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Father Cortie states that the widening of some oxygen
THE FIRST TRUE MAPS. lines in sun-spot spectra, particularly in the a band, seems to be a real phenomenon.
IN the history of cartography, in the development of maps ECLIPSE OBSERVATIONS.-Vol. iii. of the Annalen of the
and map-making, there is perhaps nothing quite com
parable to the first appearance of the portolani Royal University Observatory of Strassburg, edited by Dr.
handy charts" at the close of the thirteenth and the E. Becker, the director, contains the results of the helio
beginning of the fourteenth century. For the portolani, meter observations of the total solar eclipse of May 28,
the first true sea-charts, are also the first true maps of 1900, and of the lunar eclipses which took place on
any kind-the earliest designs in which any part of the January 28, 1888, May 11, 1902 (partial eclipse), and April
earth-surface is laid down from actual observation of close 11. 1903, respectively. in the first part Prof. Kobold gives the results of a
and continuous character. number of observations made in order to determine the
By the term “ portolani ” we intend, of course, to refer Teduction elements of the heliometer, and then applies them
to that great series of coast-plans of which the earliest to the observational results obtained during the solar
known examples belong to the first decade of the fourteenth eclipse of 1900. Finally, he gives the corrections to the
century (A.D. 1300-1310); which are traceable to a very previously determined positions. In part ii. the same
few, perhaps to two or three (now lost), originals; which observer discusses the observations of the 1888 and 1892
may be extended to cover at least 500 designs (reaching eclipses of the moon, and gives the values obtained for the
down to the end of the sixteenth century); and were Tadius of the earth's shadow, &c., finally comparing them
primarily intended to serve as practical guides to mariners with the calculated values.
and merchants in the seaports of the Mediterranean and
Black Sea. In the third part Herr C. W. Wirtz discusses the observations of the lunar eclipse of April 11, 1903, including the
These plans of practical navigators of men whose livelicorrections to the moon's place, the figure and size of the
hood largely depended on their knowledge of nature and earth's shadow, and the variations of the diameter of the
their close observation of natural features-are a remarkcrater Linně during the eclipse. The curve on which are
able contrast, in their almost modern accuracy, to the plotted the values of the last named quantity shows a con
results of the older literary or theological geography as we siderable increase in the diameter during the approach of
have them in the Hereford or Ebstorf maps (both of the the earth's shadow to the crater, the maximum value
very same period as the oldest existing portolans, c. A.D. evidently occurring during the actual eclipse of Linné.
1300). They have never yet received adequate attention
from English geographers (as from Nordenskjöld the THE APPEARANCE OF SPARK LINES IN ARC SPECTRA.—An Swede, Fischer the German, or Uzielli the Italian), and interesting discussion of the conditions which lead to the the problem of their sudden appearance in such comparative appearance of “spark” lines in arc spectra is published perfection is surely deserving of more study, and capable in No. 4. vol. xx., of the Astrophysical Journal by Dr. of fuller explanation, than it has yet received. Certain Henry Crew, of the North-western University, Ill.
assumptions may perhaps be made without danger. The Crew made a number of experiments in which the Mg portolano type was not the invention of one man, of one line at A 4481 appeared in the arc spectrum, and examined year, of one decade. It did not spring from any school or the are, simultaneously, with a Rowland grating spectro- any example of mediæval student-map. was the final graph and a Duddell high-frequency oscillograph.
result of centuries' experience-the outcome of the notes, The various conditions under which the arc was produced plans, and oral tradition of generations of pilots and were as follow :1 and 2) current with negligible and
captains. Skipper-charts of certain important and muchwith large amount of inductance respectively; (3) arc' frequented sections of the coast trade-routes were probably broken by air blast ; (4) arc in atmosphere of coal gas. combined, by slow degrees, into a coast-chart of the
The reproductions of the oscillograph curves show the Mediterranean basin as a whole. It may be that the current conditions during each experiment, and from a dis- sketches of small portions of shore-line which we have in cussion of the results Dr. Crew arrives at the following fifteenth century manuscripts of Leonardo Dati's poem conclusions (1) A rapidly changing, high E.M.F. is a “ La Sfera " are really copies, but slightly modified, of probable conditio sine qua non for the appearance of spark such old skipper-charts-reaching back, perhaps, to the lines in arc spectra. (2) The effect of hydrogen and other
eleventh century, and forming the very earliest indications atmospheres in introducing spark lines is explained by the of that new scientific geography in which the compass fact that these atmospheres produce a more rapid break, played so great a part. If this surmise is correct, the openand this, in turn, introduces an extra E.M.F., which in ing of the mediæval Renaissance, in the generations immedisome way, as yet unknown, is responsible for the radiation
ately preceding the Crusades, was accompanied by the of the spark line. A possible explanation of the stellar oldest embryonic forms of modern cartography. conditions which produce spark lines in the spectra of stars Once more, it may be that the sea-chart which is is also discussed.
mentioned in connection with the Seventh Crusade (of THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF CANADA.-Founded A.D. 1270), and which St. Louis apparently employed to aid as the Astronomical and Physical Society of Toronto, the his attack on Tunis, was a portolan, or a sectional chart name of this society was changed in 1900 to that of the
of the North African coast of portolan type. It may be Toronto Astronomical Society. In 1903 it was decided to that the charta noticed in Raymond Lulli's “ Arbor change its name to the Astronomical Society of Canada, Scientiæ " (about A.D. 1300) as necessary for sailors-along and in response to a petition the privilege of prefixing the with the compass, needle, and “ star of the sea ”—was a word "Royal" to its name was granted, so that the full work of the same kind. It may be that Andrea Bianco's title of the society is now the above heading. We hope planisphere of 1436 is a re-edition of a “handy-map ” of that this now national society will be a stimulus to the the thirteenth century. But the oldest certain examples of promotion and diffusion of astronomical science, and that the type we are concerned with, which have been discovered its influence will be greatly extended. We have before us up to the present, are the Carte pisane and the first design the volume containing the selected papers and proceedings of Giovanni de Carignano, both belonging to the opening for the years 1902 and 1903. edited by A. Harvey; the years of the fourteenth century, while the oldest dated varied topics there dealt with bid fair for the future of the portolan is the first of Pietro Vesconte (or Visconti), society. Among some of the papers may be mentioned the
executed in 1311. address of the president, R. F. Stupart, director of the And when, with these and the next few examples, we Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory of Toronto, inget at last our full coast-chart of the Mediterranean basin, which is an account of the history and work of the institu- what is its character ? cion. W. H. S. Monck gives a catalogue of aërolites, It is a map without graduation, embracing only the coast arranged in order of the months in which they fell. There lines and the towns and natural features in the immediate is a brief account of the present astronomical equipment of neighbourhood of the coast. But though it is restricted, it Canada as a whole, and a discussion on papers dealing with has extraordinary merits in its own field. Its delineation solar phenomena and terrestrial effects. The volume con- of the shores of the Mare Internum, from the Straits of cludes with an account of women's work in astronomy, by Gibraltar to the extreme east of the Black Sea, is markedly Miss E. A. Dent.
superior to anything of earlier date--even to the Madaba
mosaic of the sixth century or to Matthew Paris's thirteenth existing portolani all the earliest examples are unquestioncentury “ England." The chief errors which Ptolemy had ably Italian—and that, of some 500 known, 413 were imparted to the shape of the Mediterranean are corrected. executed by the countrymen of Carignano and Vesconte The main features of the great inland sea are presented we shall not be ready to deprive Italy of the first place in with a correctness and a minute detail which, at the most the creation of the oldest scientific maps. Even if that casual glance, immediately distinguish portolan work creation was, as seems probable, an “ Homeric ” feat-the from any preceding variety of cartography. No attempt is piecing together (with additions and improvements) of a made to fill up the interior of the lands—continental or great number of small sectional coast-surveys-yet this insular-of which the coasts are portrayed ; such attempts earlier stage, only recorded in Italian manuscripts, seems are made later, it is true, but they are obvious and confessed no less due to the seamen of the peninsula. additions to the primitive, normal, or typical portolan. Can we throw any other light upon the origin of the But, along the shores in question, all points important for
portolani? navigation are drawn with great care ; small islands, bays, In 1881 Fiorini suggested that West-European mariners, cliffs, and headlands--of no great general importance, but such as those of Italy, learnt from the Byzantines the art vital to the coaster—are often depicted in disproportionate of making and using maps founded on careful draughts size; all the ports especially suitable for calling, watering, manship and close study of distance (i.e. portolani of a and revictualling are indicated with the especial honour of
kind) as early as the eleventh century. This idea has been red colouring ; even shallows are frequently marked, denoted accepted by Theobald Fischer, and has been treated with by a sign still used at the present day; the very large number great respect by other scholars. Yet it is surrounded by of shore-names testifies to the minute knowledge under
difficulties. For no Greek portolan has yet been found, por lying the work. Thus along the north coast of the is Greek influence anywhere to be detected in the language, Mediterranean we have (by A.D. 1320) about 620 names;
legend-allusions, contours, or other details of the earls on the coasts of the Black Sea and Sea of Marmora about portolani. Fragments of Latin, fragments of Italian and 260; on the coasts of Asia Minor and Syria about 160; on
Catalan dialects, fragments of a lingua franca composed the north coast of Africa about 240 ; in all some 1280,
of various Romance tongues—these are the media through without counting island names—which are very numerous
which the early portolan draughtsmen convey information. or the names which fringe the western coast of Europe to
But of Greek they make no use, and of Byzantine geo the mouth of the Elbe, and the western coast of Africa to graphy, history, harbours, or coast routes they show no Cape Nun, or Non, at the extreme south-west of Morocco. special knowledge. We may give weight to the fact that In respect to these shores—let us say from Hamburg almost the Byzantine navy was one of the chief Christian weapons to the Wady Draa, and from Gibraltar to Azov, Poti, in the ninth, tenth, and early eleventh centuries; that Batum, Alexandretta, Jaffa, and the Nile—the portolani Constantinople was then the greatest trade centre in soon become fixed in the pattern they permanently retained,
Christendom; and that the seamen of the Greek islands a pattern which gradually triumphs over every other-even were very prominent in Mediterranean navigation in the the revived Ptolemaic, to which scholars clung age of the Byzantine revival (c. 860–1060 A.D.). But all desperately and so unhappily. We may therefore regard this is far from proving a Byzantine right to the " inventhe great mass of these works as mere copies of a tion" of the portolan coast-chart, even in the primitive few normal or typical designs which were completed (at form of sectional pilot-maps of limited areas. least in all their essential parts) before the outbreak of
It only remains to say that all genuine progress in gecthe Hundred Years' War, and a good twenty years before graphical delineation followed the lines of the portolani: the battle of Crecy. How closely the original type was that the accurate methods employed by them for coast-work followed may be guessed from the fact that the portolan were gradually applied to the interior of countries; that in colours-used according to certain definite rules-are un- spite of the contempt shown for them by most of the learned altered for long periods of years, and through scores of in the so-called Renaissance period, they were at last known examples. Thus red or reddish-brown is always kept for by their fruits and vindicated by the success of their type. the Red Sea, and long after the Turkish conquest of Rhodes Ancient classical or pre-Christian maps were not without that island regularly appears in white with a black cross. certain merits, though we can only judge of them by the
Instead of lines of latitude and longitude (or substitutes two remaining examples, the Peutinger table, originally a for such lines, as we find in the “ Palestine ” of Marino road-map of Augustus's Empire, and the designs illustrating Sanuto, c. A.D. 1310), a net of loxodromes is employed on the “ Geography ” of Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria-both (or has, at any rate, been added to) the portolani even of surviving only in manuscripts of the central mediæva! the earliest time. These loxodromes are straight lines in period. After the modern age of oceanic discovery had the direction of the various winds, proceeding from a number passed through its earliest and most difficult stages, the of crossing-points regularly distributed over the map. But Renaissance editions of Ptolemy (from 1474) played a very in this loxodrome net-work, in sharp contrast to all other important part in delaying geographical progress and refeatures of the portolan map-type, there is almost infinite tarding the history of civilisation. “But in the time of the variation; one seldom comes across two designs of exactly early portolani (say from 1300 to 1400) neither the work of similar character in this respect.
the Alexandrian astronomer nor the road-maps of the Roman A distance-scale, with the same unit of length, occurs on Empire were adequately known in western Europe. The all the portolani ; this unit (which has been called the portolan sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were not so innocent. mile) is estimated with much care by Nordenskjöld at 5830 Designs of the portolan type do not seem to have existed metres; while of all known mediæval measures, that which even in the best ages of classical geography and exploring corresponded most nearly with the “portolan mile" seems activity; the old peripli were sailing directions, not drawn, to have been the Catalan legua. A Catalan league but written; and the only Arabic scheme of the sort which therefore, it is suggested, may have furnished the basis of has yet been found is certainly copied from a Christian the portolan measure, and the portolan type of map may --and Italian-original. have originated (in part at least) among Catalan mariners. It is in the portolani, and especially in such a work as the
Baron Nordenskjöld, indeed, does not hesitate to ascribe | Laurentian design of 1351, with its revelations of the Azores to the portolani an entirely Catalan parentage. But, and the Madeira group, and its still more startling suggesadmitting that one germ of the first true maps may have tion of the true shape of Africa, that we may find, perhaps, existed at Barcelona or some other centre of Catalonian the chief geographical teachers of Henry the Navigator and trade and seamanship, I cannot but think that another his Portuguese. ' Never better than in these long-neglected germ still more active and important was to be found in charts does the history of civilisation illustrate man's Italy, and above all in the north-west—in Genoa and Pisa. change from empirical to scientific, from traditional bookFor, remembering the indications in Dati's “ Sfera,' learning to the investigation of nature. The portolani long may agree with Theobald Fischer that map sketches of portolan type, and with the practical object of helping
1 To Nordenskjold's wild theory, “ Facsimile Atlas," p. 48, that Marinus navigation, were almost certainly drawn in Italy, and by
of Tyre is the real original portolan draughtsman, and that the Marias
maps which Masudi saw before A. D. 956 were really portolani, we need not Italians, before 1300. Remembering, also, that of the pay attention.
suffered, in general appreciation, from the fact that-in of Ceylon (Geol. Mag., August), proposes the their essential features—they never attempted to gratify Balangoda group for a series of granitic and pegmatitic popular taste; that they did not, with rare exceptions, illus- rocks intrusive in the Charnockite series. The group intrate the works of fashionable writers, whether classical cludes granites with zircon, allanite, magnetite, &c. philosophers or mediæval prelates; that they had no con- The summary of progress of the Geological Survey for nection with the legends and dreams of chivalry and the year 1903 contains the usual particulars of the field work romance; that they were not the work of schools or courts; which has been carried on in Cornwall, Derbyshire and and that they owed nothing to Ptolemy or Strabo. But we Nottinghamshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, in know their worth better now.
various parts of Ross-shire and the western highlands, in They first record for us the new discoveries among the the Edinburgh coal-field, and in the neighbourhood of Cork Atlantic islands and along the African mainland ; they guide in Ireland. Special attention is directed to the discovery and accompany the faltering steps of our race in the out- in Ross-shire of a rock essentially composed of magnetite ward, oceanic, movement of European life; in them true and cassiterite-the occurrence of tin-ore being new; but cartography, the map-making of the civilised world, begins. it is stated that at present there is no reason to believe that C. RAYMOND BEAZLEY. the tin-bearing rock occurs in any large masses.
In an appendix Dr. J. S. Flett contributes first notes on the petrography of western Cornwall, dealing with some of the
garnetiferous greenstones, the granites and greisen veins, GEOLOGICAL NOTES.
and the phenomena of contact alteration; Mr. H. B. Wood
ward writes on the Geological Survey in reference to AgriSTATISTICS of mineral production in India in the ten culture, with report on the soils and subsoils of the Roth
years 1894 to 1903 have been issued by the Government amsted estate ; and Mr. H. A. Allen continues the important of India (Department of Revenue and Agriculture, 1904). In catalogue of types and figured specimens of fossils in the the report for 1903 satisfactory progress in the mining Museum of Practical Geology, with a record of Oolitic industry is recorded. There has been a remarkable develop- Gasteropoda and Scaphopoda. ment in the production of petroleum and manganese ore, The general report and statistics on mines and quarries and a continuation of the progress previously recorded for for 1903, part iii. (output), has been issued by the Home coal and gold.
Office. The total value of the minerals raised during the From the Geological Survey of India we have received year showed a decrease of 51 million pounds as compared part ii. of the newly re-issued Records. Mr. T. H. Holland, with 1902-a decrease arising from the fall in price of coal. director, contributes a short appreciative memoir of the late The total output of coal was the highest hitherto recorded. General C. A. McMahon, and among other articles there is The outputs of ores of iron, copper, and lead show increase, a well illustrated report by Mr. J. Malcolm Maclaren on while those of manganese, tin, and uranium ores show the auriferous occurrences of Chota Nagpur, in Bengal. decrease. The conclusion is that there is little scope for the legitimate In the Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society investment of capital in the recovery of gold, whether from (n.s., vol. X., part iii.) Prof. Lloyd Morgan and Prof. S. H. the quartz veins or from the superficial deposits, but that Reynolds give particulars of the field relations of the Carbonthe greater portion of the gold must be left to the native iferous volcanic rocks of Somerset. There is also an washer, “ forming for him a reserve that, though it will interesting article by Mr. W. H. Wickes on the Rhætic never raise him to affluence, will always lift him beyond bone-beds, the author pointing out that there is no regular the grasp of famine.". Two minerals, thenardite and and persistent bed, but thin layers of varying extent occur cancrinite, are recorded for the first time from India. We on different horizons, due to the former presence and dehave also received a report on the geology of Spiti, by Mr. struction of shoals of carnivorous fishes and saurians, while H. H. Hayden (Mem. Geol. Surv. India, vol. xxxvi., part i.). the occurrence of small pebbles in the bone-beds is attributed Hitherto no systematic survey had been made of the region, to the fact that large sea fish often have stones in their and the results of this work, which was carried out by stomachs. Mr. H. B. Woodward contributes a memoir on Mr. Hayden with the assistance of the late Dr. von Krafft, the late Robert Etheridge, dealing more especially with his are depicted on a map to the scale of one inch to four miles, work in the Bristol area. and further illustrated by some striking pictorial views and In the Proceedings of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field sections. The formations represented
Cambrian, Club (vol. xv., part i.) Messrs. J. W. Gray and G. W. S. Silurian, Carboniferous and Permian, Trias, Jurassic, and Brewer direct attention to the evidence of a Celtic settleCretaceous, with also intrusive rocks. The oldest sedi. ment on Cleeve Hill, prior to the Roman occupation of mentary rocks belong to the Middle Haimanta division of that part of the country; among the domestic animals Mr. Griesbach; they are unfossiliferous, and are overlain were the horse, ox, sheep, pig, dog, and fowl. Mr. L. presumably by the Upper Haimantas, in which Lingulella Richardson contributes an article on the Rhætic beds of and Olenus have been found. Lower and Upper Silurian Worcestershire. rocks are recognised, and from these and the later form- A study of sands and sediments has been commenced by ations many fossils are recorded.
Mr. T. Mellard Reade and Mr. Philip Holland (Proc. LiverThe ammonite fauna of the Spiti shales forms the sub- pool Geol. Soc., 1904). So far as their investigations have ject of a monograph by Dr. Victor Uhlig (Mem. Geol. proceeded, they are led to believe that purely mechanical Survey, India, ser. xv., vol. iv.). Only the first portion of micro-sediments may constitute a much larger proportion of this work has at present been issued, and in it the author the rocks than has been hitherto suspected. Moreover, their deals with the genera and species of Ammonoidea. With experiments show the persistent retention of detrital carregard to the classification, the author remarks that as no bonate of lime in extremely fine subsidence-matter, and universally satisfactory agreement has yet been reached, he suggest that deep-sea limestones may sometimes be formed gives the descriptions of the various forms in unclassified as detrital accumulations. sequence, while indicating their approximate position. In The twenty-eighth annual report of the Department of the course of his work he has studied as far as possible all Geology and Natural Resources, Indiana, under the directhe old as well as new material, and he has found it tion of Mr. W. S. Blatchley, State geologist, is accompanied necessary to re-figure and describe many of the species by an excellent geological map of the State on the scale of previously published.
an inch to four miles, with explanatory descriptions by Dr. In mineralogical notes contributed by Mr. A. K. | T. C. Hopkins and Dr. A. F. Foerste. The formations reCoomaraswamy (Spolia Zeylanica, August), reference is presented are Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Lower made to the occurrence in Ceylon of thorium-bearing Carboniferous, and Coal-measures. The petroleum prominerals, of corundum-sillimanite rocks, kyanite, serendi- ducing areas are specially marked, that industry having Inte, &c. The same author, in dealing with the geology become one of the greatest in the State. Special reports are
contributed on this and on the lime industry, and there is Some of the atlases founded on portolani, such as the Carte Catalane of also an article on the stratigraphy and palæontology of the 10$. really illustrate the travels of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Marco Polo's. But this is strictly in the way of explanation of a great
Niagara formation by Mr. E. M. Kindle, with twenty-five graphic text.
plates of fossils.
A comprehensive memoir on the geology and ore-deposits SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE of the Bisbee Quadrangle, Arizona, by Mr. F. L. Ransome,
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. appears as one of the professional papers
” of the United States Geological Survey (1904). This district became THE occupation of the Philippine Islands by the United famous for its production of copper-ore in 1880, and was States has been quickly followed by the establishment connected with the railway system as recently as 1902. of laboratories, and already a large amount of scientific Hence Mr. Ransome has found himself obliged to invent work has been done, and several valuable reports have been names--and pleasing ones of Spanish origin—for several issued. topographic features. His plates show how the geological The report' under review deals with the year ending structure of the country can be read on many of the hill- September, 1903. The permanent buildings of the Governsides with the clearness of a diagram; in several respects ment laboratory at Manila were completed last April, and they remind one of the bare dry landscapes in the Mesozoic comprise a serum laboratory for the preparation of theraareas of the Basses Alpes. The fossiliferous beds include peutic sera and vaccine lymph with attached paddocks and Middle Cambrian, Devonian (apparently conformable on animal houses, a chemical laboratory, a biological departthese), Lower and Upper Carboniferous (both marine), and ment for the prosecution of pathological, entomological, and Cretaceous, resting unconformably on the preceding beds. botanical research, a marine biological station, a bureau of The affinities of the strata are with those of Texas. The weights and measures, and a library. paper concludes with a discussion of the origin of the copper- About one-third of the volume is occupied with a report ores, in which stress is laid on their concentration from on trypanosomiasis by Dr. Musgrave and Mr. Clegg, with cupriserous iron-pyrites, deposited in metamorphosed lime- special reference to the existence of surra among the horses
in the Philippines. At the same time a very complete reIn the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (vol. view of our present knowledge of trypanosomiasis is given, xvii., n.s., part i.) Messrs. F. Chapman and G. B. the various species are described, and the symptomatology Pritchard commencé an article on the fossil fish-remains
and prophylaxis are discussed. The report, which is a very from the Tertiaries of Australia. They deal with the de- valuable one, is copiously illustrated with excellent photoscription, range in time, and distribution of the sharks, and graphs, temperature charts, &c. Several other papers of they observe that Asteracanthus, hitherto known only from pathological interest are included in the volume; also an Secondary strata, extended beyond question into the Tertiary account of rinderpest inoculation. seas round southern Australia. "In other articles the Another valuable report is on the gutta-percha industry Silurian Ostracoda and Phyllocarida, and the Tertiary and the various gutta-percha-producing trees, and is illusPolyzoa and Mollusca of Victoria receive attention. Prof. trated with a number of photographs of species of PalaJ. W. Gregory contributes a paper on the antiquity of man quium and Payena, methods of collection of the guttain Victoria, and concludes (contrary to his previously ex- percha, maps of geographical distribution, &c. pressed opinion) that, however ancient the Australian The final third of the volume contains the report of Mr. aborigines may be, there is no evidence of the long occupa- Charles Banks, the Government entomologist, and gives an tion of Victoria by man.
account of the insect pests attacking the cacao. This, like We have received the annual report of the Geological the rest of the papers, is copiously illustrated with excellent Survey of Canada for the year 1900, issued in 1903; it is photographs. accompanied by geological maps, dated 1904, of parts of The volume reflects the greatest credit on the staff of the British Columbia (Atlin Gold-fields), Labrador, Saskat- laboratory, but the complete omission of a table of contents chewan, and Quebec.
and an index should be remedied in future issues. A revision of the Palæozoic Palæechinoidea, with a
R. T. HEWIETT. synopsis of all known species, has been contributed by Mary J. Klem (Trans. Acad. Science, St. Louis, vol. xiv., No. 1). She remarks that the prevailing characters which may be taken as a basis for classification are :-(1) number UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL of columns in the ambulacra; (2) position and number of
INTELLIGENCE. the ambulacral pores; (3) ornamentation of the plates; (4) imbrication of the plates ; (5) apical system ; (6) general
BIRMINGHAM.-A chair of music has been established by shape of the body; and (7) geological position.
an endowment of 10,000l. given for that purpose by Mr. An interesting article on the occurrence and distribution
Richard Peyton, of Birmingham. The chair has been of copper in the United States, by Mr. W. H. Weed, appears
accepted by Sir Edward Elgar; but the intention of the in the Mining Magazine (New York, September). Nearly university authorities is by no means to interfere in 700 million pounds of metallic copper were produced in the
any way with his work as composer, and he will be left States during 1903, and in the previous year nearly 300
free to develop the chair gradually and on such lines as he, million pounds were obtained from an area a mile long
in consultation with other members of the Senate, may and half a mile wide at Butte, in Montana, where the
think fit. Anaconda Mine produces more copper than any other mine
Dr. Arthur Robinson, of King's College, London, has in the world. The ores occur in well defined veins in quartz
been elected to the chair of anatomy, vacated by the appointmonzonite, associated with white granite or aplite, which
ment of Dr. Windle to the presidency of Queen's College, forms dykes and small masses. Dykes of quartz-porphyry Cork. The new professor will assume office in January. also occur, and seem to have some genetic association with A new chair of electrical engineering has been estabthe ore-bodies. Several mines are 2200 feet deep.
lished as a supplement to the lectureship in the same subThe Geological Survey of Queensland has commenced the ject held by Dr. D. K. Morris. The first occupant of the issue of Records. In No. 1 Mr. B. Dunstan, the acting chair will be Mr. Gisbert Kapp, now lecturer at CharlottenGovernment geologist, contributes notes on the occurrence
burg. He is not expected, however, to return to this of gold nuggets near Mount Morgan, on phosphate-bearing country until the autumn of next year, and his appointrocks, asbestos, oriental rubies, &c. Mr. R. Etheridge re
ment will not take effect until October, 1905. Meanwhile, cords the occurrence of Halysites in the Chillagoe lime- and subsequently, Dr. Morris and his staff will continue We have received also Publications Nos. 191 and
their work as before. The new and large buildings for the 192, on the tin, copper, and silver mining in the Stanthorpe department will be ready by that time. A competent district, by Lionel C. Ball, and on the Herberton tin field, by
assistant will have to be elected to assist Prof. Kapp in the Mr. W. É. Cameron.
drawing office for dynamo and central station design. Some Upper Devonian fish-remains, obtained by Dr.
Prof. Burstall will continue to occupy his chair, the title Whitman Cross from Colorado, are described by Mr. C. R. of which will be changed to " Mechanical Engineering, Eastman (Amer. Joum. Sci., October). The remains belong and he will have control over a great engineering block to the genera Bothriolepis and Holoptychius. In the same and the power station. journal a number of fossil turtles belonging to the Marsh
It is not improbable that a special chair of civil engineercollection in Yale University Museum are described and ing in the narrower sense will be established. figured by Mr. O. P. Hay. Many of the specimens are 1 Report of the Superintendent of Government Laboratories ik be from the Laramie deposits of Wyoming.
Philippine Islands for the Year ended September 1, 1903
EDINBURGH.—Sir Donald Currie has subscribed the sum and pointed out how the polytechnics and technical instiof 25.000l. toward the fund which is being raised by the tutes could be made useful in connection therewith. The university to enable a site to be purchased on which vote of thanks to Lord Reay was moved by Mr. Alexander laboratories and other educational buildings could be erected, Siemens. After the distribution the various laboratories and for making further financial provision for an extension and workshops, were thrown open, and a series of of the teaching staff and for the promotion of research in lecturettes, exhibits, and demonstrations was given. The the university. To the principal, Sir William Turner, Sir most interesting demonstration was perhaps that of a new Donald Currie stated that he wished the revenue from this submersible boat in the swimming bath. These boats, inmoney to be applied by the university court to the remuner- vented by Mr. Middleton, of Brighton, are propelled, ation of a staff of lecturers, such as the authorities of the directed, controlled, and governed by fins actuated by prime university might find it advisable from time to time to movers, in such a fashion that they can move any way in appoint. An option was also given to the university court tri-dimensional space in the fluid in which they are to apply 5oool. of the amount towards the purchase of a site immersed. By altering the inclination of the plane of the for the new laboratories, should it be necessary to use a fins, these can be made to propel the boat forwards or backportion of his gift for that purpose. In addition to this wards, to sink it below the surface, to raise it again, and, gift, subscriptions amounting to 15,000l. have been promised in fact, to direct it along any course, whether inclined to by other friends of the university.
the horizontal or otherwise. ACCORDING to a report mentioned in Science, it is pro
The proceedings of the Institute of Chemistry of Great posed to move the Western University of Pennsylvania
Britain and Ireland for 1904, which have now been pubfrom the suburbs of Allegheny to Pittsburg proper, near
lished, show that the council of the institute has had under the new Carnegie Technical School. About fifty acres of
consideration the recommendations of the Consultative Com
mittee to the Board of Education for a scheme of examinground, sufficient for twenty large university buildings,
ations for school certificates. It will be remembered that are being secured at a cost of about 400,0001., and the work of construction will be begun before long. Fifty citizens place of the many professional preliminary examinations
it is proposed that these school certificates should take the of Pittsburg have agreed to give each from 8000l. to 20,000l. for the school. From the same source we learn that the
now held ; that a central board should be constituted for general assembly of the State of Vermont has appropriated England, consisting of representatives of the Board of 12,000l. for the use of the agricultural department of the
Education and of the different examining bodies, to control university. The money is to be expended in the erection
the standard of the examinations for school certificates; and equipment of a building to be known as Morrill Agri
and that the proposed examinations should be under the cultural Hall, in memory of the father of the agricultural
control of independent external examiners, although con
The olleges of the country, the late Senator Justin S. Morrill.
ducted by internal and external examiners jointly.
council of the Institute of Chemistry has informed the It may be remembered that the authorities of University
Board of Education (a) that the council considers it desirable College, Sheffield, were informed by the committee of the
to substitute some such system as is proposed in lieu of the Privy Council that, subject to a substantial realisation of
various professional preliminary examinations now held ; the hopes entertained in connection with the movement (b) that if such system be established, the council will for the establishment of a Sheffield University, their Lord- be prepared to accept the proposed senior certificate examinships would be prepared in due course to recommend to
ation, passed in the subjects required by the regulations of His Majesty the grant of a charter. We learn from the
the institute; and (c) that the council will be pleased to be calendar of the University College for 1904-5 that of the
represented on the proposed central board. A scheme for sum of 170,00ol., which efforts are being made to raise, school certificates submitted by the University of Birming54.1341. has been promised since 1903. In addition, 52,9081. ham has also met with the approval of the council of the was promised in 1902 to the new buildings fund, so that
institute, and it has also been decided to accept the matricume 107,0421. has been raised for higher education in
lation examination held jointly by the Victoria University, Sheffield within a short period. It is to be hoped that little
the University of Liverpool, and the University of Leeds, as difficulty will be experienced in securing the amount which
an approved preliminary examination, provided the certifimust be provided still before the University of Sheffield can cate include the subjects required by the regulations of the be incorporated.
institute. Two technical State scholarships have been just placed at the disposal of the local government of the Punjab, says
A DEPUTATION from the Association of Chambers of Comthe Pioneer Mail. These scholarships will enable natives
merce of the United Kingdom waited upon Lord Londonof India to pursue a course of study in Great Britain or
derry, President of the Board of Education, on Monday to other western countries with the object of qualifying higher technical and higher commercial education. The
urge that increased Government aid should be given to them to assist in promoting the improvement of existing native industries and the development of new industries
views of the deputation were expressed in the following rewherever this may be possible. In the case of the Punjab Solution, which was passed at the meeting of the association The industries allowed to be taken up are tanning, metal
on September 28, and was now laid before Lord Londonwork, and pottery, and the local government has decided
derry :-" That, in order to retain our industrial position to confine its efforts to the first two, at any rate for the
and to introduce into this country such further industries present. The value of each scholarship has been fixed at
as may be profitably developed, this association is of opinion igal. a year, and it will be tenable for two years, but it
that it is absolutely necessary to establish or acquire public ill be open to the Government of India to increase the
secondary schools of the highest standard, where efficient salue of any scholarship, and to extend the period during
ineans of such education do not exist, with fees low enough which it will be tenable. Commissioners and superin
to make them accessible to all grades, and to provide tendents of divisions have been asked to make the scheme
sufficient inducements by bursaries, exhibitions, scholarpublicly known, and to enlist in its behalf the interest of
ships, or otherwise to make the efficient boys stay long the commercial classes.
enough in these schools in order to thoroughly train and
adequately prepare a very much larger number than is at THE annual prize distribution and students' conversazione
present available for taking full advantage of the provisions - the Northampton Institute, E.C., was held last week, made for higher technical and higher commercial education, when the prizes and certificates were distributed by Lord the facilities for which ought also to be largely extended Reay. The principal's report showed that the work of the and the standard considerably raised.” In introducing the institute has in several important departments overtaken deputation, Sir W. H. Holland, M.P., said the chambers the accommodation, and that there is urgent necessity for of commerce might be fairly taken to represent the organised Fuension. A special note was made of the recent recog- commercial opinion of the country, and they were convinced orion of the work of the institute by the Board of Educa- that the Board of Education would encourage them to take tion, and the necessity for a “ British Institute of Technical a keen interest in secondary and technical education. Mr. Optics " was pointed out. Lord Reay, in his address, Ivan Levinstein said the want of secondary education was dwelt upon the desirability of reviving, so far as modern the cause of our present most deplorable position. What we conditions would allow, the old system of apprenticeship, wanted, in the first instance, was a far larger number of