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Dr. HAMPSON'S AIR-LIQUEFIER is now made to a standard pat. tern, and numbers are in use in University Laboratories and elsewhere in various countries. The whole apparatus is neat and compact and its parts very easily moved ; the Liquefier, without stand, being a cylinder 17 inches

9 high and 8 inches in diameter.

It begins to liquefy air in from 6 to 10 minutes after the admission of air We have now in stock a number of at from 150 to 200 atmospheres pressure, making over a litre of liquid per

Vacuum Tubes of the above Gases, hour. It requires no auxiliary refrigerant and produces a perfectly clear liquid

GUARANTEED PURE. which requires no filtering.

The operator has only one gauge to watch and one valve to control. HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER to the designs of Dr. MORRIS W. ADAM HILGER, Ltd., use with Air

75a Camden Road, London, N.W. For Prices and Particulars apply to the Sole Makers :




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RECORDING PYROMETERS. AN ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE THERMOMETER, in combination with a Callendar Electric Recorder, forms a most convenient and accurate Recording Pyrometer. These instruments work without photography, the record being always open to nspection ; they are entirely free from pen friction error.

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The illustration is produced from an annealing-furnace record obtained in this way, and shows quite clearly the change in the management of the surnace when one fireman (A) was relieved by another (B).

Full particulars will be forwarded free on application.


Works & Head Office: CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND,

where all correspondence should be addressed.



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“ No Better Food.”—Dr. ANDREW WILSON, F.R.S.E., &c.




Try also




A Combination of Fry's Pure Cocoa and Allen & Hanburys' Extract of Malt.



At first the birds-estimated at 2000 in number-rose in the path of the storm was well defined, and, as is usually a Rock, and fears were entertained that they would per- the case in these local whirlwinds, was limited to a very manently forsake their nests, but after a time-despite the small area, The region of heavy rainfall over the country erection of a “blind " for the camera--they returned in a generally was sharply defined on its northern side ; at body. The sight of such an army of large birds, both in Nottingham and Spurn Head no rain was reported to the fight and when marching, is described as magnificent and Meteorological Office on the morning of December 7. imposing, if not, indeed, appalling. The young remain in the nest for about three days, and for the first three weeks

A volume of monthly wind charts for the South Atlantic after leaving it feed like ordinary birds. By that time,

Ocean, prepared by the marine branch of the Meteorological however, the beak has attained its characteristic flexure,

Office, has just been published by the Hydrographic Departand the young birds then search for their food with the

ment of the Admiralty. The region covered extends from lower mandible upwards. Molluscs of the genus Cerithium

the equator southward to the 65th parallel, and from the form almost the sole food of the Barbados species. It is

20th meridian of east longitude to the goth of west longisincerely to be hoped that a movement to prevent these

tude, so that a portion of the Pacific is included. Nearly " rookeries " from being raided by the plumage-hunter will

a million sets of observations, extending over a period of be attended with success.

forty-five years, have been used. The winds have been dis

cussed in areas of 5° of latitude by 5° of longitude, and IN vol. iv. of the Bulletin of the Imperial Botanic Garden

the results are exhibited by means of roses showing the at St. Petersburg, Mr. J. Palibin describes the plankton relative frequency and strength at the sixteen even points which he collected in Barents Sea, and also gives a historical of the compass. The distribution of mean atmospheric résumé of other collections made in the Arctic Ocean. In pressure is shown by means of isobaric lines, and the mean a series of letters Mr. Boris Fedtschenko communicates the air temperature by isotherms, while along the African and botanical observations made during a journey through the

American coasts are

notes bearing upon the Sir Daria region of Turkestan.

characteristic climatic features of the various months. A

striking feature on every chart is the area of high baroIx a pamphlet entitled “ Notes on the Commercial Timbers

metric pressure covering the whole of the area between of New South Wales," Mr. J. H. Maiden describes the

Africa and the east coast of America, its central space principal woods, their characters, and uses. The inform- being usually more on the western side of the ocean, as is ation is primarily suited to practical men who supply or

the case with the anticyclone of the North Atlantic. The use timber in the colony. The majority of the timbers are

wind circulation of the South Atlantic is associated with its hard woods, and different species of Eucalyptus give iron

dominating high pressure system. On the eastern and barks, stringy barks, varieties of box, mahogany, and gum.

northern portions of the ocean the south-east trade is very The timbers recommended in lieu of pine are white beech,

constant, is never interrupted by storms, nor attains the force Gmelina Leichhardtii, a genus of the order Verbenaceæ, and

of a gale. On the western side the winds are more variable, red cedar, Cedrela australis, and rosewood, Dysoxylon

but gales are very rarely experienced northward of the 35th Lessertianum, both included in the Meliaceæ.

parallel. Except near the land fogs seldom occur north

ward of the 30th parallel, and the south-western part of the Tue establishment of “ biologic forms ” of species of ocean is the only region where ice is ordinarily met with. Erysiphaceæ and Uredineze is based upon the restricted

Statistics of the rainfall at a number of places within the powers of infection of the spores upon allied species of the

area of the charts show that the annual amount ranges host plant. But the immunity of a species of the host plant

from 0-31 inch at Walfisch Bay and 1.54 inches at Serena is not absolute, because, as pointed out by Mr. E. S. Salmon

(Coquimbo) to 93.41 inches at Pernambuco and 100.63 inches in No. 3 of vol. ii. of the Annales Mycologici, another host

at Valdivia. It may be recalled that at the Cambridge meetplant may act as a bridging species.' Thus the form of

ing of the British Association Commander Hepworth read Erysiphe graminis which grows on Bromus racemosus will

a paper on the results of the discussion of the observations infect Bromus hordeaceus, but will not infect Bromus com

for these charts. mutatus, although the spores found on Bromus hordeaceus will infect Bromus commutatus.

In No. 22 of the Physikalische Zeitschrift Messrs. Elster

If spores from Bromus racemosus are sown on Bromus hordeaceus, then the spores

and Geitel reply to Mr. J. R. Ashworth's recent letter to produced on Bromus hordeaceus as a result of that sowing

NATURE (vol. Ixx., p. 454) suggesting that the human breath are found to be capable of infecting Bromus commutatus.

may be considered as a source of the ionisation of the atmo

sphere. Their measurements of the conductivity of air THE daily weather report issued by the Meteorological

charged with ordinary human breath show that such air Office on Tuesday, December 6, showed that on the morning

is not more conducting than ordinary air. On the other of that day the winds and sea in the Channel were still

hand, the breath of a person who has been working convery heavy, and, further, that a rapid fall of the barometer

tinually with radium preparations has decided ionising

power, and the nature of the ionisation shows that it is a: Scilly pointed to the approach of a fresh disturbance.

due to the emanation of radium. This storm developed very rapidly, and by 2h. p.m. a deep disturbance lay over Dorsetshire, and another to the north Nearly all the physicists who have been approached of the Helder. These disturbances were accompanied by hitherto by the Revue Scientifique in the course of its invery heavy rainfall, amounting in twenty-four hours to quiries as to the existence of the n-rays have unequivocally 2-25 inches at Cuxhaven, 1.25 inch at St. Aubins (Jersey), stated their inability to observe the effects which these rays and 0-94 inch in London, while severe thunderstorms are alleged to produce. It is therefore particularly interestoccurred generally in Devon and Cornwall.


ing to note in the Revue for November 26 that M. damage to property is reported from various districts, and D'Arsonval has been able to reproduce these effects in many io parts of Dorsetshire à veritable tornado occurred; rain instances, and to show that they are not due merely to and hail fell in torrents, accompanied by heavy thunder and thermal causes. M. Mascart is stated jointly to have lightning. At Beaminster roofs and trees suffered severely; observed with him the same phenomena. M. Poincaré, although himself unable to verify the existence of the radi- The separate parts (parts i.-vi.) of " A School Geometry, ations, adversely criticises Prof. Wood's objections. M. | by Messrs. H. S. Hall and F. H. Stevens, which have been Weiss, from his failure to observe the rays, simply concludes reviewed in these columns from time to time, have been that he was physically unfitted for such observations. published together in one volume by Messrs. Macmillan

and Co., Ltd., at 4s. 6d. Part xii. of the Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society

A FOURTH edition of Prof. Olof Hammarsten's "Text. consists of an investigation by Mr. Richard J. Moss of the

book of Physiological Chemistry" has been published by state in which helium exists in pitchblende. The total

Messrs. John Wiley and Sons, New York (London: Messrs. quantity of helium in a sample of pitchblende was 0.107 c.c.

Chapman and Hall, Ltd.). This issue is an authorised per gram, and of this 1:17 per cent. was liberated by simply

translation by Prof. John A. Mandel. from the author's grinding the mineral in a vacuum. The quantity of carbon

enlarged and revised fifth German edition, dioxide separated by completely decomposing the mineral was 4.686 c.c. per gram, of which only 0.0085 per cent.

THE 1904 issue of the “ Year-book of the Scientific and was obtainable by grinding. As a similar proportion of the

Learned Societies of Great Britain and Ireland " has now total occluded carbon dioxide can be separated from calcite,

been published by Messrs. Charles Griffin and Co., Ltd. in which the gas is undoubtedly present in minute cavities,

This is the twenty-first annual issue of a useful list of by simply pulverising the crystals, it is probable that the organisations for the advancement of science, literature, whole of the carbon dioxide of pitchblende, and possibly

and art, and of work done year by year. Comprehensive the helium also, are present similarly occluded. It is

as the compilation is, it is not quite complete, for there evident that the proportion of the gases liberated by roughly appears to be no reference either to the Sociological Society grinding must necessarily be only a small proportion of the

or to the Geographical Association. total volume.

Erratum.-In the inscription of Fig. 5 (p. 135) of the The Christmas number of Photography, published by

article on “ Invar” in last week's NATURE, a 2 km. Messrs. Iliffe and Sons, Ltd. (1s. net), is restricted to many

wire" should read

a 24 m. wire." kinds of work with the camera which can be accomplished indoors during the winter months. It might be said further to deal with the lighter side of photography as

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. well, as will be judged by reading the second portion of

RELATIONS BETWEEN SOLAR AND TERRESTRIAL PHENOMEXA. this number. Part i., by Mr. C. J. Harrison, deals with the

-In a paper communicated to the Royal Society of New working up of negatives and prints for the removal of

South Wales, Mr. H. I. Jensen, of Sydney University, dis

cusses the more recent data concerning sun-spot frequencies mechanical and other defects from negatives. The methods and the occurrence of volcanic outbursts, earthquakes and and dodges employed are, as the author states, the outcome climatic variations, with the view of illustrating further of his own experience, but nevertheless they are interest

the dependence of the terrestrial upon the solar phenomena. ing reading, and may prove serviceable to many photo, June, 1902, he arrived at the conclusion that the maxima

In a previous paper communicated to the same society in graphers. The illustrations accompanying the text and

of volcanic and seismic activity coincided, in point of time, chosen to represent various stages of these methods with the sun-spot minima, but the discussion of the later also well worth examination. In part ii. Mr. W. L. F. data has led him to a confirmation of the views expressed Wastell discourses on bye-paths of photography. Here by Sir Norman Lockyer, viz. that the maximum activity the reader is made acquainted with methods for producing

of the terrestrial takes place at both the minima and the what may be termed “ freak" photographs. Thus we

maxima of the solar phenomena. His observations show, have illustrated examples of the so-called “spirit "photo

however, that the action at sun-spot maxima is less marked

than, and of a different character to, that which takes place graph, distortions due to the object being too near to the at the minima. camera, two images of the same person in one picture, com- The differential action of lunar attraction is also disbination portraits, silhouettes, and many others of a similar cussed, and although the author concludes that this cause character. The supplement to this number consists of

is only one of secondary importance, he shows that volcanic designs, covering sixteen pages, of photographic mounts to

outbursts and earthquakes seem to occur most frequently

at those times when the moon is in perigee. serve as Christmas cards.

In discussing the connection existing between solar and

meteorological variations, Mr. Jensen refers to the work The articles in the October number of the Johns Hopkins performed in this direction by Sir Norman and Dr. Lockyer, Hospital Bulletin (xv., No. 163) are mainly of medical and in general agrees with their results, although he ininterest. Dr. Packard, however, writes an interesting

clines to the belief that the epochs of sun-spot maxima are account of some famous quacks, including Valentine Great generally the epochs of excessive rainfall. Further, he rakes, who claimed the healing touch for the King's evil

strongly insists upon the necessity of attaching more imin the seventeenth century, no other than Robert Boyle prevailing meteorological conditions of any place (Proc.

portance to geographical position when considering the testifying to his powers; Joshua (“ Spot '') Ward, who dis- Roy. Soc. New South Wales, vol. xxxviii.). covered a cheap way of making oil of vitriol; and John

SUN-SPOT SPECTRA.-In No. 4, vol. xx., of the AstroSt. John Long, who devised a famous liniment which

physical Journal Father Cortie brings together the results possessed not only curative powers, but also revealed hidden of all the sun-spot spectra observations made at the Stony. disease, and from his practice is said to have derived 13,000l. hurst College Observatory during the period 1883-1901. a year.

Using a Browning automatic spectroscope containing

twelve 60° prisms, the widened lines in the region B-D of MR. W. B. Clive has published a revised and enlarged the solar spectrum were picked out, and the intensity of edition of " First Stage Building Construction," by Mr.

their relative widening recorded on an arbitrary numerical Brysson Cunningham.

scale. The present catalogue results from 5486 individual

observations of 349 lines, and the results generally confirm Messrs. DAWBARN AND WARD, LTD., have published in

the observations made at South Kensington as recorded by their “ Home Worker's " series a booklet by Mr. R. H. S.

Sir Norman Lockyer in a paper (“On the Relation between

the Spectra of Sun-spots and Stars '') recently communicated Williams with the title “ How to Build a Bicycle, and

to the Royal Society, viz. that vanadium and titanium are “ How to Build a Petrol Motor," by Mr. J. F. Gill. the elements chiefly affected in sun-spot spectra.


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