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easy to show that we can never, in our beakers and considers the various products of radio-active change. retorts, imitate the biochemical conditions of vital | We are thus led to a probable view of the mode of synthesis as it is for a mathematician to prove the origin of the chemical elements, in the evolution of transcendence of 7.

which the inert gases seem to form the final stage. This view, like its opposite, is, however, in the The last chapter forms a very lucid account of the present state of our knowledge, rather a matter of electrical theory of mass and the various views of

atomic structure based thereon. opinion than of proof.

In conclusion we congratulate the author on having Unfortunately there is one serious blot on the produced a most useful work—a work of almost ultra- general excellence of the book, and that is the treatGerman thoroughness—and one which will be an ment of absorption in chapter iv. Almost at the outimmense boon to all interested in the subject with set (p. 87), the author contradicts himself owing to which it deals.

the word “greater " having crept in where he doubtless intended to say “less." This uncorrected error is not likely to cause much trouble to those who are

familiar with the subject, but we imagine the beginner IONISATION AND ABSORPTION.

will be greatly perplexed by trying to reconcile this

statement with what follows. The Becquerel Rays and the Properties of Radium.

By the Hon. R. J. Strutt. Pp. vii + 214. (London : Apart from this, it seems a great pity that so much Edward Arnold, 1904.) Price 8s. 6d. net.

stress should be laid on Madame Curie's experiments

on the absorption of the a-rays from polonium, as it NUMBER of books dealing with radio-activity is doubtful what conclusion can be drawn from them A

and the kindred phenomena have already appeared; and it is a bold thing on the part of an except that practically all the rays are stopped by

about four centimetres of air. In the experiments reauthor to place another before the public. However, ferred to a quantity of polonium was placed at a with the exception of Prof. Rutherford's inimitable variable distance below two parallel plates three centitreatise on the subject, none of the previous works

metres apart. A hole in the lower plate covered by have been characterised by any striking individuality, wire gauze allowed the a-says from the polonium to so that there is, or rather was, still room for a

penetrate the region between the two plates, and the vigorous statement of the general features of the sub- ionisation it produced there was taken to measure its ject from a popular point of view. This the author of

intensity.” Madame Curie then investigated the the present work has accomplished in a manner that diminution in the ionisation produced by placing a leaves little room for criticism. He possesses to a

sheet of aluminium foil 0.001 cm. thick (equivalent to remarkable degree the faculty of stating difficult ques

2 cm. of air) over the lower plate, when the polonium tions in a simple way, and of expressing the answers

was at different distances below it. When the polo in a language which is easily understood.

nium was 0.5 cm. away the aluminium cut down the In a book of this kind there is usually a good deal radiation to one-quarter its previous value, whilst of treatment which appears somewhat slipshod when

when the distance was 1.9 cm. the ionisation was regarded from a strictly scientific standpoint; but such reduced to one-twentieth. This shows clearly, as a charge cannot with justice be maintained against Madame Curie pointed out, that ine a-says which the present volume. Naturally some of the most in- have passed through a certain thickness of matter are tricate points, such as the effect of a magnet on a

less penetrating than those which have not. The ques. moving electric charge, have to be treated analogically tion, however, which is of most interest in the present to make them represent anything real to a mind in- state of the subject is how the ionisation per centiexpert in dealing with this class of phenomena; but

metre of path varies with the amount of matter prehere the author has not only been fortunate in choosing viously passed through. These experiments furnish familiar instances, but those chosen have been true

no very certain answer to this question, since when analogies, and accurately represent the physical the aluminium foil is inserted the whole of the radiafeatures of the case.

The whole treatment is char- tion is absorbed long before it reaches the upper plate, acterised by vigour and interest, and is such as we so that the different experiments are not strictly comshould have every reason to expect from the pen of parable. The whole question of absorption is very so well-known an investigator in this branch of intricate, and it is undesirable to dwell further upon physical science as the author.

it here. There is still plenty of room for experimental It is scarcely necessary to analyse in detail the con investigation on this subject. For instance, Towntents of the book, but the whole forms a clear and send's experiments on ionisation by collision and concise presentation of the great question of the rela- Durack's that produced by the Lenard and tionship between electricity and matter, which is of Becquerel rays show that the number of ions prooverpowering interest to physicists at the present time. duced per cm. by a moving corpuscle increases with In the first chapter we are made familiar with the the velocity up to a certain point, and then decreases. various phenomena accompanying electric discharge It would be of interest to see whether, as is probably in rarefied gases, and are thus placed in a position to the case, this holds for the positively charged a-rays understand the working of what may be regarded as

as well. a miniature discharge tube, viz. a radio-active atom. The book contains three useful appendices. The After describing the various manifestations of radio first describes a number of simple experiments illusactivity and the properties of the radiations, the author | trating the essential features of radio-activity; the


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second gives the simple theory of the deflection of open mind as to the vexed question of their rival kathode rays, for the benefit of those not entirely merits. unacquainted with mathematics; while the third

Dealing with the technical examination of malt describes the chemical processes involved in the (and, indeed, also of barley and hops), we are glad to extraction of the radio-active products from pitchblende find due recognition given to expert knowledge—the residues.

student being specially commended to the teacher foi The general arrangement is good, but there appears instruction in it. For we are apt nowadays to underto be more than the usual allowance of uncorrected

rate the knowledge accumulated by the practical man errors in spelling and composition. We hope that a -what corresponds to the “ farmer's eye " is still of second edition will give the author an opportunity of immense value to the brewer. Currecting these.

Section i., part v., devoted to the chemical examinOn the whole the book may be thoroughly recom- ation of malt, is as good as any in the book. Heron's mended to the general reader as an accurate and method of determining the yield of extract is very attractive account of the latest aspect of scientific fairly criticised, and we leave the subject with a full thought on the structure of matter; whilst the appreciation of its value and difficulties. The footspecialist will find numerous passages which are note of p. 46, that “a thoroughly satisfactory malt suggestive and stimulating.

mill is yet to be introduced," should appeal to all O. W. RICHARDSON. interested in brewing.

Section ii., the principles of the mashing process,

deals with the changes which take place when malt LABORATORY EXERCISES IN BREWING.

and water are brought together at various tempera

tures and sketches the analysis of wort as far as the Laboratory Studies for Brewing Students. By A. J. carbohydrates (much the largest constituents) are conBrown, M.Sc., &c. Pp. xviii + 193.

(London :

cerned. We were sorry that, in giving the experiment Longmans, Green and Co.) Price 75. 6d. net.

showing that the influence of heat in restricting starch "HE brewing school at Birmingham is fortunate transformation is due to modification of the diastase, no

in possessing Prof. Brown as its head, and we reference is given to Kjeldahl's “ Recherches sur hail the appearance of his book as extending its les ferments producteurs de sucre(Résumé du advantages to students of brewing generally.

Compte rendu des Travaux du Laboratoire de CarlsThese Laboratory Studies describe a systematic series berg, i, 109), but this is perhaps on account of its of experiments illustrating the scientific principles being in a foreign language and so unsuitable for underlying brewing. The author is careful to point students. cut that he does not aim at dispensing with a teacher. Section iii. is devoted to fermentation, but, as there Assuming a knowledge of chemical manipulation, he are already books, chiefly by the Hansen school, deal. gives the detail necessary for the successful perform- ing with this important subject, this section is a good ance of each experiment, and draws the appropriate deal curtailed. We are, however, glad to see (even conclusion. He frequently connects the conclusions if they are in small print) experiments on the author's with others from allied experiments, and even to some important discovery that the maximum number to extent with brewing practice, but at each step more which yeast cells multiply in a nutritive solution de. and more scope is left for the teacher to discuss the pends, not on the number of cells with which the solubearing of the results on one another and on large scale tion is seeded, but on the volume of the solution, work. If the author published his own lectures we granted, of course, a sufficiency of food. should doubtless find them an exceedingly valuable Section iv., on hops, concludes the volume. We complement to the work before us.

wish an experiment had been included to show the The book is divided into four sections :-(1) barley restrictive action of hops on the acid-forming bacteria, and malting; (2) principles of the mashing process;

but such an experiment is not a very easy one for (3) fermentation ; (4) hops. These sections are further students. subdivided into parts and paragraphs, the latter corre- It will have been noticed that the book adheres to sponding to each experiment.

the usual plan of beginning with barley and ending The first section follows the changes in outward with beer. This seems inconsistent with the custom appearance from the flowering stage to the ripe barley of passing from the well known to the less well known, corn, and thence passes on to the anatomy of the corn and we should like to see tried the opposite plan of and to its conversion into malt.

starting with beer and tracing it back into its conUnder the heading dealing with the varieties, we stituents. find one of the many instances of the way in which In training men for technical work the course should the author equips his men for taking their part in the be; first, a general grounding in science; secondly, controversies of present day brewing but avoids all practical experience of the art in question; thirdly, a dogmatising on points still sub judice. The experi- study of the scientific principles involved. If this be ments are planned so that the student will know so the work before us should not only be of service all the characteristics of, e.g.,

Chevallier (we to students but also to those brewers who desire to adopt Mr. Beaven's spelling of the rev. gentleman's look into the experiments on which the principles of name) and Goldthorpe, but he is left with an their art are founded.




Kensington, and examinations of like nature. The first Morphologie und Biologie der Zelle.

By Dr.

half of the book is a very happy combination of practical Alexander Gurwitsch. Pp. xix + 437. (Jena :

work and deductive reasoning. Much scale drawing Gustav Fischer, 1904.)

is done, it is to be hoped with proper appliances in a We are told in the preface that this book is intended proper manner, and teachers and students can select for the use of beginners.

from a large number of graphical exercises appearing The author must, however,

at short intervals, many of which have been taken by have had Macaulay's omniscient schoolboy looming permission from recent examination papers. Trigono large in his imagination when he thus appraised the metrical ratios for acute angles are introduced and character of his completed work. Many of the topics formulæ established relating to triangles, a short table discussed are quite the reverse of elementary, and the of sines, cosines, and tangents being employed for general treatment adopted throughout is lacking in

numerical calculations. This section also deals with that quality of lucidity which is essential to success,

the geometry and mensuration of the simple solids, especially in a work that is written for the use of

the formulæ used being all proved. The prismoidal beginners. The fact is the author has attempted too

formulæ and suggestions for the treatment of irregumuch, and although his book may be serviceable to readers already tolerably familiar with cytology, it can,

larly shaped figures seem unfortunately to have been

overlooked. There are a few pages on the geometry we imagine, hardly hope to appeal to the class for of plane motion where the idea of a vector might have which it is stated to have been designed. The general plan of the work is somewhat novel and

been appropriately and very usefully introduced.

The second or “ theoretical " half of the book is has much to recommend it, whatever one may think mainly concerned with the formal establishment of of the manner in which Dr. Gurwitsch has actually theorems relating, amongst other matters, to the conexecuted his task. Thus, whilst a considerable de

nection between algebra and geometry (after scription of cell-structure is naturally included, it is Euclid ii.), to circles, to ratio, proportion, and similar on the physical and physiological aspects of the figures, and to solid geometry as in Euclid xi. A problems that attention is mainly concentrated. Some of the sections, in particular those dealing with description of how form and position in space are de

little modern geometry is given, but there is no metabolism, are suggestive and well worth reading, fined and exhibited by scale drawings. although one not seldom misses expected allusion to recent work. Indeed, it almost seems at times that

The authors have produced one of the best of the the author is rather needlessly attacking positions of reform rather than leading the way.

new text-books which are following closely the progress

The volume which have already ceased to possess any real import

can be heartily recommended to students who are preconsiderable number of pages are devoted to the paring for mathematical examinations under recently

revised schedules. subject of nuclear and cell division, as well as to a discussion of conflicting theoretical explanations of the Studien über die Albuminoide mit besonderer Beruckprocess of mitosis. The advanced student will here find much to interest him if he will take pains to dig

sichtigung des Spongin und der Keratine. (Studies it out. But the whole question of reduction is omitted,

on Albuminoids, with Special Reference to Spongin on the ground that the author regards it as foreign to

and the Keratins.) By Dr. Eduard Strauss. Pp. 128. the main purpose of his book. We cannot but regret

(Heidelberg : C. Winter, 1904.) Price 3.20 marks. his decision, since the processes therein concerned

This little book does not treat, as its title might lead serve to throw light on many difficulties connected

to suppose, of the albuminous substances in with an ordinary mitosis that are not otherwise easily general, but of that limited group of them to which

the term albuminoid is usually restricted by physioThe last portion of the book is given up to a dis- logists. This group includes spongin, cornein, gorcussion as to whether the cell is to be regarded as an

gonine, onuphine, conchiolin, spirographin, and silk, elementary organism or as the unit of organisation,

which are products (mainly skeletal in function) and the question is treated both from the view of the of the invertebrate world; and collagen, reticulin, Protozoa and Metazoa. The discussion is difficult to elastin, and the keratins, which are found among the follow, and the answer really depends on what mean

vertebrata. One notes in this list the absence of ing is attached to the somewhat elusive definitions chitin among the invertebrate products, the reason employed. It is, of course, obvious that the signifi- being that this material has now been shown not to be cance attaching to the unit will not always be the same,

a member of the proteid group at all. Reticulin, also, for this will have a different value for the morphologist which is mentioned, and was originally described by and the physiologist respectively.

Siegfried, does not really exist. Miss Tebb conWe confess that, whilst the book as a whole possesses clusively proved it to be an artifact from collagen, and undoubted merits, it nevertheless strikes us as the this view is accepted by Dr. Strauss. result of a premature effort. There is much evidence The first seventy pages deal with a general account of undue haste, for example in the amazing number of these substances taken one by one. The remainder of glaring typographical errors; the names of authori- of the book deals with some original work on the ties quoted, no less than ordinary words, repeatedly digestion products of spongin and the keratins. The an unfamiliar appearance.

But however proteoses so formed were separated by Pick's method, irritating this may be to the reader, it would after all and their properties differ somewhat from, though in be a trifling matter if the subject as a whole had been the main resemble, the similar products of proteolysis presented in a well digested fashion. J. B. F.

derived from other and better known sources. Among

them two gluco-albumoses are described. lodine A New Geometry for Senior Forms. By S. Barnard, occurs not only in gorgonine, the organic substratum M.A., and J. M. Child, B.A. Pp. XV+331.

in certain corals, but also in spongin. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price This contribution to science is interesting, but deals

with such a small corner of biochemistry that it will This text-book is intended primarily for the use of appeal to very few. We doubt whether it is wise to students who are reading for the Oxford and Cam-magnify its importance by making it the subject of a bridge local examinations; the London intermediate special book. The first part of the work is dealt with, examinations; mathematics, stages iji. and iv., South I though perhaps not quite so fully, in all text-books of


cleared up.


35. 6d.

physiological chemistry, and the second part might hydric phenols. on another?

There are too many quite well have formed the subject of a brief paper in slips of this kind in such a small book to enable us one of the numerous journals devoted to such subjects. to recommend it unhesitatingly to students in its pre

W. D. H. sent form. Pages from a Country Diary. By P. Somers. Pp.

Photograms of the Year 1904. By the Editors and vi + 280; illustrated. (London : Edward Arnold,

Staff of the Photogram, assisted by A. C. R. Carter. 1904.) Price 75. 60.

Pp. xlviii + 176. (London: Dawbarn and Ward,

Ltd., 1904.) Price 2s, net. This is one of those delightful books written in the In these pages we have typical photographic pictures form of a discursive diary, somewhat after the style of the year reproduced and criticised. This statement of Sir Herbert Maxwell's " Memories of the Months,” does not apply simply to British productions, but ex; which may be taken up and read during every spare tends to those made in many lands where pictorial half-hour until the reader finds with regret that he photography is practised. Robert Demachy discourses has come to the last page. Almost every kind of topic

on the pictures exhibited at the annual series of photoand pursuit connected with country life receives a graphic events in France. British Columbian progress share of attention, among them, to a brief extent, the habits and ways of birds and other animals. Among Australian Photographic Journal gives some notes of

is recorded by H. Mortimer Lamb. The editor of the stalements connected with natural history is one (on the advances made in his country, while “ A new Dethe authority of a well known taxidermist) that albino parture in American Pictorialism” is written by pheasants always have diseased liver; this, however, Savakichi Hartmann. These are followed by articles if true, can scarcely be cause and effect, since such

on the work of the year, suggestions to would be bird: have white plumage from the first, and they picture-makers by H. Snowden Ward, and " Royal and surely cannot be hatched with liver disease. Special Ring." The two great exhibitions, the Photographic interest attaches to the statement that a hen grouse Salon and the Royal, are dealt with by A. C. R. of normal colouring produced an entire brood of cream- Carter. The American Salon " and “ Western coloured chicks, since this seems to afford an instance

Workers in the United States ” conclude the volume. of how a new colour-phase might be produced by discontinuous variation. The subsequent history of the annual issue, and equals, if it does not exceed, both in

It may be mentioned that this publication is the tenth brood is not recorded-probably its members were all quality and number of illustrations, those that preceded shot. Several references are made to otters and their

it. Most of the reproductions are the work of Messrs. habits, and, although he is a thorough sportsman,

Carl Hentschel, Ltd. the author cannot refrain from uttering a word of readers who follow this special branch of photography

It seems scarcely necessary to add that those of our sympathy with these beautiful animals when sur

will find in this volume material which should prove rounded in the water by a pack of hungry otter-hounds. On the other hand he has nothing but scorn for the

of great value to them. sickly sentimentality of those who would forbid such manly sports as hare-hunting and stag-hunting, even when the deer is a so-called tame animal.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. A Scheme for the Detection of the more common

(The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions

expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake Classes of Carbon Compounds. By Frank E. to return. or to correspond with the writers of, rejected Weston, B.Sc. Pp. viii + 56. (London : Longmans, manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. Green and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 25.

No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] This little book is intended for students who are pre

Heterogenetic Fungus-germs. paring in chemistry for the final B.Sc. examination of the University of London.

The development of brown fungus cells in connection with

The author, who is Zooglæa, as described in Nature, November 24, by Dr. lecturer on chemistry at the polytechnic in Regent Bastian, 'is very familiar to me, and probably to all who Street, has elaborated the scheme now offered as the

attempt pure cultures of fungi. resull of many years' experience with his own classes. Various species of microscopic fungi belonging to the There certainly has been a dearth of “systematic genus Cladosporium are everywhere present on fading and schemes " for the detection of carbon compounds, and dead leaves. The spores, and also the vegetable portions from this point of view the book should be useful. of these fungi, constantly assume the form called Dematium Whether it will have any real educational value will pullulans by De Bary: Such forms produce exceedingly depend very much upon the manner in which it is

minute colourless conidia, which can pass through thick used. If, as in the case of the "

filter paper.

Under normal conditions these minute systematic schemes" for the detection of inorganic substances, the identific

conidia on germination form delicate hyaline hyphæ cation of organic compounds is to be reduced to a

which give origin to a Cladosporium. If cultures of these

conidia become infested with bacteria that form Zooglæa purely mechanical series of operations involving no the hyphae become invested with a comparatively thick, real scientific knowledge on the part of the student, brown cell-wall, and form either compact masses of cells the present book will do more harm than good to the or irregular hyphæ consisting of short cells, constricted at cause of education, although it may help candidates the septa, exactly as shown in Dr. Bastian's Fig. 12. In through the final B.Sc. as intended. On the other a disease of Prunus japonica, caused by a Cladosporium, hand, if used intelligently in connection with the scien- large masses of gum, just sufficiently dense to prevent tific treatment of organic chemistry, it may be made dripping, issued from the wounds. The mycelium of the of some educational use. The selection of compounds fungus spread into this gum, and produced myriads of has on the whole been judiciously made, and we have brown cells arranged in chains. no fault to find with the treatment excepting to point

The semi-liquid gum caused the same abnormal developout that certain crudities of style and inconsistencies

ment as that produced by Zooglea. A plate showing the of spelling seem to indicate either imperfect knowledge contained in the Kew Bulletin, December, 1898. As these

entire course of development of the fungus in the gum is or imperfect revision. What quantity, for example, is fungi only develop on fading leaves, it was not to be exmeani by "a pinch”? Why should the word pected that they would appear in infusions of young grass. " monohydricphenols appear on one page and “tri. Herbarium, Kew.



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Note on Radio-activity.

row that that good lady dashed upstairs and tramped out the In the course of some experiments on the chemical be- budding confiagration. haviour of the B and y rays from radium (Ramsay and

I am loth to point out that the young terrier could have Cooke, NATURE, August 11) solutions were obtained con

had no more idea of a conflagration than Juno's geese when taining a radio-active substance which could sometimes be

they cackled had of the Gallic invasion, from which by so removed from the solution by the formation in it of a

doing they are said to have saved the Roman Capitol, and suitable precipitate. Sometimes when such a solution, con

further, I am greatly afraid that on the occasion showed taining ammonium salts, and in which several pre a

not the foresight set down to his credit, but for once in his tions had already taken place, was evaporated to dryness

life-cowardice. The results, indeed, as not rarely happens on the lid of a porcelain crucible the residue was found

from that species of wisdom, were satisfactory, and the to be capable of lessening the rate of leak of the electro- appropriation of the praise on Tim's part quite after ebe scope, i.e. it behaved in the opposite way to an active manner of fully acknowledged rationals. residue, which would increase the rate of leak. This

(2) In adult life Tim used to earn his breakfast of morn“ anti-activity has been observed on several occasions,

ings by carrying my boots up to my room. Where his and seems to be a specific property of the matter examined,

astuteness and reasoning power " came in was by alwuss and not to be due to any variable condition of the electro

fetching up polished boots, though he might have three or scope ; thus the natural leak taken before is the same as

four pairs to pick and choose from. Of polished pairs ha that taken immediately after such an experiment.

would invariably seize my light ones if they were at handI have not found any mention of a similar phenomenon

a hint, the housekeeper used to insist, that he wished that in the literature on radio-activity, but should be glad to

I should “

go off with myself” and visit friends. know if like results have been noticed by other observers.

doggie stories are circling I seldom fail to An explanation of the anti-activity " would seem to be

extract this from my budget, and I am always tempted to either that the leaf of the electroscope, which was always

add little flourishes. At all events, I never feel called upon negatively charged, receives particles carrying a similar

to explain that Tim possessed no acquired taste for bog-mud. charge, which particles cause little ionisation of the air, or

and accordingly he discarded soiled shoes. Further, though that the rays exert a de-ionising power on the air, if one

Tim was by no means lazy, he set store by Helmholtz's can conceive of such an action. W. TERNENT Cooke.

great principle of the conservation of energy. He had esChemical Department, University College,

perimented and discovered for himself that there was far lesa Gower Street, W.C.

using up of brawn and muscle in bearing along and aloft

a thin than a heavy, thick-soled boot. All this by no means Blue Flints at Bournemouth.

appeared on the surface, and so his superlative judiciousness

was a source of delight to the cook, and of bewilderment to THERE is an old man living here, in Bournemouth, who

her visitors, all the year round. years ago was employed in re-laying a part of the Poole

(3) A farmer residing near me has a strong. useful Road, some little distance within the western boundary of

mongrel, Major by name. Though Major is a cur of low the borough. He says that he helped to put down a

degree, his wisdom is great and uncanny. Like every quantity of refuse from the gas-works mixed up with Alints,

other dog around here he would almost know your think&c.—for this was before the days when the Poolé Road

ing--to use the pet phrase--and certainly would understand began to be mended with granite. Now it so happened

your talking. The latter statement can be proved, and I that this very man was employed to dig up and remove the

beg to undertake the demonstration. surface of the road in preparation for the laying down of

For agriculturists in these parts fairs are the grand the tram lines, and of the wood pavement with which the

monthly carnivals. Some months ago, on the eve of one, whole road is now covered ; and he says that he helped to

our farmer said to his wife as they sat by the fireside, dig up the very stuff which years ago he had helped to put

“ Jane, I think I must chain up Major to-night and not down, and that this old road material was carted off to

have him follow us to-morrow as he did on the last the new road then in course of construction upon the common

occasion. Would you believe it," so the farmer relates and along the top of the cliff close by this part of the Poole

it, on hearing his sentence out marched Major, most Road. The Aints, he says, came out blue, and are the blue

indignant.” Next morning at an early hour, as Jane and fints now to be seen in patches upon this new road along

himself proceeded to the fair, there he was sitting on his the west sea-front.


tail on a fence looking out for them more than a mile Bournemouth.

from home! And so he was at the fun of the fair as well as

another. Intelligence of Animals.

Our farmer never conjectured there might have been As some stray remarks of mine seem to have set this in the meantime for the mongrel an attraction of his own discussion agoing, I should be glad if you would kindly in the direction of the town, though the torn ear was there allow me to supplement your correspondents' interesting to set him thinking. Qui vult decipi, decipiatur. letters by two or three further stories which have come (4) Another neighbour possesses a spotted dog which he directly under my own observation. They are intended to calls a water spaniel. Though he, no less than every other be illustrative of methods of reasoning about reason in puppy, whelp, and hound in the country, may be disanimals, particularly dogs. It will be observed that each tinguished for intelligence, he and they are certainly not story has its own distinctive shade of inaccuracy, and that noted for good looks or long pedigrees. This particular the shade grows deeper as you proceed.

thoroughbred, amongst many things, (a) can go on a message I trust, however, I shall by no means be taken as doubt. to any house he is directed to within a radius of three miles! ing the correctness of the facts sent you by your scientific (b) can catch any hare he sets his eyes upon ! and yet (c) will readers, though I admit I might plead guilty to an indict- be fifteen years old to a day if he lives until January 2 nert! ment for suspecting seriously their interpretation. In the Explanation :-His owner sometimes gives a loose rein case of one or two of them I should not be surprised if some to a splendidly vivid imagination. much more simple explanation than the one put forward 1 yield to no one both in my respect and liking for our might have been overlooked.

canine friends and in my admiration for their affection, (1) Some years ago I had a favourite Irish terrier, Tim. their highest developed quality. But I am inclined to think Tim was a brave little chap, and would not quail before their good points and “ thinking powers " are often vastly a lion. Like all of his strain, he had, I may say in pass exaggerated by friendly and carelessly observing eyes. ing, the rather human habit of grinning when amused, and Much that surprises may be of the type of one or other of would smile back at you in quite a comical fashion. This the four stories above given. Imperfect, ill-trained observ. not too common trait is, I think, noteworthy.

ation, reading into actions motives and purposes which were When a mere puppy, Tim, in one bound, leaped into the never dreamt of, setting aside the simple for the marvellous, household's good graces, and by no less meritorious an action assisted by a heavier or lighter dash of Munchausenism. than by saving us all from being burned alive. It was this would turn folly into wisdom and wisdom into folly. By way. Some newspapers thrown carelessly near the library the help of any one of these principles one is quite capable of grate caught fire ; but Tim, who was snoozing on the hearth- seeing in the most aimless action the profundity of the gods. rug, bounded up and rushed to the cook, making such a Creevelea, co. Leitrim.

Joseph MEEHAN.

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