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high-class public secondary schools. We must be prepared November

24.-" The

Refractive Indices of the to face a great financial sacrifice, for some years at any Elements.” By Clive Cuthbertson. rate, if we were to put secondary education in this country In a letter addressed to NATURE in October, 1902, attenon anything like the level it had reached in America, tion was directed to the fact that the refractivities of the Switzerland, and Germany. After other speakers had put five inert gases of the atmosphere, He, Ne, A, Kr, and X, forward similar claims for consideration of the subject, Lord as determined by Ramsay and Travers, were, within narrot Londonderry, in reply, said that he felt the weight of the limits of accuracy, in the proportion of 1, 2, 8, 12 and 20; arguments put forward, but the opinions of his colleagues or, more simply, of i, j, 2, 3, and 5. of the Board of Education and himself on this vitally im- In a second letter it was shown that the refractivities of portant matter were expressed in such detail and so de- the halogens, Cl, Br, and I, stand also in the relation of finitely in the reply forwarded by Mr. Morant to the chamber 2, 3, and 5 to the same degree of accuracy; but it was on September 26 (see NATURE, October 13, p. 595) that on pointed out that the figures for P, As, and S, as measured the present occasion he proposed to devote attention rather by M. Le Roux in 1861, did not show any similar relation, to the question of commercial education than to that of and it was observed that a re-determination of them would technical education. The whole matter was one to which be interesting the Board were fully alive, and he was very glad to learn With a Jamin's refractometer, adapted for use with high from the representations which they had made that day temperatures, results have now been obtained for Hg, P. that there was on the part of the chambers of commerce and S, which differ widely from those of M. Le Roux. The a keen appreciation of the value of that special advanced index of mercury, calculated for a molecule containing two instruction in the several sections of mercantile practice atoms, is placed at 1.001857, a number which agrees closely which the Board had felt it their duty to encourage in the with the value given by the refractive equivalent of Gladevening schools serving the more important commercial stone. The index of P, is found to be 1.001197, and that of communities.

S, is 1.001101.

In all three cases it is estimated that the margin of error does not exceed is per cent. Comparing these values for

P, and S, with those of N, and on, it is shown that the SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

simple relations found in the case of the inert gases and LONDON.

the halogens also hold in the case of nitrogen and phosRoyal Society, February 11.-"On Certain Properties of phorus, oxygen and sulphur; and that an atom of phos

phorus retards light four times as much as an atom of the Alloys of Silver and Cadmium. By Dr. T. K. Rose.

nitrogen, an atom of sulphur four times as much as an Attention was directed to these alloys on account of the atom of oxygen. advantages of using them as the material for trial plates

Efforts have also been made to measure the index of for testing the fineness of silver coin and plate.

An examination of the curves of equilibrium between the liquid difficulties, success has not yet been attained.

fluorine in the gaseous state, but, owing to the experimental and solid states of the alloys proved the existence of several

It appears then, that, out of fourteen elements the indes compounds of silver and cadmium, some of which have

of refraction of which has been measured in the gaseous already been recognised in other ways. Horizontal branches

state, twelve conform to the rule that in each chemical of the curve mark the solidification of the compounds Ag Cd., AgCd, and AgCd,, and the solidification of Ag, Cd, small integers. The other two, Hg and H, have no allied

group the refractivities of the elements are in the ratios of corresponds to a cusp on the curve of initial freezing points. elements with which they can be compared. There is a strong tendency for mixtures of the compounds

It is pointed out that N, O, and Ne are each followed, in to form solid solutions. This is strikingly shown in the

their respective families, by an element the refractivity of case of alloys containing more than 80 per cent. of silver.

which is four times as great, and that, consequently, there At temperatures in the short range of a few degrees between

are reasons for believing that the elements composing the the initial and final freezing points of these alloys, two

series N, O, F, and Ne, and P, S, CI, and A are, in some bodies exist side by side, but at a lower temperature they

sense, homologous. Comparing the refractivities of the coalesce to form a single solid solution provided that sufficient time is allowed for complete mixing by diffusion.

latter series we see that the power to retard light appears

to be closely connected with the valency, increasing as it For example, in the standard alloy, which contains 7-5 per

increases, in spite of the decrease in atomic weight, as cent. of cadmium, solidification begins at about 945o, and is completed at about 913°. If the alloy is maintained at

shown in the following table : some temperature between these points a network of a silverpoor body is gradually formed surrounding crystals of a


S silver-rich body. If the alloy is subjected for some hours Atomic weight ... 31 32 355 40 to a temperature a little below 913', large crystals with Refractivity 299 X4 275 X4 192 X4 141 X 4 regular boundaries are formed occupying the whole area of

The series Ne, O, N, show the same relation, and it is the field. These alloys are remarkably ductile. The alloy corresponding to the formula Ag Cd is fine

probable that the refractivity of C is even higher than that

of N. grained and apparently homogeneous. If heated for some

The refractivity of B, estimated from BCI, and BBry, is time to a temperature of 750°, somewhat below its point of solidification, the cadmium from the surface is volatilised,

certainly very great; but whether it exceeds that of C

there is not sufficient evidence to determine. leaving a layer of pure silver. On removing this during the operation of polishing a black layer is met with, coloured December 1.-“ On the Structure and Affinities of Fossii by oxide of cadmium, and underneath this the original alloy Plants from the Palæozoic Rocks.-V. On a New Type of is found to exist. The layers are not everywhere of the Sphenophyllaceous Cone (Sphenophyllum fertile) from the same thickness, so that in the course of polishing alternate Lower Coal-measures." By Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. rings of black and white are produced, resembling the well The class Sphenophyllales, of which the fossil described known Japanese decorative metal-work called Mokumé, is a new representative, shows on the one hand clear which is used in jewellery.

affinities with the Equisetales, while on the other it The alloy containing about 50 per cent. of silver consists approaches the Lycopods ; some botanists have endeavoured of crystals of a silver-rich body, often pinkish in colour, set

to trace a relation to the ferns. The nearest allies among in a white matrix composed of AgCd. The 40 per cent. recent plants are probably the Psilotaceæ, which some alloy is a hard, brittle substance, the compound Ag,Cd,. writers have even proposed to include in the Sphenophyllales. As the percentage of silver decreases, a matrix, consisting The new strobilus appears to find its natural place in the mainly of AgCd, makes its appearance surrounding the type-genus Sphenophyllum, as at present constituted, but crystals of Ag,Cd,, and specimens containing less than it possesses peculiar features of considerable importance, 25 per cent. of silver consist of crystals of AgCd, set in a which may probably ultimately justify generic separation. matrix of cadmium.

The specimen, of which a number of transverse and longSeveral similarities to the silver-zinc series of alloys have tudinal sections have been prepared by Mr. Lomax, is from been noted.

one of the calcareous nodules of the Lower Coal-measures


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of Lancashire, and was found at Shore Littleborough, a different lengths, and then the joining of the extremities locality rich in petrified remains, now being opened up by of each cross gives rise to two squares, of which the one the enterprise of the owner, Mr. W. H. Sutcliffe.

is inscribed in the other. The tendency to produce the The close affinity of the strobilus with Sphenophyllum is number five double as double five, an eight petalled rosette, shown by the anatomy of the axis, which has the solid a double cross, or a double square seems to be due to the triarch wood characteristic of that genus, and by the fact that fact that the protective gesture is sometimes performed the whorled sporophylls are divided into dorsal and ventral both with the right and left hand. By doubling each petal lobes, as in all other known fructifications of this class. in the eight-petalled rosette, the sixteen-petalled rosette has But whereas, in all the forms hitherto described, the lower been produced. The image of an eye or a pair of eyes is or dorsal lobes are sterile, forming a system of protective also used to throw back the baneful energy emanating from bracts, while the ventral lobes alone bear the sporangia; an evil eye. The eye is sometimes represented as round, in the new cone, dorsal and ventral lobes are alike fertile, sometimes as a triangle (the two intersecting triangles and no sterile bracts are differentiated. On this ground seem to represent a pair of eyes), sometimes with a triangular the name Sphenophyllum fertile is proposed for the new eyebrow. A row of triangular eyes and eyebrows, or of species.

eyebrows alone, is a common design on carpets. Each lobe of the sporophyll divided palmately into several segments, the sporangiophores, each of which consisted of

Geological Society, November 23.–Dr. J. E. Marr, a slender pedicel, terminating in a large peltate lamina,

F.R.S., president, in the chair. -On ossiferous on which two pendulous sporangia were borne. In the

cavern of Pleistocene age at Hoe-Grange Quarry, Longbi-sporangite character of the sporangiophores, and in other

cliffe, near Brassington (Derbyshire) : H. H. Arnold. details of structure, Sphenophyllum fertile approaches the

Bemrose and E. T. Newton, F.R.S. The quarry is Bowmanites Römeri of Count Solms-Laubach, while in the situated near the top of the plateau, at about 1100 feet form and segmentation of the sporophylls there is a con

above Ordnance-datum. The cave is evidently a mastersiderable resemblance to the Lower Carboniferous genus

joint in the limestone, enlarged by water, and, besides being Cheirostrobus.

a swallow-hole, has served as a hyæna-den. The large The wall of the sporangium has a rather complex struc

number of mammalian remains found includes lion, hyæna, ture, the most interesting feature in which is the well

rhinoceros, Elephas, and other Pleistocene forms; but, bedefined small-celled stomium, marking the line of longi- sides these, there were numerous bones and teeth of fallowtudinal dehiscence.

deer, mixed with the Pleistocene remains at all horizons in The spores, so far as observed, are all of one kind; they

the cave. The physical conditions are such as to preclude, are ellipsoidal in form, with longitudinal crests or ridges ;

as the authors think, any idea of a re-deposition of the bones their dimensions are 90-96u in length by 65-704 in width.

at any date subsequent to the Pleistocene period; and it is The most characteristic point in the structure of the new

concluded, therefore, that the fallow-deer (Cervus dama) cone-the fertility of both dorsal and ventral lobes of the was a Pleistocene species, although hitherto supposed to be sporophyll-is regarded as more probably due to special

a much later introduction.—The superficial deposits and premodification than to the retention of a primitive condition.

Glacial valleys of the Northumberland and Durham Coal** On the Presence of Tyrosinases in the Skins of some

field: D. Woolacott. Six volumes, published by the

North-of-England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Pigmented Vertebrates.- Preliminary Note." By Florence

Engineers, contain a large number of borings made in the M. Durham.

northern coalfield. A considerable proportion of these are An extract can be made from the skins of certain pig

most valuable in showing the nature and distribution of the mented animals (rabbits, rats, guinea-pigs and chickens)

superficial deposits. From them and from field-mapping it which will act upon tyrosin and produce a pigmented sub

is possible to form a fairly accurate conception of the prestance. This action suggests the presence of a tyrosinase Glacial floor of the district and its drainage, and also of the in the skins of these animals.

relative changes of level before, during, and after the Glacial The action of the tyrosinase is destroyed by boiling, does

period. not take place in the cold, is delayed by time, requires a temperature of about 37° C., and also the presence of an

Zoological Society, November 29.-Mr. G. A. Boulenger, activating substance such as ferrous sulphate to start it.

F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair.-Observations on the The coloured substances produced are in accordance with

field natural history of the lion made during seventeen years the colour of the animals used. Black substances are

of travel and residence in Central Africa : Captain Richard obtained, when animals with black pigment in their skins

Crawshay.Some nudibranchs from East Africa and are used, and yellow substance, when the skin contains the

Zanzibar, part vi. : Sir Charles Eliot. The paper contained orange pigment. The coloured substances are soluble in

an account of thirty species and varieties, of which eight of alkalis, but insoluble in acids.

the former and one of the latter were described as new.

--Some photographs of giraffes and a zebra taken from Anthropological Institute, November 22.—Mr. H. Balfour, pictures in the art collection at Windsor Castle, and an old president, in the chair.-Dr. Ed. Westermarck read a print of a zebra dated 1762 : R. Lydekker. Mr. Lydekker paper on the magic origin of Moorish designs. The designs was of opinion that the picture and print of the zebra had are largely derived from charms against the evil eye. A Moor been taken from the same animal.—Two specimens of protects himself against the evil eye of another person by lorises, one a slow loris (Nycticebus) and the other a slender stretching out the five fingers of his right hand, saying, loris (Loris), recently acquired by the British Museum : R. ** five in your eye.” The object of this gesture is to throw Lydekker. The latter specimen was pointed out to be back the evil power, l-bas, which has emanated from the sufficiently different from the typical L. gracilis to be other person's eye. The number five by itself has thus come entitled to subspecific rank.-The morphology and classifito be regarded as a charm against the evil look. This was cation of the Asellota group of crustaceans, with descripllustrated by a number of lantern slides, showing charms, tions of the genus Stenetrium and its species : Dr. H. J. and designs grown out of charms. Silver amulets contain- Hansen.-The lizard Lacerta de pressa of Camerano and ing a double five grouped in the form of a cross, with a its varieties : G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S.-A small collection piece of blue glass as a common centre, are in frequent use. of fresh-water Entomostraca from South Africa : R. Magic efficacy is attributed to the cross, not only because Gurney. The collection comprised examples of five species, it represents a five, but also, as it seems, because it is three of which were described new.-The cranial regarded as a conductor for baneful energy, which is dis- osteology of the Egyptian mastigure (Uromastix spinipes) : persed by it in all the quarters of the wind. The double F. E. Beddard, F.R.S. five is often represented as an eight-petalled rosette, or a double cross, with or without a well marked centre. By

Chemical Society, December 1.-Prof. W. A. Tilden, joining the extremities of the lines which form each of the F.R.S., in the chair.—The nitrites of the alkali and alkaline **0 crosses, two intersecting squares are produced; they earth metals and their decomposition by heat : P. C. Rây. are probably intended to represent a pair of eyes. By paint | These nitrites are shown to be comparatively stable, and ing over all the lines which fall within the two intersecting their aqueous solutions can be evaporated to dryness without quares, or by hollowing the two squares, the artist pro- decomposition or oxidation taking place. When barium duces an empty octagon. The two crosses may also be of nitrite is heated it is first converted into barium oxide and


barium nitrate, the latter finally also being decomposed shown that, when the function to be represented by the into baryta.-Metallic derivatives of nitrogen iodide and series is continuous, this set has the " measure ** zero.-their bearing on its constitution : 0. Silberrad. Guyard's An extension of Borel's exponential method of summation supposed copper derivative of nitrogen iodide is shown to of divergent series applied to linear differential equations : be a cuprosamine periodide. The silver derivative de- E. Cunningham. The object of the paper is to make scribed by Szuhay is found to be a true nitrogen iodide more precise the connection between Laplace's solution of derivative of the formula NI,,NH,Ag.-Synthesis of linear differential equations in terms of definite integrals 1: 1-dimethylhexahydrobenzene : A.


Crossley and and the asymptotic expansion of the solution as the product Nora Renout.-The formation and reactions of imino- of an exponential function and a descending power series. compounds, (i.) condensation of ethyl cyanoacetate with its The latter series, with the exponential factor omitted, is sodium derivative : H. Baron, F. G. P. Remfry, and J. F. shown to be “ summable" in a sense analogous to that of Thorpe. This is a preliminary communication regarding Borel's theory; and it is proved that the fundamental the properties of compounds containing the

group properties of summable divergent series, such as differenti-C(=NH), which in some respects closely resembles the ation term by term, addition and multiplication term by =CO group in reaction.—The affinity constants of aniline term, are valid for the series in question.-On the linear and its derivatives : R. C. Farmer and F. J. Warth. differential equation of the second order : Prof. A. C. These constants are best measured in such cases by deter- Dixon. mining the distribution of the salts between two immiscible

CAMBRIDGE. solvents applied simultaneously. The following substituents Philosophical Society, November 14.-Prol, Marshall exert a decreasing electronegative action, in the order in Ward, president, in the chair,—The charge of the a rays which they are given, on the affinity constant of aniline :- from polonium : Prof. Thomson, F.R.S. A bismuth disc NO,,COOH,-N=NPh, Br, CI, Me, Ome. The attractive covered with polonium (or radio-tellurium), as supplied by force of crystals for like molecules in saturated solutions : Sthamer, was mounted on pivots in a vacuum tube. In E. Sonstadt. Crystals of a salt were placed in saturated front of the disc and about 3 cm, from it was a very care solutions of the same salt, and the amount of the latter fully insulated gold-leaf electroscope which could be charged withdrawn from the solution by the attractive force of the with either positive or negative electricity. The vacuum crystals was determined periodically.—The Grignard re- tube was exhausted by first pumping out as much air as action applied to the esters of hydroxy-acids: P. F. possible by a mercury pump, and then using Dewar's Frankland and D. F. Twiss. A substance which is prob- method of extracting the remainder of the air by dense ably aadd-tetraphenylerythritol was obtained by the action charcoal cooled by liquid air. In this way vacua were of magnesium phenyl bromide on dimethyltartrate.—Note obtained very much superior to those got by pumping alone. on the addition of hydrogen cyanide to unsaturated com- It was found that at these very low vacua the electroscope pounds : A. Lapworth. It is shown that in spite of in front of the polonium if negatively charged leaks so Knoevenagel's assertion to the contrary, there is no experi- slowly that it is hardly possible to measure the leak with mental evidence that mesityl oxide unites directly with accuracy; while if the electroscope is positively charged its hydrogen cyanide except in the presence of alkalis. The leak is very rapid, certainly more than 100 times the leak author is now engaged in the examination of a number when charged negatively. Thus the polonium gives out of products obtained by the interaction of aldehydes with large quantities of negative electricity, but not enough chloroacetates in presence of potassium cyanide.

positive to be detected; this is very remarkable, as polonium Mathematical Society, December 8.-Prof. Forsyth,

is generally supposed to give out nothing but a rays. In president, in the chair.—The following papers were com

order to see that the positive electricity had not been municated :-On a deficient multinomial expansion : Major

swamped by the negative the instrument was placed in a MacMahon. A generalisation of the binomial theorem,

strong magnetic field ; this stopped the negative corpuscles made by Abel and restated by Cayley, leads to the consider

coming out of the polonium from reaching the electroscope, ation of the series that is obtained from an ordinary multi

and it was found that now the latter no longer leaked when nomial expansion by restricting the indices of the terms

charged with positive electricity; but though the negative to obey certain Diophantine inequalities. The paper con

particles had been stopped no positive ones could be detected. tains investigations of the number of terms in such a series,

for there was no leak from the electroscope when negatively the sum of the coefficients, and a syzygetic theory of the

electrified. The author was never able to be sure of any distinct terms.The application of basic numbers

increase in the charge of a negatively electrified body placed Bessel's and Legendre's functions : Rev. F. H. Jackson.

near the polonium ; this he thinks is due to the negative The author generalises various functions that are expressed

particles from the polonium moving so slowly that they by power series by replacing n in the coefficient of x" by

are unable to make headway against the repulsion exerted P" -1)/(2-1). Two generalisations obtained of

by a negatively electrified body. The a rays of polonium Bessel's functions, one being derived from the other by in

are deflected by a magnet, hence they must be positively version of the "base" p. In the present paper the author

charged at some part, at any rate, of their course, yet no shows tha these two functions are connected by a relation

trace can be found of this charge when the rays strike containing basic exponential functions. He obtains also

against an electroscope. The question is discussed whether generalisations of a number of results which bear on the

the a particles lose their charge when they pass through relations between Legendre's functions and Bessel's func

the cloud of negative ones near the polonium, or whether tions, and he connects the theory of the generalised

they are alternately charged and discharged, the time during Legendre's functions with that of the Theta functions.-

which they are uncharged being much longer than the time On groups of order pagß: Prof. W. Burnside.

they are charged.—On the dynamical significance of Kundt's

law of selective dispersion in connection with the transprevious paper the author had proved that these groups are

mission of the energy of trains of dispersive waves : Prof. soluble. In the present paper it is shown that, subject to

Larmor, F.R.S.—The chlorination of a picoline : W. J. certain specified exceptions when the order is even, a group

Sell, F.R.S.-An attempted synthesis of uric acid : H. J. H. of the specified order in which pa>q must have a character

Fenton, F.R.S.-The diffusion of hydrogen through istic subgroup of order pa, where a is such that pa is greater palladium : O. W. Richardson. The paper is chiefly a than paq-B.—On the failure of convergence of Fourier's criticism of the conclusions drawn by Mr. G. N. St. Schmidt series : Dr. E. W. Hobson. Fourier's series formed for a (Drude's Ann., vol. xiii. p. 747) from his experiments on continuous function may not converge at a point, and then this subject. The author shows that the known facts can it does not represent the function at the point. In the be explained on the hypothesis that the hydrogen inside the paper attention is directed to a class of series which fail to metal is dissociated, in the same way as for platinum.converge, but can be made to converge to any assigned Optically active nitrogen compounds : Miss M. B. Thomas value by enclosing suitable sets of terms in brackets and and H. O. Jones. The work was undertaken in order to treating the terms in a bracket as a single term. No find out what connection exists between the constitution example has ever been found of a non-convergent Fourier's of optically active nitrogen compounds and the numerical series which cannot be included in this class. The nature value of their rotatory power. The rotation for a basic of the set of points in the periodic interval at which a ion may be determined by preparing the salt with an acid Fourier's series fails to converge is discussed, and it is of known rotatory power, and subtracting the rotation due



In a



to the acidic ion from the total rotation of the salt in variations are essentially the result of an increase in the aqueous solution. The series of substituted ammonium amount of lime, iron, and manganese, accompanied with salts under investigation contain the phenyl, benzyl, and a corresponding reduction in the amount of silica and methyl radicals with ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyl or isoamyl. alkalis.-On differential equations of a parabolic type : Vito The paper contains a brief account of the resolution of the Volterra.-Observations on the Perseids for 1904, and the isopropyl compound by means of its dextro-brom-camphor- determination of their heights above the ground : v. sulphonate.

Fournier, A. Chaudot, and G. Fournior. The observDUBLIN.

ations were carried out on the nights between August 9 Royal Dublin Society, November 15. —Dr. R. F. Scharff and 16. 274 meteors were registered, 180 of which were in the chair.-Prof. T. Johnson gave an account of a Perseids. Only 27 of these were of the first magnitude, disease of swedes which has caused considerable loss in the greater part being of the third or fourth order. With different parts of Ireland, especially in the west. The small the view of determining the heights of some of the meteors. leaves become " spotted," turn yellow, and fall off. The simultaneous observations were carried out on the night attack is due to Cercospora Bloxami, Berk. and Br., which of August 16 at Rouvray and at Morvan (Côte d'Or), two causes disease in swedes in Germany and Switzerland.

stations 10.1 kilometres apart. 32 shooting stars Associated with the Cercospora from different localities, the noted at the first station, and 52 at the second, 13 of these author found Phoma-stage, suggestive of Phoma being common to both, and of these 4 have been reduced. Brassicae, Thüm., and in one locality, associated also with The height at the first appearance varied from 107 to 283 Cercospora, Pleospora herbarum, B Brassicae (Lasch), Sacc. kilometres, at disappearance from 35 to 66 kilometres, and The swede disease shows a curious parallelism_with the the length of the trajectory from 56 to 245 kilometres. The disease of the sweet chestnut investigated by Berlese in average height for the first appearance was 168 kilometres, Italy, where Cercosporella, Phoma or Phyllosticta, and and of disappearance 53 kilometres, these figures being Sphærella stages are associated.-Prof. W. F. Barrett, greater than those obtained by M. Chrétien in 1901.-On F.R.S., read a paper on a method of protecting the hands of groups of the order pm( prime, m> 4) of which all the the operator from X-ray burns. The author stated that in divisors of the order pm-2 are Abelian : M. Potron.--The taking some radiographs of surgical cases during the first design of high-speed vessels : Vice-Admiral Fournier.-On three months of 1896 (shortly after Röntgen's discovery) telestereoscopy: Paul Helbronner. The object of the exbe noticed the extreme opacity to the X-rays of any band- periments was, whilst preserving the strong magnification ages which contained a dressing of iodoform. This led to of the telescope objective, to get the details standing out a series of experiments on the relative transparency of bodies in clear relief. The arrangement described has been used to the X-rays, and it was discovered, early in March, 1896, in geodesic work in the French Alps, and has been found that all bodies of high molecular weight, such as iodoform, very useful.-Researches on dielectric solids : V. Crémiou were opaque to these rays. If, then, the burns produced and L. Malclòs. By means of a quantitative study of the by the X-rays be due to those rays which cannot penetrate phenomena described qualitatively in a previous note, the a layer of iodoform, it is easy to construct gauntlets with diminution of electrical influence through solid dielectrics an inner lining filled with iodoform which would entirely by the production in the dielectric of a reactive charge is protect the hands of the operator. Such gloves would be clearly established.-Experiments permitting of the demonfar more flexible and far lighter than gloves with a lead stration of the n-rays : H. Bordier. With the view of relining. The author added to his paper an historical note moving objections to the purely subjective experiments on the relative transparency of bodies to the X-rays, giving which are used for the detection of the n-rays, the author a brief summary of the work done.

has applied with success a photographic method, very long MANCHESTER.

exposures being employed on account of the feeble intensity Literary and Philosophical Society, November 15.- of the light emitted.--On the composition of colloidal Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., president, in the chair.

granules : Victor Henri and André Mayer. The compo-Dr. W. E. Hoyle exhibited specimens of certain rare

sition of the colloidal granules of copper ferrocyanide studied Cephalopoda :-(1) Ancistrochirus lichtensteini from the

by J. Duclaux may be considered as a particular case of the Maldive Archipelago, the type specimen in the Paris phenomenon of adsorption. The granules may be looked Museums being the only one previously known.

upon as formed by copper ferrocyanide which has adsorbed a species of Cirroteuthis from the neighbourhood of the Cape

certain quantity of potassium ferrocyanide. It is not necesof Good Hope, beautifully preserved in formol, and exhibit

sary that compounds of indefinite chemical composition ing the gelatinous appearance and rounded stumpy form

should be assumed.—The action of methylene chloride upon of the animal in a way never seen in examples preserved in

toluene in the presence of aluminium chloride : James alcohol. (3) Section of an octopod embryo from Zanzibar

Lavaux. It is shown that the ditolylmethane and dimethylshowing a number of peculiar chitinous rods in the epithe

anthracene isolated by previous workers on this reaction lium.- Mr. F. Nicholson communicated a note on the

are mixtures. From the former the author has isolated mistaken idea that birds are seed-carriers, in which the

dimeta- and dipara-ditolylmethane, and B-methylanthracene, author stated that he had found no evidence from his own

and from the latter three isomeric dimethylanthracenes.-On observations, extending over many years, that entire seed

the retrogradation of some cyclic secondary amines : P.

Lemoult. Amines of the type R-NHR' on heating with can pass through a healthy bird. In confirmation of this view Mr. Nicholson quoted two passages from Macgillivray's

PCI, give some of the primary amine RNH,, together with ** A History of British Birds," in which the author states

R'CI. The reaction was best marked with the methyl

anilines.--On the organic combinations of metals in plants : that of many hundreds of berry-eating and seed-eating birds which he had opened there were only two which

MM. Schlagdenhauffen and Reeb.-On the synthesis showed the presence of whole seed in their intestines, and

and chemical nature of sorbierite : Gabriel Bertrand. It these two were in all probability cases of diseased action.

is shown synthetically that the sorbierite described by the -Mr. R. W. Ellison exhibited a number of birds' eggs, in

author in a previous paper is identical with the d-idíte of cluding specimens of the following :—the great black

Fischer and Fay.—The biological role of the diffusion of backed, the lesser black-backed, the herring, and black

liquids : Stéphane Leduc.-Researches on the germination

of the spores of some yeasts : A. Guilliermond.—On the headed gulls, the Sandwich and lesser terns, the ring sand plover, and the guillemot. The selection was made with

anatomical modifications which are produced in the course the view of demonstrating certain facts as to the coloration

of the evolution of certain rhizomes : André Dauphiné.of the eggs and its relation to that of their surroundings.

Biospeleology : Armand Viré. A discussion of the bearing of

the evidence of the animals found in caves on the theory of Paris.

evolution. Osmotic communication between the vital and Academy of Sciences, December 5.-M. Mascart in the exterior media in certain marine Selacian fishes : René chair.-On the general formula giving the number of Quinton.-Lernaeenicus Sprattae, a parasite of the sardine double integrals of the second species in the theory of on the coasts of Vendée : Marcel Baudouin.--The action of algebraic surfaces : Émile Picard.-On the nepheline rocks calcium permanganate on alkaloids, and in particular on of Tahiti : M. Lacroix. A detailed examination of a series strychnine : G. Baudran.—The nutritive value of cows' of rocks from Tahiti constitutes a continuous series from a milk, sterilised at 108° C., for artificial feeding : G. petrographical point of view, in which the mineralogical Variot. As the result of work carried on over a period of

(2) A

twelve years, on an average of 150 to 200 infants daily, the

DIARY OF SOCIETIES. conclusions are drawn that milk sterilised at 108° C. preserves all its nutritive value, and is in no way inferior to


Royal Society, at 4-30-On the Ultra-violet Spectrum of Gadoliniam: milk pasteurised at 80° C. or simply heated to 100° C.

Sir William Crookes. F.R.S.-An Analysis of the Results from the No appreciable decrease in the readiness with which the

Falmouth Magnetographs on "Quict" Days during the Twelve Tears milk was assimilated could be noticed, and not a single 1891. to 1902 : Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S. --The Halogen Hydride as con

ducting Solvents. The percentage of

Part iii. case of infantile scurvy occurred.

Preliminary Note : B. D. Steele.-The

Halogen Hydrides as Conducting Solvents. Part iv, Preliminary infants incapable of utilising sterilised milk was between

Note : B. D. Steele, D. McIntosh, and E. H Archibald.-Effcts of 3 per cent. and 4 per cent.

Temperature and Pressure on the Thermal Conductivities of Solide New SOUTH WALES.

Part i. The Effect of Temperature on the Thermal Conductivinies of

some Electrical Insulators: Dr. C. H. Lees - The Basic Gamma Furcrion Royal Society, October 5.-Mr. C. O. Burge, president, and the Elliptic Functions: Rev. F. H. Jackson. RN.-On the Normal in the chair.-Ethnological notes on the aboriginal tribes Series satisfying Linear Differential Equations : E. Cunningbam of New South Wales and Victoria : R. H. Mathews.


Searle's Paper, Studies in Magnetic Testing; Followed by The Combina Preliminary observations on radio-activity and the occur

tion of Dust Destructors and Electricity Works, Economically Can. rence of radium in Australian minerals : D. Mawson and sidered : W. P. Adams. T. H. Laby. A brief summary of observations on the LINNEAN Society, at 8.-The Ecology of Woodland Plants: Dr.

T. W. Woodhead.-Experimental Studies on Heredity in Rabbits: radio-activity of minerals and occurrence of radium is given,

C. C. Hurst. showing that comparatively intense activity is only found

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 16. associated in minerals with thorium and uranium. A INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Heat Treatment Extorbernite and euxenite were found highly active, but the

periments with Chrome-Vanadium Steel : Capt. H. Riall Sankey and

J. Kent-Smith. -Messrs. Seaton and Jude's Paper on Impact Tests on specimens were too small to examine for radium. A

the Wrought Steels of Commerce will be discussed. Western Australian gadolinite, found by Prof. Norman INSTITUTION OF Civil Engineers, at 8.-- Folkestone Harbour : CylinderCollie to contain one bubble of helium in ten grams, was

Sinking at the Root of the Old Pier : R. H. Lee Pennell. expected to contain radium, but none could be detected.


SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8. - Musical Wind Instruments, Flutes : D. J. Blaikley, Twelve monazites were found radio-active; one, with INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES, .ac 5.- On the Retrospective Method of double the average activity of the others, from Pilbarra, Valuation : Frederick Bell, Western Australia, gave on heating the radium emanation; FARADAY SOCIETY, at 8.-The Electric Furnace; its Origin, Transfive monazite and zircon sands were also active. No re

formation, and Applications. Part ii.; A. Minet.-Electrolyric Analysis

of Cobalt and Nickel: F. Mollwo Perkin and W. C. Prebble.-(1) The lation between thoria contents and activity was found, which Electrolyric Preparation of Tin Paste. (2) Note on the Electrolytic points to the presence of uranium.—The flood deposits of Recovery of Tin : F. Gelstharp. the Hunter and Hawkesbury Rivers : Prof. F. B. Guthrie

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 20. and Prof. T. W. Edgeworth David.


INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-- Discussion on the Construction CAPE Town.

of a Concrete Railway-Viaduct: A. Wood-Hill and E. D. Pain. South African Philosophical Society, September 28. —

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 21. Dr. J. D. F. Gilchrist, president, in the chair.—A new

GEOLOGICAL Society, at 8.-Certain Genera and Species of Lytoceratida: South African cypress, Callitris schwarcii, Marl. : Dr. R.

S. S. Buckman.-(1) The Leicester Earthquakes of August 4, 1891, and

June 21, 1904. (2) The Derby Earthquakes of July 3, 1904. (3) Twin Marloth. The two species of cypress hitherto known from

Earthquakes: Dr. C. Davison. South Africa belong to the genus Widdringtonia, which, ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY, at 8.- The Theory of Highly Magnified however, is now mostly merged into the genus Callitris. Images : J. W. Gordon, Until recently only one other species of Widdringtonia was

Royal METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 7.30.- Discussion of Mr. F I

Brodie's paper, Decrease of Fog in London during Recent Years known, viz. W. Commersoni from Madagascar, but lately Followed by The Study of the Minor Fluctuations of Atmospheric a fourth species has been found by Whyte on the Shire Pressure : Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.RS., and W. H. Dines. Highlands, called by Sir H. H. Johnston the Malanje cedar. The South African species are C. juniperoides, the so-called Cape cedar, and C. cupressoides, the sapreehout. The


PAGE former is a tree from 30 to 40 feet high, and occurs only on the Cedar Mountains, while the latter is only 10 to 12

Human Anatomy. By Dr. A. Keith . feet or rarely 15 feet high, but is common on all the moun


147 tains of the south-western districts. When recently the

Technical Mechanics. By Prof. George M. Minchin, author heard that some Sapree trees in the Baviaans


148 kloof Mountains were 50 to 60 feet high, he suspected at once

Our Book Shelf :that this must be a different species, and an examination of

Hill: “Machine Drawing"

149 some ripe cones proved that this tree is quite distinct from

Cockin : “ An Elementary Class-book of Practical the common C. cupressoides.—The Glacial conglomerate in


150 the Table Mountain series near Clanwilliam : A. W.

Cecil : “ Bird Notes from the Nile."-R. L.

150 Rogers. This communication is an extension of one read

Letters to the Editor :-before the society in 1901. The conglomerate with glaciated

Education and National Efficiency in Japan.--Dr. pebbles has now been traced through a distance of about

Henry Dyer

130 23 miles near Clanwilliam.-South African Verbenacea,

The Ileating Effect of the y Rays from Radium. supplementary note : H. H. W. Pearson.-Further note Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S., and Prof. H. T. on factorisable continuants : Thos. Muir.-South African Barnès.

151 Hymenoptera : P. Cameron.-On the structure of the endo- Singularities of Curves. –T. B. S.

152 thiodont' reptiles : R. Broom.

A Christmas Bird-book. (Illustrated.) By R. L. 152 October 26.—Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S., vice-presi- The Present Condition of the Sea-Fishing Industry. dent, in the chair.—The rocks of Tristan d'Acunha, brought


153 back by H.M.S. Odin, Commander Pearce, R.N., and their

The Eleventh Eros Circular. "By Prof. H. H. Turner, bearing on the question of the permanence of ocean basins :


154 E. H. L. Schwarz. Through the courtesy of Commander Notes

155 Pearce, of H.M.S. Odin, a number of specimens were

Our Astronomical Column :recently obtained for the South African Museum from the

Relations between Solar and Terrestrial Phenomena

158 island group of Tristan d'Acunha. The islands are de- Sun-spot Spectra scribed in the Challenger reports, and from the accounts Eclipse Observations

159 published in them it is evident that while Inaccessible Island The Appearance of Spark Lines in Arc Spectra 159 and Tristan d'Acunha itself are ordinary volcanic islands, The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada Nightingale Island is a gigantic agglomerate neck like The First True Maps. By C. Raymond Beazley 199 those that the author has described from Griqualand East, Geological Notes .

161 on the flanks of the Drakensberg Mountains. Two rocks

Scientific Research in the Philippine Islands. By of a type unusual to volcanic islands were brought back by

Prof. R. T. Hewlett

162 the expedition ; one was a white mica and biotite gneiss University and Educational Intelligence

162 from Tristan d'Acunha, the other a lava containing foreign

Societies and Academies

164 fragments from Nightingale Island.

Diary of Societies





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