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times to spawn in the same nest; he leads the young black larvæ forth, re-unites the school when it loses
scent, and guards them until they begin to assume A ZOOLOGICAL TRIBUTE.
orange and green hues; he is a model of paternal care. Mark Anniversary Volume. To Edward Laurens
Charles A. Kofoid describes an interesting Opalinid, Mark, Hersey Professor of Anatomy and Director Protophrya ovicola, the least specialised member of the of the Zoological Laboratory at Harvard University, family, which he found in the brood-sac of Littorina in Celebration of Twenty-five Years of Successful rudis. An interesting item is the presence of a microWork for the Advancement of Zoology, from his nucleus, which has only been observed in one other former Students, 1877-1902. Pp. xix+513; 36 plates Opalinid, Anoplophrya branchiarum. It is obvious and portrait. (New York : Holt and Co., 1903.)
that the question of the micronucleus in Opalinids THIS "HIS stately volume is a tribute to a notable should be looked into, and that this new genus should
personality in the history of American zoology. be searched for in other localities. The next memoir It has been inspired by the affection and loyalty of about brings us back to 'new-fangled " methods, for one hundred and fifty of his former students, twenty- C. B. Davenport compares a lot of Pectens from six of whom contribute the memoirs which fill its 500 Tampa, Florida (Pecten gibbus, var. dislocatus), with quarto pages. To their esteemed master, these another lot from San Diego, California (Pecten students—now themselves in many cases well known ventricosus). These are closely analogous species, teachers and investigators—express their gratitude for and if environmental facts are similar, the variability his rigorous discipline in methods of work, for his should be the same. But in all the proportions critical skill, and for his stimulating sympathy. They measured, the San Diego Pectens show themselves recall with pride the service that was done to science from 50 per cent. to 100 per cent. more variable than by the publication of Mark's work on the maturation, those of Tampa. The San Diego forms represent a fecundation, and segmentation of the egg of Limax- plastic race in a varied present environment. It seems "a work that introduced into America the then new to us that the concepts of variability and modifiability cytological methods in the application of which this must be analysed out before such statistics as those country has since reached an elevated position. It offered in this memoir can be of much value in ætiolikewise introduced into zoology a proper fulness and accuracy of citation and a convenient and uniform logical discussion. Observed differences have to be remethod of referring from text to bibliography. It
corded, but it is only when demonstrable modificamarked a step forward, also, in thoroughness and de
tional differences are subtracted from the observed tail, and in the full recognition that, even in zoology, differences that we can draw secure conclusions as to as in physics and chemistry, method is hardly less variability in the strict sense. Gertrude Crotty Davenimportant than matter."
port discusses the longitudinal division and fragmenThe tribute of twenty-five memoirs is one to make tation of the sea-anemone Sagartia luciae, and shows a teacher proud, especially as they exhibit many of the that numerous intermediate forms may occur while the features which have distinguished his own work. individuals are always tending by means of regenera
Seitaro Goto leads off with a description of a new tion in the direction of twelve stripes and forty-eight Craspedote medusa-Olindioides formosa, n.g. et sp., mesenteries. Again, we must emphasise the desirfrom Misaki, like Haeckel's Olindias in some ways, ability of distinguishing between modificational and yet strikingly different, e.g. in having six radial canals variational divergences from the norm of the species. instead of four. Along with Gonionema and Hali- Frank W. Bancroft describes an interesting seasonal calyx, Olindiopsis and Olindias represent the sub- modification of the compound Ascidian Botrylloides family Olindiadæ, which must rest meanwhile under gascoi; the colony died down and the zooids dethe Eucopidæ among the Leptomedusæ. H. S. Pratt generated, but with the assistance of a "yellow lobe describes four new Distomes-a new genus (Ostiolum) containing no zooids recuperation was effected. Carl from the frog, related to Hæmatotechus of Looss, and H. Eigenmann discusses another mode of degenera three new species of Renifer (=Styphlodera) from the ation in telling the whole history of the eyes of the mouth and air passages of common North American blind Amblyopsid fishes. The foundations of the eye snakes. W. A. Locy takes us into a different domain in the embryos, which develop in the gill-cavity of the in elaborating his discovery (1899) of a “new nerve” | adult, are normally laid, but the stages beyond the in Selachians, which arises on the dorsal summit of foundations are cænogenetic or direct; in fact, there is the fore-brain, before and apart from all other olfactory a developmental degeneration corresponding to the radices, and runs to the olfactory epithelium. A similar degeneration of the eye in the adult. Somewhat surnerve has been recorded in Protopterus by Pinkus, and prising is H. P. Johnston's account of three freshin Amia by Allis; elsewhere it has remained un- water Nereids-Nereis limnicola, n.sp., Lycastis detected. Jacob Reighard takes us into the open air hawaiiensis, n.sp., and Lycastroides alticola, n.g. et in his fascinating and most instructively careful study sp.—from indubitably fresh-water habitats. The author of the breeding habits of Amia calva. The sexes differ discusses the conditions which will admit of marine obviously in colour, but spawning is usually at night; forms becoming denizens of fresh water, and gives a there are about three times as many males as females useful synopsis of recorded cases of fresh-water Polyon the spawning ground; the male builds the nest, chæta. Then follows an interesting study in ethology, guards and defends it; he excites the female by biting H. R. Linville's account of the tube-formation in and rubbing; he may induce two females at different | Amphitrite ornata and Diopatra cuprea, the particular point of which is the minute adaptations of structure Mendelian principles. P. E. Sargent discusses the to function, an illustration of a kind of research which structure and functions, development and phylogeny is always welcome and valuable.
of that archaic portion of the mesencephalic roof known W. E. Ritter discusses the structure and affinities as the torus longitudinalis which is characteristic of of a new type of Ascidian from the Californian coast, Teleosts. T. G. Lee attacks a not less difficult problem which he calls Herdmania after a well known ---the implantation of the ovum in the gopher, which ascidiologist. The colony is composed of crowded but he finds to be quite unique as regards the nature and entirely free zooids arising by budding from short, history of the pre-placental " fixation-mass” formed much branched, closely interwoven stolons. The zooid by the trophoblast
. J. H. Gerould makes a comparison is long and narrow, with three regions—thoracic
, of the early stages of Sipunculus and Phascolosoma, digestive, and cardiogenital. It is quite unique in and seeks to show that the “ serosa " of the former rehaving two epicardiac tubes, separate throughout their presents the remains of a degenerating prototroch equilength; the oviduct serves as a uterus in which the valent to that of the latter, which is in turn homoembryos go through their development to nearly the logous with the primitive condition seen in mesotrochal period of metamorphosis; there is a peculiar grouping Annelids. of the numerous branchial tentacles. It seems to be G. H. Parker takes us once more into the open air a divergent offshoot from the Polyclinid branch. in his study of the positive and negative phototropism R. M. Strong brings us back to a familiar subject and of the mourning-cloak butterfly (l'anessa antiopa). It an old problem; he analyses the iridescence or metallic is interesting that the negative phototropism is only coloration of the dorsal surfaces of the distal portions seen in intense sunlight and after the butterfly has of the feathers from the sides of the neck of grey established a certain state of metabolism by flying domestic pigeons. The coloration is not due to diffrac- about for a while, and that the position assumed in tion, and Gadow's refraction-prism hypothesis will not negative phototropism exposes the colour patterns of work. The colours are probably thin-plate interference the wings to fullest illumination, and has probably colours or Newton's rings, effects which are produced something to do with bringing the sexes together where spherical pigment granules come in contact with during the breeding season. Ida H. Hyde presents the outer transparent layer. C. R. Eastman takes
a new interpretation of the structure of the eye of us back to Palæozoic sharks, showing that the much- Pecten, supplementing and correcting previous dedebated Edestus fossils are genuine teeth, and represcriptions. The long series of memoirs ends with one sent a stage in an interesting evolution series from by H. B. Ward on the larvæ of Dermatobia hominis Campodus to Helicoprion. We can hardly do more -an Oestrid or bot-fly, widely distributed in America, than refer to H. V. Neal's careful study of the de- though not in the States, which occurs commonly in velopment of the ventral spinal nerves in Selachians, the skin of cattle, pigs, and dogs, and less frequently but we may note that while the neuraxones of these in some other creatures, including-unfortunately, nerves develop like those of Amniota as processes of neuroblast cells, there is a migration of medullary cells We cannot conclude our rapid review of this huge in early stages of development, which, though they volume without directing attention to the great range take no part in the formation of the neuraxones or
of zoological territory which the memoirs cover, to the ganglia of the ventral nerves, participate in the form- high standard of workmanship which they exhibit, and ation of the nerve-sheaths, which have usually been
to the unanimity with which the various authors regarded as of mesenchymatous origin.
recognise their indebtedness to their master, Edward H. S. Jennings elaborates his interesting thesis Laurens Mark.
J. A. T. that the asymmetry of most flagellate and ciliate Infusorians, as also of the Rattulid Rotifera, is correlated with the habit of swimming in spirals. The
SYNTHESIS OF VITAL PRODUCTS. spiral course is the simplest device for permitting an The Chemical Synthesis of l'ital Products, and the unequally balanced organism to progress in a given
Inter-relations between Organic Compounds. By direction through the free water, and the method of Prof. Raphael Meldola, F.R.S. Vol. i. Hydroreaction to most stimuli is closely correlated with the carbons, Alcohols and Phenols, Aldehydes, Ketones,
Carbohydrates and unsymmetrical or spiral type of structure. Rolfe
Glucosides, Sulphur and Yorke contributes a study of the nerve cells of the cock- Cyanogen Compounds, Camphor and Terpenes, roach and of the substance within these that seems to Colouring-matters of the Flavone Group. Pp.
xvi +338. correspond to the chromophilous material in the nerve
(London : E. Arnold, 1904.) cells of higher animals. R. M. Yerkes shows by elaborate experiments that Daphnia pulex is strongly In spite of the long and daily increasing list of positively phototactic to all intensities from o to 100 successful chemical syntheses of substances which candle-power, and is negatively thermotactic at are primarily produced as the result of processes temperature of about 28° C.
occurring in living organisms, one constantly hears In a very interesting paper on Mendel's law and the from physiologists the complaint that the synthetic heredity of albinism, W. E. Castle and G. M. Allen work of chemists, wonderful as it may be in itself, show that complete albinism, without a recorded ex- throws no light on the biochemical problem of how ception, behaves as a recessive character in inherit the same substances are generated in the bodies of ance, and that the facts are in general accord with plants or animals. The points of view of the organic
chemist and the physiologist are entirely distinct. The generally recognised as vital products do not occur chemist, in studying a biochemical product, starts by as such in the living organism, but are produced by dissecting it into a number of known atomic groups, hydrolytic fission, sometimes during the process of and when this analytic work is complete, he seeks isolating them : thus alizarin from the glucoside to confirm his conclusions as to the constitution of the ruberythric acid. The justification for registering substance by piecing these atomic groups together these as vital products lies in the fact that their atomic again, so as to reproduce the substance synthetically. complexes are pre-existent in the glucosides and In accomplishing the latter part of his task, the similar compounds from which they are obtained. question of imitating biochemical conditions never The details of these classifications are worked out even occurs to him, inasmuch as for his purpose the by the author with very great skill and with exhaussimplest and most efficient laboratory processes are tive knowledge of the subject. References are everythe best; and when he has solved the problem from where given, no fewer than forty-five periodicals, not his point of view he is satisfied. That alizarin and to mention the patent literature, being quoted from. indigo can not only be synthesised, but that they Among the syntheses enumerated we have not succan be synthesised so cheaply that the natural products ceeded in detecting any omissions. The author does cannot compete with them in the market, is doubtless not claim to have sifted critically the enormous mass a triumph both for the chemist and for the techno- of experimental records which he has brought tologist; but so long as each step of these syntheses is gether; he leaves to the investigators themselves the eflected either by means of such chemical agents or responsibility for their statements. His object is to under such conditions of temperature as would be bring practical workers, whether chemists, physifatal to life in any form, it is evident that the results ologists, or technologists, into communication with are devoid of any biochemical bearing, and that the the various authorities quoted." physiologist is justified in disregarding them. Mean- The author admits that we are at present profoundly while, therefore, so far as the important subject of ignorant of the modes of synthetic action which go the synthesis of vital products is concerned, there is on within the living organism, and he points to the no helpful interaction between chemistry and physi- necessity for a more systematic study of the chemical ology. Each goes its own way.
stages in which such action occurs—a branch of inIt is with the object of endeavouring to remove this vestigation for which plant life offers especial facilities. reproach from these sciences and of bringing about a He points to Charabot's researches on the developbetter understanding between them that Prof. Meldola ment of the terpene alcohols and ketones as examples has written the present work, of which the first volume of the pioneering work required. He is firm in his is now before us. The work is, as the author states, belief that such work will not only increase our "a record of the synthetical achievements of gener- knowledge of biochemistry, but will place us in a ations of workers arranged with a distinct biochemical position to imitate the conditions of biochemical bias." In fact, the title of one of the introductory synthesis. He writes :chapters, “Organic Chemistry from the Bio-centric
“If, some decades hence, a work on similar lines to Standpoint,” might have served as a subtitle for the the present should ever be compiled, it may be entire work.
anticipated with confidence that the laboratory methods This biocentric standpoint has, as the author indi for synthesising vital products will have approximated cates, necessitated an arrangement of the subject
more closely to the physiological processes (p. 9). matter differing materially from that usually followed This confidence in the future powers of the chemist in works on organic chemistry. In these the deriva- is closely connected with the author's attitude towards tives are arranged under the parent compound, or
Neovitalism. He says : chemical type, from which in many cases they can be “I think advisable to place on record the opinion produced by processes of laboratory synthesis. But, that the present achievements in the domain of
chemical synthesis furnish no warrant for the belief ** According to the present scheme each vital product that the chemical processes of the living organism is in itself a biochemical type quite independently of
are in any sense transcendental, or that they must be the chemical type to which it may be referred, and regarded as belonging to a class of special material the synthesis of each product, instead of being men- transformations which human science will never be tioned incidentally in connexion with the group to
able to reproduce. Such an admission as the latter which it belongs as a point of minor interest, is here
would be tantamount to a proclamation of Neobrought into the first rank of importance. In other
vitalism. . :. There is no warrant for the belief words, the chemical type is in this work subordinated to
that the physics or chemistry of animals and plants is the individual compound-a mode of treatment for
ultra-scientific ” (Preface, p. vi). which every justification will be conceded when it is pointed out that in vital syntheses there are unquestion- To the present reviewer the terms transcendental able genetic relationships between compounds of quite and “ ultra-scientific " seem to beg the question. It different types ” (p. 12).
is surely a matter for legitimate and entirely “ scien. Another necessity arising from the biocentric stand- tific” inquiry, whether our present laws of chemistry point has been the recognition of down-grade and physics, which have been deduced solely from the synthesis ” as well as of " up-grade synthesis "-of the study of dead matter, apply without qualification to synthetic products obtained from complex generators living matter. Possibly, when the conditions of the by fission as well as of those obtained from simpler biochemical problem are more thoroughly understood, generators by union. Thus a number of substances it may be, contrary to Prof. Meldola's belief, just as