The Combinathey live.—The elimination of urea in healthy subjects : tion of Dust Destructors and Electricity Works, Economically conH. Labbé and E. Morchoisne.-Contribution to the study

sidered : W. P. Adams. of acid dyscrasia : A. Desgrez and J. Adler.-On the

LINNEAN Society, at 8.-The Ecology of Woodland Plants: Dr. bleaching of flour : E. Fleurent.

T. W. Woodhead.-Experimental Studies on Heredity in Rabbits :
C. C. Hurst.

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 16.

INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Heat Treatment Ex. DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

periments with Chrome-Vanadium Steel : Capt. H. Riall Sankey and

J. Kent-Smith.-Messrs. Seaton and Jude's Paper on Impact Tests Os THURSDAY, DECEMBER 8.

the Wrought Steels of Commerce will be further discussed. ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-Memoir on the Theory of the Partitions of Num. INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Folkestone Harbour : Cylinder

bers. Part III: Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S.-Note on a Means of Sinking at the Root of the Old Pier : R. H. Lee Pennell.
Producing a High-voltage Continuous or "Pertinacious " Current : Sir
Oliver Lodge, F.R.S.-The Effect of Liquid Air Temperatures on the
Mechanical and other Properties of Iron and its Alloys : Sir James
Dewar, F.R.S., and R. A. Hadfield.-The Role of Diffusion during

CONTENTS.

PAGE Catalysis by Colloidal Metals and Similar Substances : Dr. H. J. S. Sand. Civil AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS' SOCIETY, at 8.-Notes on Portland The Millais British Mammals. By R. L.

I21 Cement: H. E. Bellamy.

Fire Risks
INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Hydrodynamical and
Electromagnetic Investigations regarding the Magnetic-Flux Distribu-

The Determination of Minerals

123 tion in Toothed-Core Armatures: Prof. H. S.Hele-Shaw, F.R.S., Our Book Shelf :Dr. A. Hay, and P. H. Powell. (Conclusion of Discussion). --Studies in Jlaberlandt: “Die Sinnesorgane der Pflanzen

123 Magnetic Testing : G. F. C. Searle. SOCIETY OF Arts, at 4.30.—Burma : Sir Frederic Fryer, K.C.S.I.

Walmsley: “Electricity in the Service of Man.
M. S.

124 MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY, at 5.30.-On Groups of Order po grlo : Prof. W. Burnside. On the Linear Differential Equation of the Second Order :

Cooke : The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay” Prof. A. C. Dixon.-On a Deficient Multinomial Expansion : Major

124

Cunningham : “Quadratic Partitions"
P. A. MacMahon.-The Application of Basic Numbers to Bessel's and Kilbey : “ Advanced Hand-camera Work

124 Legendre's Functions (second paper): Rev.F. H. Jackson.-On the Failure of Convergence of Fourier's Series : Dr. E. W. Hobson.-An Extension of

Letters to the Editor :Borel's Exponential Method of Summation of Divergent Series Applied to The Definition of Entropy.--J. Swinburne ; Prof. Linear Differential Equations : E. Cunningham.

G. H. Bryan, F.R.S.

125 FRIDAY, DECEMBER 9. ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-(1) Dark Nebulosities ; (2) Detached

Craniology of Man and the Anthropoid Apes.-A. T. Nebula in Cygnus : W. S. Franks.-On the Relative Brightness of Binary

Mundy; N. C. Macnamara Stars : J. E. Gore. (1) On the Completion of the Main Problem in the New Pinnipedia a Sub-order of Cetacea !-F. Z. S. 125 Lunar Theory ; (2) The Final Values of the Coefficients in the New Lunar The Late Mr. Assheton Smith.-Prof. Philip J. Theory : Prof. E. W. Brown.--On the Relative efficiency of Different Methods of Determining Longitudes on Jupiter : A. Stanley Williains.

White.

125 On the Temperature of Sun-spots, and on ihe Spectrum of an Artificial

The Leonid Meteors of 1904.—John R. Henry
One : W. E. Wilson. --On the validity of Meteor Radiants deduced from Blue-stained Flints.—Thomas L. D. Porter
Three Tracks : H. W. Chapman.-Promised papers :-Observations of the “Find" of Royal Statues at Thebes
Leonid Meteors of 1904 November: Royal Observatory, Greenwich.-
Radio-activity of Matter the Possible Cause of Heat Energy in Sun and

Compulsory Greek at Oxford and Cambridge

128 Stars : W. E. Wilson.- Mean Areas and Heliographic Latitudes of Sun.

Prof. Karl Selim Lemström. By Prof. Arthur spots in the Year 1903: Royal Observatory, Greenwich.-The Coefficients Rindell

129 of 145 Terms in the Moon's Longitude derived from Greenwich Meridian Observations, 1750-1901: P. H. Cowell.

Notes

129 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-- Ticks and Tick-transmitted Our Astronomical Column :Diseases : Dr. Nuttall, F.R.S.

Re-discovery of Tempel's Second Comet

133 MALACOLOGICAL SCCiety, at 8.- Description of a new species of Trachiopsis from British New Guinea : H. B. Preston.--A Correction in

Parallax of a Low Meteor Nomenclature : E. A. Smith.-Notes on the American Cyclostomatidæ

Date of the Most Recent Sun.spot Minimum and their Opercula : W. H. Dall.--Note on the Dates of Publication Observations of Perseids, 1904

133 of the Various Parts of Moquin-Tandon's "Hist. Moll. tert. Auv. de The Orbit of Sirius France": J. W. Taylor.

133 PHYSICAL SUCIETY, at 8.-On a Rapid Method of Approximate Harmonic

Harvard Observations of Variable Stars

133 Analysis : Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S.-A High-Frequency Alter- Correction of the Longer Term in the Polar Motion 133 nator : W. Duddell.- Exhibition of Experiments to show the Retardation Arc Spectra of the Alkali Metals

133 of the Signalling Current on 3500 miles of the Pacific Cable between Vancouver and Fanning Island. -- Exhibit of Ayrton-Mather Galvano.

Invar and its Applications. (Illustrated.) By Dr. Ch. meters, Universal Shunts, and Electrostatic Instruments.

Éd. Guillaume.
MONDAY, DECEMBER 12.

Shower of Andromedids from Biela's Comet (?) By Society of Arts, at 8.-Musical Wind Instruments, Reed Instruments : W, F. Denning

139 D. J. Blaikley. SOCIETY OF Dyers and Colourists, at 8. --Bleaching Agents, and the Societies and Academies

University and Educational Intelligence

139 Methods of Application: F. W. Walker - The Application of Sulphide Colours in the Dyeing of Chrome Leather.

Diary of Societies

.

125

I 26 126 126

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for a Prospectus of Sycon:

Clava, Obelia, Sertularia; Actinia, Tealia, Caryophylila, Alcy. onium; Hormiphora (preserved); Leptoplana; Lineus, Amphiporus,

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ATLAS OF Nereis, Aphrodite, Arenicola, Lanice, Terebella ; Lepas, Balanus

MICROSCOPICAL PETROGRAPHY,
Ganunarus, Ligia Mysis, Nebalia, Carcious; Patella, Buccinum, Eledone,
Pectens Bagula, Crisia, Pedicellina, Holothuria, Asterias, Echinos

now being issued in Twelve Monthly Parts, each Pait containing Four Fine

Hall-Tone Plates, and also Four actual Rock Sections.
Ascidis, Salpa (preserved), Scyllium, Raia, &c., &c.
For prices and more detailed lists apply to

Subscription in advance, either Monthly, 7/-; Quarterly, 21/-; Biological Laboratory, Plymouth.

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