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was coincident with a temple festival, whereat there were AMONG the interesting collection of models of Palæozoic not sufficient men left to drag the temple car in procession. seeds and cones exhibited by Mr. H. E. H. Smedley at a The headman of another town, when he came to take leave recent meeting of the Linnean Society, a few are of special of me, apologised for the scrubby appearance of his chin, interest to palæobotanists. The example selected for illusas the local barber had fled. One man, who had volunteered tration here is that of the group of three models of the fo be tested with the tintometer, was suddenly seized with sporophylls of the lycopodiaceous cone, Lepidocarpon, from fear, and, throwing his body-cloth at my feet, ran away

the Carboniferous formation. The model on the left shows and was no more seen. An elderly municipal peon wept

the general morphology of a single sporophyll, from which bitterly when undergoing the process of measurement.

will be seen the peculiar shape of the integument and Such are a few examples of the results which attend the micropyle, much resembling a hand-bag. The centre progress of the Government anthropologist,” Mr. Edgar model demonstrates the general anatomy as seen in the Thurston finds that the average cephalic index of various groups of natives in the southern (Tamil and Malayalam) districts of the Madras Presidency ranges from 72.6 to 76.5, while that in the Canarese and Maratha area ranges from 77 1 10 81 8. The significance of this brachycephalic element is not yet elucidated.

In the Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, vol. xiii., No. 8, Mr. J. A. Harris gives some details of polygamy and floral abnormalities in species of Solanum. A collection of flowers of Solanum carolinense showed about twenty staminate to eighty perfect flowers. A second paper by the same writer describes the germination of seedlings with unequal cotyledons of Pachira campestris, a genus sometimes allied with Bombax.

The formation of a botanic garden in sandhills does not perhaps suggest utility or success, but in the Gardener's Chronicle (November 19) Dr. Masters gives an account of the practical results obtained by experiments carried out in

Fig. 1.--Palæozoic cones. the garden, or, as it may be called, the experimental station established in the Belgian dunes at Coxyde. As an instance transverse section, and shows the complete lamina of the of the way in which experimental results are sometimes sporophyll, while that on the right clearly exhibits the comopposed to theoretical supposition, the writer describes the plex internal structure of the sporangium containing four successful formation of a forest of dwarf poplars in the megaspores, one of which has developed a seed-like formsandhills, and even suggests that they would act as nurses ation filling nearly the whole of the sporangium, the other to seedling pines.

three being abortive. In urging an affinity between the

lycopodiaceous cones and the gymnosperms, the author subIt is characteristic of the scattered groups of islands

mitted the following points of agreement :-Integument and which lie between the parallels of 45° and 60° south that

micropyle, the single functional megaspore in the sporin their fora they all contain a proportion of what has been

angium,' and the detachment of the seed-like organ as a termed a Fuegian element. Amongst these are the so

whole. called Southern Islands of New Zealand, of which the latest account is that given by Dr. Cockayne in the Transactions

The report of the Meteorological Council for the year of the New Zealand Institute, vol. xxxvi. The plant associ

ending March 31, 1904, shows increased activity, and is ations of the Auckland Isles include a forest formation, with somewhat more bulky than its predecessors, extending to Olearia lyallii as the dominant tree, which Dr. Cockayne

more than 200 pages; the report proper embraces only some regards as the primitive forest, and one that was previously 30 pages; the remainder is composed of appendices which more extensive, but which has been curtailed by the spread

contain details of the operations of the office. No change of a rata forest similar to the rata forests found in New , has taken place in the constitution of the council during the Zealand. This fact, and the existence of a well marked

year, nor is any clue given to the future of the office resultNew Zealand element in the Aora are points of evidence in

ing from the deliberations of the Meteorological Grant Comfavour of a former extension of New Zealand to the south.

mittee; their report, however, was not issued until after

the period to which the council's report refers. While the MR. A. TINGLE, of the Imperial Provincial College, work of a former Government department is arduously perChinansu, Shantung, has sent a further communication upon formed, the Meteorological Office continues to hold a very the flowering of the bamboo, in which he supplements- anomalous position compared with similar establishments in view of the letters of Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S., in our in other countries; it performs valuable public duties, but issue for August 11, and of Mr. J. S. Gamble, F.R.S., in has not the status of a Government office, although supNATURE for September 1-the information supplied in his ported by a Government grant. The operations may be previous letter. Mr. Tingle is unable to tell the species of summarised under four principal heads :-(1) ocean meteorthe bamboos that Aowered, but he reports that they were ology, the collection, tabulation, and discussion of meteorsmall, growing to a height of about 4 metres, and that the ological data for all parts of the ocean, and the preparation stems averaged about 4 cm. in circumference near the and issue of charts and the supply of instruments to the ground. All the bamboos have died since flowering. Mr. Royal Navy and mercantile marine ; (2) the issue of storm Tingle points out that the bamboo will grow in Shantung warnings to all seaports willing to receive them, of daily only if carefully cultivated in a garden. The seasons, he weather forecasts, and of forecasts for agriculturists during remarks, have been in no way exceptional in Shantung. harvest seasons; (3) the climatology of the British Isles,

statistics relating to British colonies and dependencies, and material to withstand impact can be measured, and it is replies to numerous meteorological inquiries from all shown that although a high tensile strength may be acromsources; (4) the discussion of automatic registers received panied by a small resistance to shock, a bar which responds from the observatories and other stations in connection with satisfactorily to the impact test always has sufficient tensile the office. The library contains weather maps and other strength and elasticity. The best results as regards resist publications received from all parts of the world, and these ance to shock are obtained with those steels which contain are available to all persons wishing to consult them. only a small proportion of carbon, an extraordinarily rapid

increase of brittleness occurring with an increase in the Part x. of the Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture

percentage of carbon. The line of fracture of the metal of Jamaica contains an interesting article by Mr. H. H.

follows the direction of the ferrite and avoids the perlite. Cousins, the Government chemist, on the possibility of

Oil quenching has the effect of increasing the shock strength manufacturing starch from cassava on such a scale as to

of steel to a value which is 500 per cent. to poo per cent undersell German potato starch in the English market.

greater than that of the natural steel in its best condition. The high proportion of starch in cassava makes the latter twice as valuable as the potato as a raw material, and A NEW and revised edition of stage iii. of Mr. Vincent I cassava has the additional advantage that it is not liable Murché's “ Object Lessons in Elementary Science based to fungoid diseases such as produce extraordinary variations on the Scheme issued by the London School Board " has in the annual potato crop in Germany. The seasons of its been issued by Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd. growth and harvest are, moreover, perfectly unrestricted.

In the November, 1904, issue of the Central, the magazine

of the Central Technical College Old Students' Association, SOME apparatus left by the late M. Félix Worms de Romilly has been offered by the French Physical Society

Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S., continues his papers on the

mechanism of combustion, and there is an illustrated de for distribution to its members.

scription of the Manhattan railway power station of New The Association of Engineers of the School of Liège is York, contributed by Mr. W. A. Del Mar. organising, under Government patronage, a congress of mining, metallurgy, applied mechanics and geology, to be

In addition to the enumeration of classes and other held at Liège from June 26 to July 1, 1905, on the occasion

administrative matter, the Johns Hopkins University of the Universal Exhibition.

Circular for November, 1904, contains one or two original

papers. Among these may be mentioned one by Prof. In the Physikalische Zeitschrift for December 1 Mr. W. B. Clark on the Matawan formation of Maryland, Hermann Bonin contributes an interesting report on steam Delaware, and New Jersey, and its relations to overlying turbines, based on the writings of Stodola, Feldmann, and underlying formations. Gutermuth, and Boveri. In it the Laval, Curtis, Rateau, Zölly, and Parsons turbines are figured, and their peculiar

The Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction features discussed.

for Ireland has issued a pamphlet entitled “Notes for

Manual Instructors." Manual instruction is comparatively PROF. R. W. Wood contributes a paper on 'n-rays to the

new in Ireland ; the conditions are different from those in Physikalische Zeitschrift for December, and suggests that other countries, and there are initial difficulties to be overthose experimenters who obtain positive and those who

For these reasons the notes here brought together obtain negative results should arrange to make a series of

should be of real assistance to teachers of the subject. joint experiments in the way that has been done in a similar case by Crémieu and Pender.

A copy of an almanac for the year 1905, compiled at the

offices of the Egyptian Survey Department, and published We have received a thesis by Messrs. H. C. Crowell and by the National Printing Department at Cairo, has been G. C. D. Lenth on the “ Doble needle-regulating nozzle received. The almanac provides full particulars of the dates for fire hoses and other jets. This nozzle is furnished with of all the important meetings of the various Government a convergent mouth-piece in the centre of which is a departments, and gives information on points in connection peculiarly shaped“ needle,” the effect of which on the with the Government regulations which should be of service stream lines is to obviate the spraying noticeable with to tourists and residents. ordinary jets, and thus to increase the efficiency. The paper is printed by permission of the Massachusetts Institute of

In view of the largely increased facilities provided within Technology.

the past few years by the publication departments of various

institutions, and more especially by the Carnegie Institution, Prof. N. UMOW contributes to Terrestrial Magnetism for the promotion of original research with its incident and Applied Electricity an ingenious method of constructing publications, the Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philamagnetic charts. It consists in developing the magnetic delphia, has decided to discontinue for the present its work potential in a series of spherical harmonics, and represent- in this department, and to devote its energies more exing on a Mercator's chart the poles of the various harmonics clusively to other purposes indicated by its founder. and curves showing their zeros and so forth. The advantage of this system is that instead of drawing a large number

We have received a copy of the “Guide to the Archives of magnetic curves, it is possible to convey more exact

of the Government of the United States in Washington," information by drawing a comparatively small number of

just published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington. curves indicating the various terms in Gauss's expansion. The guide was begun by Mr. C. H. Van Tyne and Ms.

W. G. Leland, and completed by the newly organised Bureau In a paper read before the Institution of Mechanical

of Historical Research. The original purpose of the guide Engineers on November 18 Messrs. A. E. Seaton and

was to gather information of the whereabouts of important A. Jude emphasise the need of testing materials which are

historical materials, but as the work proceeded it was found to be subjected to rapidly repeated or to alternating loads. desirable carefully to deal with all administrative records. by other methods than by merely determining the tensile The work, in fact, developed into a survey of all the strength and elastic limit. A form of apparatus is described

branches, bureaus, and divisions of the Federal Government by means of which the ability of a notched bar of the in Washington.

come.

1904

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Two new volumes have been added to Ostwald's series The comet was a feeble and ill-defined object as seen in of scientific classics, published by Mr. W. Engelmann, the Nice equatorial of 0.76 m. aperture, and had the appearLeipzig (London: Williams and Norgate), bringing the

ance of a whitish spot 1':5 to 21.0 in extent; no nucleus

was visible. number of reprints and translations in the collection up to

A continued abstract of M. Coniel's daily ephemeris 145. One of the volumes is a translation, by Herr F. (Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3971) is given below :Plehn, of Kepler's “ Dioptrice," with an introduction, notes, and sketch of Kepler's life and work. The second

12h. M.T. Paris. volume (No. 145) contains reprints of two papers by Kekulé,

a (app.)
8 (app.) log A

1:7249

h. edited with notes by Herr A. Ladenburg ; the papers are : Dec. 20 20 51 30

22 55

0'31206 O'I13 “ Über die Constitution und die Metamorphosen der

22 20 58 39

- 22 36

0'31480 chemischen Verbindungen und über die chemische Natur 24 21 5 43

- 22 17

0*31760 Oʻ108 des Kohlenstoffs" and “ Untersuchungen über aromatische

26 21 12 44

- 21 57 0*32044
28
21 19 41

21 35 0*32333 O'103 Verbindungen."

30
21 26 35

- 21 13 0:32626 THE annual report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1905

Jan.
I
21 33 24

0*32924 o'c98 the year ending June 30, 1903, has been received. As usual, the general appendix makes up the greater part of the Encke's COMET (1904 b).-An observation of Encke's

comet volume. The excellent and varied selection of beautifully

was made by Herr van d Bilt at Utrecht on illustrated papers by men of science of all nationalities, con

December 8. At Sh. 3m. 46s. (M.T. Utrecht) the position

of the comet was stituting the general appendix, provides a trustworthy in. dication of the extent and nature of the progress in science

a (app.) = 20h. 461. 22.118., 8 (app.)= + 5° 12' 29":5, during the twelve months with which the report deals. It and its magnitude was estimated as 7-5. This observation is impossible here to give even the titles of the fifty-three indicated that a correction of +418., +1'.2 was necessary to papers included. Some of the papers have been reprinted

the ephemeris published by Messrs. Kaminsky and Ocoulitsch

in Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3981 (Astronomische from NATURE and other periodicals, some are addresses de

Nachrichten, No. 3985). livered before scientific bodies, and few contributions. In addition these works there

OBSERVATIONS OF OCCULTATIONS BY PLANETS.-Dr. T. J. J. a number of translations of papers originally published in

See, writing to the Astronomische Nachrichten (No. 3984), other languages. The first place is given to a reprint of

explains the futility of making observations of occultations

by planets for the purpose of determining the extent of the the general description of the moon included by Prof. N. S.

planetary atmospheres. He points out that the extent of Shaler in the introductory chapter of his memoir on 'A

the irradiation about a planet's disc, at night time, in every Comparison of the Features of the Earth and the Moon.” case exceeds the probable extent of the planet's atmosphere, This paper is illustrated by ten magnificent plates. The so that the star is lost in the irradiation zone before the

interposition of the atmosphere between it and the observer. work done on radium and radio-activity is chronicled in

Thus observations of this character, made during the papers by M. E. Curie, Prof. J. J. Thomson, Sir William

hours of darkness when the irradiation affects the observRamsay, Mr. Soddy, Sir Oliver Lodge, Sir William Crookes ation, can never succeed in determining the amount of re--the names being mentioned in the order in which the fraction suffered by the star light in passing through the Papers are printed. Geographical research is represented

planet's atmosphere, because the star is always hidden hy contributions by Captain E. W. Creak, Mr. Alfred H.

before it reaches even the outer limit of that atmosphere. Brooks, Commander Peary, Sir Clements R. Markham, RELATIVE DRIFT Of the Hyades Stars. In a paper comDr. Otto Nordenskjöld, M. G. Ts. Tsybikoff, and others. municated to the British Astronomical Association Dr. The articles on geographical and zoological subjects are

Downing, F.R.S., discusses the resulting values obtained illustrated very profusely, and the volume will make a

by Herr Weersma, and published in No. 13 of the Groningen

Astronomical Laboratory Publications, in order to determine Faluable addition to reference libraries fortunate enough to

the relative drift of the sixty-six Hyades stars dealt with secure copies of it.

by the latter observer.

The results of the discussion show that these stars may be arranged in three chief groups as regards the amount

and direction of their annual motion. The first group conOUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

tains thirty-eight stars, including most of the bright ones DISCOVERY OF A New ComeT (1904 d).—A telegram from except Aldebaran, having a mean motion of o".096 per year the Kiel Centralstelle announces that a new comet was dis- in the mean direction 106° from north towards east. In the {overed by M. Giacobini at Nice on December 17.11. Its second group Aldebaran and three faint stars are included, position at 17h. 41-3m. (M.T. Nice) was

and the annual mean motion is as much as 0". 160 in the R.A. = 16h, 14m. 40s., dec. = +27° 28',

mean direction 160°. In both these groups the magnitudes

are in no way related to the amounts of movement, some and its movement was in a north-easterly direction.

of the fainter stars, in fact, having a greater apparent This position is situated on the western boundary of the motion than the brighter ones in the same group. The constellation Hercules, about 44m. east of a Coronæ, which

values for the third group are o".036 and 2549 respectively, has approximately the same declination (27° 2'), and is

and it is reasonably conjectured that this group is at a favourably situated for observation during the three or four

greater distance from our system than the others (Journal hours preceding dawn.

British Astronomical Association, No. 1, vol. xv.). A second telegram from Kiel informs us that the comet was again observed at Nice on December 18. Its position DESIGNATIONS OF THE VARIABLE Stars DISCOVERED DURING at róh, 44m. (M.T. Vice) was as follows:

1904.--In No. 3984 of the Astronomische Nachrichten the

Variable Star Commission of the Astronomischen GesellR.A. = 16h. 17m. 3:45., dec. = +27° 54' 8".

schaft publish a catalogue of fifty-eight new variables, disTEMPEL's Comet (1904 c).—The following details of M. covered by various observers during the present year. They St. Javelle's re-discovery of Tempel's second comet are given give for each star the number by which it will in future be in No. 3984 of the Astronomische Nachrichten :

known, the temporary designation which this replaces, its M.T. Nice R.A. (app.)

Dec. (app.)

coordinates and the amount of precession in each coordinate,

for 1900, and the magnitude. The catalogue is followed by 6 7 48 19 36 39.89

- 24 48 37-3

a detailed account of the discovery, variations, and general Dec. I 5 55 10 ..

19 40 23:58 - 24 46 17:5 characteristics of each variable.

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The “ COMPANION THE OBSERVATORY.”—The 1905 ice-cap of Greenland and the protrusion of peaks through edition of the well known" Companion to the Observatory, a dwindling ice-area in the familiar scenes of Switzerland. published at 1s. 6d. by Messrs. Taylor and Francis, contains Other interesting photographs from Greenland occur on its usual complement of useful data for all kinds of astro- plates xxv. and xxvi., and one of them is here reproduced nomical observations. Ephemerides for the planets and their (Fig. 1). satellites, the Greenwich magnetic elements, the times of The general propositions stated by the author are illusmaxima and minima and the periods of numerous variable trated by examples of moraine-material, striated surfaces, stars and data relating to a number of double stars are &c., from New Jersey, so that dwellers in that State may given amongst the mass of information contained.

now acquire a new insight into the topographic features As in previous years, Mr. Denning gives the dates and

round them. Mr. Salisbury restricts the word kame to radiant points of the principal meteor showers and Mr.

material washed out from and left against the irregular Maw has supplied the double-star tables, whilst the ephemerides of an ever-increasing number of variable stars have been taken from advance proofs generously contributed by M. Lawy.

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66

GLACIATION IN NORTH AMERICA.1 THIS volume, which has only recently reached us, is by

no means of merely local interest. The first 226 pages form a treatise on glacial geology in general, and represent the author's views after some twelve years of study of drift deposits in the field. No one who examines plates i. to vi. can mistake the character of these deposits; these excellent photographic pictures would meet, indeed, with international acceptance. On p. 30 we have some suggestive figures given as to the area of existing glaciers, from which it appears that the whole drift-covered country in North America is only ten times as large as that still covered by ice in Greenland. The Antarctic ice-sheet, moreover, is as extensive as that postulated for North America in

“ Glacial Fig. 2.-Glaciated surface of "trap" at Weehawken, New Jersey times, a fact that effectually removes the element of incredibility which, at first thought, attaches to so striking a theory as that of the glacial origin of the drift." The margin of a glacier (p. 116), while eskers represent the northern ice, however, as Mr. Salisbury immediately points channels of subglacial streams. Seeing how these two terms out, extended into temperate latitudes, and special explan- have been interchanged, as the author's references show ations must thus be sought. New Jersey, we may observe, (p. 136), it might have been well to invent a new word for lies on the latitude of Lisbon and Sicily in the northern hemi- the special type of water-formed terminal moraine which sphere, and corresponds with Cape Town and Melbourne the author describes here as a kame. Chapter V., on in the southern and more glacial hemisphere. Mr. Salis- changes in drainage resulting from glaciation, contains a bury at present seeks the cause of older widespread glaci- very suggestive study of the former glacial lakes in the flat ations (p. 192) in Chamberlin's hypothesis of variations in

basin west of Newark. The concluding 550 pages are conthe amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Elevation

cerned with “ local details,” the meaning of which be accelerates rock-decay, and this process promotes

comes clear after so excellent an introduction. One of frigeration by withdrawing carbon dioxide from the air. the most striking illustrations is that facing p. 537 (Fig. 2), The possibility of variation in the constitution of the atmo- where the “ plucking” away of blocks along the joint

planes of a glaciated surface is clearly shown lv the steplike structure and abrupt details of the lee side if a roche moutonnée. This term, by the by, does not seem to be defined in the earlier portion of the book.

In conclusion, we could wish that some " State Survey would give us a similarly comprehensive memoir for the glacial provinces of the British Isles. G. A. J. C.

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Fig. 1.-Side of a glacier in Greenland, showing the moraine-débris in the

lower part, while the upper ice is almost free from it.

THE PEOPLE OF THE NORTH-EAST OF

SCOTLAND.
IT is to the credit of the Anatomical and Anthropological

Society of the University of Aberdeen that it can issue Proceedings in a form far superior to those of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland—the only other anatomical society in this country. Even in the contents of its Proceedings the younger society, founded and fostered by the professor of anatomy in the university, compares noe unfavourably with the older society.

Naturally one turns first to those papers which deal with the people in the north-east of Scotland. By common repute they are a shrewd, “hard-headed "race. In a well written paper on the contents of short cists found in Aberdeenshire and neighbouring counties, Dr. Alexander Low tells all that can at present be known of their ancestors, the pre historic inhabitants of this part. The picture drawn by Ihr Low is founded on the broken skeletons of eight men and

1 Proceedings of the Anatomical and Anthropological Society of Aberdern University, 1902-04. Pp. 155, 28 plates, 22 figs. in text. (Aterdeen: University Press, 1904.)

sphere, owing to the emanations of volcanoes, is also touched on as one of many other causes controlling the supply of carbon dioxide.

Plates xviii. and xix. are valuable for the comparison they afford between the landscapes formed by the uniform

1 "The Glacial Geology of New Jersey." By Rollin D. Salisbury. Vol. v. of the Final Report of the State Geologist. Pp. xxviii +802 ; plates and folding maps. (Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish and Quigley, 1902.)

two women which, owing to the foresight of the late Prof. the national domains; the survey of forest reserves and the Struthers and of Prof. Reid, have been slowly accumulated preparation of topographic and geologic maps. The hydroand safely preserved in the anatomical museum of the graphic and hydrological branch has charge of all investiuniversity. These prehistoric Aberdonians were of low gations relating to the occurrence of water as a mineral and stature (5 feet 2 inches to 5 feet 4 inches), with rounded heads as a source of wealth to the country. It is engaged in which measured in breadth from 82 per cent. to 85 per cent. making systematic measurements of the rivers and streams of their length. One can see, by referring to An Analysis throughout the States, and of the flow of water and the of Anthropometric Statistics,' a contribution made to this supply available, whether for domestic use or as a source volume of the Proceedings by Mr. John Gray, that only of power. It also, through the Reclamation Service, preabout 12 per cent. of the present inhabitants of Aberdeenshire pares plans for the construction of reservoirs, canals, and possess heads which, in the proportion of their diameters, other works for the irrigation of arid lands, of which there resemble those of the prehistoric race. Further, it is are very large areas in America, and superintends the carryevident that the present inhabitants of Aberdeenshire stand, ing out of works that have been decided on for reclamation. as regards the diameter of the head-the only racial To show the thorough way in which the work of the characteristic that can be dealt with-in an intermediate department is carried out and the pains taken to ensure position between the long-headed highlanders of the west efficiency, recently a conference was called by the chief of Scotland and the short-headed prehistoric people of the engineer for the purpose of enabling the heads of the east coast. The natural inference appears to be that the engineering staff of the Reclamation Service (twenty-five in present race of the north-east of Scotland is the result of a number) to become acquainted with their work, and of exfusion of the east and west types—but the west has exerted changing views and information as to the works in hand the stronger influence. One of the two female skulls de- and those planned for the future, and so secure uniformity scribed by Dr. Low is that of a woman who, in shape of of method in carrying out their work. At this conference head, belonged to the west rather than to the east type. an address was given by the chief engineer on the duties She may have been an exceptional member of the “ short- of the officers engaged in the work, and papers were read

race, but it is more probable that she was a western by the engineers having charge of the various works in woman captured by the eastern invaders. Those who seek execution. A record of these proceedings, with copies of to discover the factors which determine the shape of the head the papers and other information, is given in one of the will find most valuable material in the fourteen plates con- State papers issued by the department." tributed by Prof. Reid. They represent serial sections of Nearly two hundred engineers, hydrographers, and topothe heads of two subjects which had been very successfully graphers are in the employ of the Reclamation Department prepared.

alone, and comprehensive instructions are issued as to the In these Proceedings one can recognise the influence that management of the works, rates of pay for assistants and The Anatomical Society exerts on the medical graduates of

workmen, and other matters. One condition laid down by Aberdeen. A skeleton of a Chinese coolie sent from Singa- the State is that in all constructive work eight hours shall pore, a Boxer's skull brought from north China, five Wa constitute a day's work for all labourers and mechanics. Kamba skulls and ten Wasoga crania collected in Uganda, For the use of the staff engaged in the hydrological provide material for the junior members to examine and department a manual' has been issued containing instrucreport on. A paper contributed by Dr. F. W. Moir contains tions as to the proper method of taking observations and

the best form of float and current meters to be used under The results of a prolonged study of the people of Ashanti. Is it not strange that the University of London, in the very

different conditions, with illustrations of the different kinds centre of the Empire, offers no such stimulus to its medical of meters in use and the method of using the same from graduates as is given in Aberdeen ? When the board of bridge, cable, and boat stations; forms of reports, diagrams studies for human anatomy and morphology was recently

of discharge and current observations; with formulæ and constituted in the University of London the study of human

tables to be used in computations. racrs was, for all practical purposes, completely excluded.

From time to time the reports sent in by the staff as to The eyesight of the people in the north-east of Scotland

the results of the various surveys and works going on are is remarkably good. Drs. Usher and Stoddart found, from issued by the department, some of which, relating to water the examination of 400 students, that 15 per cent. were

supply and irrigation, the relation of rainfall mvopic or short sighted; Fuchs found in Germany that off and the floods in the Mississippi, have been noticed in to per cent. of students at a corresponding age were myopic;

Nature of January 7, July 28, and November 3, the last reSorris and Oliver give 28 per cent. as the corresponding

ports, Nos. 89, 90, 91, being on the water resources of the figure for American students. About three in every hundred

Salinas Valley, the geology and water resources of the of the Aberdeen school children are myopic; the proportion

lower James River Valley, and on the natural features and in Edinburgh is almost twice that number. Seven per cent.

economic development of drainage areas in Ohio." of the Aberdeen police are short-sighted.

1" Proceedings of the First Conference of Engineers of the Reclamation In conclusion, it is to be hoped that the oblivion which Service, with accompanying Papers." Compiled by F. H. Newell. Water so frequently overtakes the Proceedings of local societies, Supply and Irrigation Paper, No. 93. (Washington : Government Printing

Office, 1904.) bex ause of their inaccessibility to other workers, will spare the Proceedings of which this olume is but one of a series.

3 “ Hydrographic Manual of the U.S. Geological Survey." Water Supply Papers, No. 94.

3 “On Destructive Floods in the United States in 1903": "On the Pro.

gress of Stream Measurements for 1903": “Underground Waters in HYDROLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES.

Southern Louisiana"; "Contributions to the Hydrology of the Eastern
United States in 1903"; " The Underground Waters of Arizona."

* Water Resources of the Salinas Valley, California." Paper No. 80. THE Geological Survey Department of the United States embraces much wider duties than those covered by the

"Geology and Water Resources of the Lower James River Valley." Water

Supply and Irrigation Paper, No. 90. similar department in this country, and the following notes

“ The Natural Features and Economic Development of the Sandusky, upon some of the various matters with which it deals, and

Maumee, Muskingum, and Miami Drainage Areas in Ohio." Water Supply of the trouble taken to afford information as to the mineral and Irrigation Paper, No. 91. reurias and water supply of America, may be of interest.

“Destructive Floods in the United States in 1903." By E. C. Murphy. The United States Geological Survey Department was Paper No. 96. (restend bis an Act of Congress in 1879. From time to time “Report on the Progress of Stream Measurements for the Calendar Year its surina, as originally set out, have been considerably

1903." By J. C. Hayt. Paper No. 97. rupaded. For administrative purposes the survey is now

Report on the Progress of Stream Measurements for the Calendar Year divided into branches and divisions, comprising geology,

1903." By J. C. Hayı. Paper No. 98. Euportaphy, hydrography, with

offices charged

“Underground Waters of Southern Louisiana." By G. D. Harris. with

Paper No. 101. 203 mmiration and the publication of maps and reports.

“Contributions to the Hydrology of Eastern United States." By M. L. The drpartment of the Geological Survey has charge and

Fuller Paper No. 102. la suits antion of all public lands; the examination of the

“ The Underground Waters of Gila Valley, Arizona By W. T. Lee. geulent al siruiture, mineral resources, and the products of Paper No. 104. (Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904.)

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