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added largely to previous records in species new to and the belief is stated that the higher types have science, in others new to British lists, and in the fuller originated by gradual evolution from the more lowly knowledge of the life-histories of species already types, but that the latter still persist, and must not known. The task was no easy one, but none more be confounded with stages in the life-histories of the competent could have undertaken it, and it has been higher forms, as the author believes has been done accomplished in a way to deserve the gratitude of all by some. The phylogeny and scheme of classification interested in the freshwater Algæ of Great Britain and take full note of the discoveries and views of BlackIreland.
man, Bohlin, Borzi, Chodat, Wille and others, comThe " Treatise " is one of the well known and excel- bined with the author's own discoveries. lent Cambridge Biological Series. Its aim is stated as Six great classes are recognised, of which four "to give the student a concise account of the struc- (Rhodophyceæ, Phæophyceæ, Bacillariaceæ or diature, habits and life-histories of Freshwater Algæ, and toms, and Myxophyceæ) are of the usual compass, the also to enable him to place within the prescribed limits two former including few species in fresh waters. The of a genus any Alga he may find in the freshwaters of Heterokontæ, a group proposed a few years ago by the British Islands.” To do this within the limits of Luther for a few families characterised by yellowishan octavo volume of less than 400 pages, in which green chromatophores and the production of oil as a are numerous illustrations, is a task possible of reserve of food, are separated off from the other green accomplishment only by one very familiar with the Algæ; but all the remaining green types are included subject and skilled in concise expression; but that it in the class Chlorophyceæ, the methods of reproduction has been successfully done will, we think, be the verdict | not being accepted as justifying their separation into after testing the book thoroughly. The views and different classes. Chlamydomonas is regarded as labours of others receive due attention, and footnotes nearest to the origin from which all have sprung, direct the student to the original publications; but scarcely different from the Flagellata, and the divergent Prof. West is no mere follower of the views of others, lines of increasing complexity are traced, three chief and much of the excellence of his book is due to his tendencies, as pointed out by Blackman, showing personal researches and to the conclusions he has themselves, and resulting in three types of structure, drawn from them. In the preface we read that “there viz, the motile cænobium, the multinucleate unicellular is no single book, or accessible set of books, by means cænocyte, and the multicellular aggregate, the cells of of which a student can hope to accurately identify one which become more and more intimately related and third of the freshwater Algæ he may find in a single specialised to form the definite organism. This last day's ramble through a reasonably productive part of type has resulted in the most complex structures among the country." With the aid of this guide he may Algæ, and is regarded as having given origin through hope to determine the genus of all save the more them to the archegoniate plants. critical forms, and even the species in some of the All grades of classification of the British freshwater genera. But the book is much more than a guide to Algæ down to genera are defined in this “ Treatise,” the identification of genera and species. The intro- and each genus is well illustrated by drawings from duction gives a very readable and interesting general the plants themselves, with few exceptions original. account of freshwater Algæ in respect of their habitats, The number of British species is stated under each distribution, relations to and associations with certain genus, and information is often added regarding the other plants, and even with the lower animals, some more representative species. For each genus also the of these correlations being of very curious kinds. synonymy is given, along with references to the literaTheir relations to temperature (some thriving on ice ture. and snow, while others can live around hot springs Prof. West's treatment of his subject is instructive at 94°-5 C.), to surface conditions and exposure, and and stimulating, and the book will do much to extend to geological strata are discussed; and the author's the study of these plants. But it also excites the hope wide experience in field work gives much interest to
that he will supplement this work by giving us one the discussion. Mountainous districts are the richer, descriptive of all the species and varieties of these especially in Myxophyceæ and Conjugatæ, of which Algæ that have been found in Britain, with, if practiclatter the desmids and Mougeotia are peculiarly able, indications of those likely to be added to the numerous in species in these regions. The older flora. He has pointed out the need of such a guide, Palæozoic and Igneous regions are preeminent in this and has proved that it could be attempted by none respect, and the richest localities in Britain, “and
more fit to make it a success. perhaps in the whole of Europe,” are tarns and peat- The volume on “ British Desmidiaceæ " also illusbogs in hollows of the Lewisian gneiss of north-west trates the extraordinary advance in the study of British Scotland, while the fen district of eastern England is freshwater Algæ in recent years, due to the researches the poorest in Britain in freshwater species of Algæ. of but a few workers, among whom the authors are
The methods of collection, of cultivation (so im- in the front rank. In this monograph will be brought portant as a means of study), and of preservation for together not only much information that, though pubfuture use are described. The structure, cell-contents, lished, was often scarcely accessible, but also much nutrition and growth of the cells and plant-bodies, the acquired through researches in many regions, from niethods of multiplication by division and of reproduc- Shetland to Cornwall, in Wales and Ireland, and not tion (asexual and sexual), the alternation of gener- yet published. Nearly 700 species and 450 varieties are ations, the range of polymorphism observed in some now known from the British Islands (being rather species, and alleged to occur in others, are considered, more than one-third of all named species). Of these 196
many have been discovered and made known by the latter is the velocity potential due to a source and a authors. Cooke's “ British Desmids," issued in sink within the given surface, and the former also can 1886–7 as a compilation of all the forms then known, be interpreted physically, but the interpretations are included less than 300 species and less than 50 varie- not recorded. In the case of a spherical boundary, ties. In this first volume rather more than one-fifth which is worked out, the results are attributed to of the British species and varieties are included, so Bjerknes and Beltrami. It would seem that these that the “Monograph” will probably extend to five writers, therefore, virtually anticipated Hicks's disvolumes.
covery of the image of a source with respect to a Each form is described, with references to its sphere. One misses the interpretation in terms of synonyms and its bibliography; and its distribution in images. The mathematics is there, but the author the British Islands is detailed, the authority for each does not tell us what it means. Nevertheless the locality being stated. The figures are original, except mathematics is excellent. where it was not possible to procure specimens. When In chapters ii. and iii. we have so much of the borrowed the sources are always acknowledged. A ordinary theory as is requisite for the purpose of very full list of books and papers on desmids adds to setting out the equations and conditions which govern the value of the work.
the motions of fluids, and we have also an extension to The “Monograph of British Desmidiaceæ " is discontinuous motions. The fact that was emphasised worthy of a place among the numerous valuable works by Hugoniot is that the motion is not necessarily issued by the Ray Society, and will be indispensable continuous. He paid especial attention to the case in the study of these plants.
in which the velocity is everywhere continuous, but
the differential coefficients of the components of THEORY OF RAPID MOTION IN A COM. velocity are discontinuous at a moving surface. The PRESSIBLE FLUID.
discontinuities at such a surface are not arbitrary, but Leçons sur la Propagation des Ondes et les Équations are subject to three sorts of conditions. The surface de l'Hydrodynamique. By Jacques Hadamard.
moves through the fluid like a
One set Pp. xiii + 375. (Paris : Hermann, 1903.) Price 18 of conditions connects the discontinuities with the francs.
direction of the normal to the surface. A second set 'HE theory of fluid motion, as ordinarily worked connects them with the velocity of propagation. These
out, presents several lacunae. One notable two sets of conditions are kinematical. To determine omission is the absence of any detailed dis
dis- the velocity of propagation the dynamical equations cussion of the effects of compression and rarefaction must be introduced. The kinematical conditions are of air owing to the rapid motion of bodies through called “conditions d'identité " and "conditions de it. An artillerist, seeking by the aid of the theory compatibilité,” and they are expressed by means of for principles that would help him to understand the some elegant geometry. The necessity for such conresistance of the air to the motion of projectiles, would ditions has been recognised by other writers in the be likely to be disappointed. He would find an case of discontinuities that affect the velocity. The explanation of the effect of rifling in keeping the latter are here called “waves of the first order." points of projectiles forward; but, while he might The origin of Hugoniot's discontinuities, called admire the ingenuity displayed in the development waves of the second order," is found in an analytical of the theory, he would feel that, with this exception, it paradox. If the pressure is a function of the density, shed but little light upon his business. The present the equations of motion determine the acceleration of book represents the outcome of efforts made in recent every particle; but, if the motion of a boundary is years by some French mathematicians, and especially prescribed, the normal component of the acceleration by Hugoniot and P. Duhem, to widen the scope of of the particles that are in contact with the boundary the traditional hydrodynamics so as to include rapid is prescribed also. The two values thus obtained for motions in compressible fluids.
this acceleration are in general different. Waves of Our hypothetical artillerist would need to exercise the second order originate at the boundary, and are much patience in order to get on with the book. He propagated through the fluid. would probably soon give it up as too intensely mathe- Chapter iv. deals with rectilinear motion in a gas, matical. The first chapter is devoted to an account of and is mainly occupied with the problem, first attacked an existence theorem in the theory of potential. It is by Riemann, of discontinuities that affect the velocity. to be proved that, provided a certain condition is Riemann's theory was condemned by Lord Rayleigh satisfied, there exists a function which is harmonic in on the ground that it violated the principle of energy, a given region and has a given normal rate of vari- and the problem remained in an unsatisfactory state ation at the boundary of the region, in other words, for many years. It was taken up again by Hugoniot that irrotational motion of incompressible Auid is in 1887 without knowledge of Riemann's work. possible within a closed surface which changes its form Hugoniot introduced expressly the condition that the in a prescribed manner without changing its volume. increment of energy-kinetic and internal--of the The author gives a proof which is very interesting from portion of fluid which undergoes a sudden change of the point of view of analysis. He also expresses the state is equal to the work done upon it by the pres required function by means of a subsidiary function sures of neighbouring portions, and he concluded thar which he calls “ Fonction de Franz Neumann,” and the law connecting pressure and density (P=wY; of another which he calls “ Fonction de Klein." The cannot be maintained during the passage of the discontinuity. This conclusion is opposed to Riemann's to Aosta. Mr. Sennett, however, informs us that theory. H. Weber, in his recent edition of Riemann's Hannibal crossed it “ with his vast army," of which "Vorlesungen über die partiellen Differentialgleich- he proceeds to describe the sufferings. Notwithstandungen der mathematischen Physik," has contended ing what has been written by Law, Ellis, Freshfield that a complete calculation of the energy supports and others, we are well aware that it is not easy to Riemann's theory against Lord Rayleigh's objection, determine what route Hannibal did follow, but thought but he did not refer to Hugoniot. in the book under that the Great St. Bernard was no longer advocated review no mention is made of Lord Rayleigh's objec- by anyone who had studied the question. tion or of H. Weber's contention, but Riemann's Other statements are disputable. We are told the theory and Hugoniot's are developed side by side, and soldanella flower protrudes through the edge of the the results are compared both with each other and névé (which does not mean the winter snow); that the with the results of certain experiments by Vieille. edelweiss dwells “in snow, owning a habitat where Much of the analysis is worked out and interpreted no other flowering plant may survive," and as “its by the aid of geometrical constructions, but the reader haunt is far removed from all verdant vegetation and wishes often for a more physical interpretation.
in the most craggy and inaccessible positions," we Chapters v. and vi. contain extensions of the cannot expect to see it growing at the botanical station theories of the preceding chapters to motion in three in Bourg St. Pierre, and so forth. This village is dimensions and to waves in elastic solid media. The rather more than 5300 feet above sea-level, and the physical value of a theory of rapid motions, accom
plant is often found between this and 6000 feet; indeed, panied by strains that are not “ small," in an elastic it can be cultivated in England. As for the craggy and solid, supposed to have a strain-energy function, is inaccessible positions, we had thought newspaper extremely doubtful; but no exception can be taken to correspondents now enjoyed a monopoly of this fiction. the analytical methods by which the theory is de- Like any other Alpine plant, it may grow in a breakveloped. Chapter vii. brings the theory of waves that neck place, but its favourite habitat is a rough slope do not involve discontinuities of velocity or strain into of grass and stone. It used to grow profusely on a relation with the theory of characteristics of partial place of this kind, where it could be gathered in perfect differential equations. The discovery of the relations safety, on a mountain ridge about a thousand feet between these two theories has attracted a good deal above San Bernardino. of attention recently, and we may be grateful to M.
But Mr. Sennett, though prone to discuss scientific Hadamard for his masterly exposition of the subject. questions, does not always win our confidence. The A few notes are appended to the volume. Of these the “ Tertiary period of the London Clay” is an odd most interesting is the one in which it is shown that phrase, and adamantine an inappropriate epithet for the discontinuities of the first order may give rise to vortex firn or upper basin of a glacier; and in what respect the motion, even when the pressure and density in the Lago di Garda resembles a diadem we fail to perceive. undisturbed state are uniform throughout the fluid.
To his vision of a Europe the glacier fields of which It is a sign of the healthy state of mathematics in only just failed in reaching the Alps we are perhaps France that the ablest analysts are bringing their accustomed, but think that most geologists at the prepowerful metbods to bear upon recondite physical sent day would speak less confidently of glaciers having questions. The book under notice is a very valuable scooped out the Alpine lake basins, or having “cut out contribution to a most important and, at the same gorges for themselves through the solid mountain, time, a most difficult subject. It breaks fresh ground, divided enormous peaks in twain, planed down and and it cannot fail to stimulate inquiry. It may be levelled great asperities.” The Märjelen See does not expected to conduce to the further advance of our lie in a lake basin, but simply at the head of a glen, knowledge of aerodynamics
A. E. H. L. blocked by the great Aletsch Glacier, and after seeing
it one day full and the next empty, we utterly disbelieve
Mr. Sennett's explanation that it is emptied on the THE GREAT ST. BERNARD PASS.
principle of a syphon. The name Mörjelen, which he Across the Great St. Bernard. The Modes of Nature prefers, may be patois, but the other form is more
and the Manners of Man. By A. R. Sennett. Pp. usual; so also is Gondo for Gonda, Guttannen for xvi + 444 and 111; illustrated. (London : Bemrose
Guttenen, Meiringen for Meyrengen, and, notwithand Sons, 1904.)
standing Baedeker, Penninus for Pæninus (the title of A
FLUENT but not too accurate pen, and a general | the Alpine Jupiter). The science is discursive and
knowledge of the more frequented districts of commonplace, where not enriched by extracts from the Alps appear to be Mr. A. R. Sennett's chief Tyndall or Ruskin, or yet more ornamental writing. qualifications for writing this book.
It has a compre- Mr. Sennett may think in English, but is so hensive title, and needs it, for the St. Bernard Pass prone to translate into journalese that is hardly more than a thread to connect, if possible, pect he trained in a certain Fleet Street quotations in prose and verse, scraps of science and
haunt of young lions. We cannot welcome the verb history, descriptions of scenery, and moralisings on
resurrect," the adjective“ riverian " (of or belonging things in general. The author has nothing new to to a river), or “lithic” (a favourite one) when plain tell us about the St. Bernard, which is not folks would say stony or rocky. The book, however, prising, for the pass has been often described, and a contains numerous illustrations, often pretty, but it is carriage road now goes the whole way from Martigny | tiresome to have them (except in the appendix) only
numbered, and to be obliged to consult a list to see what the Army. The excellent introductory chapter by Mr. they are, especially when we are sometimes greeted | Treacher Collins gives details of the most useful work with fanciful titles instead of place-names. “ Dame which is being carried on at Swanley, and of the inNature's Painters ” does not much enlighten us, but fluence that proper hygienic measures have had it looks very like a view down the lower part of generally in checking the disease. Dr. Boldt gives the Via Mala. But the author has tried the dangerous similar details of the progress and subsequent checkexperiment of mingling poetry and science, and we ing of trachoma throughout the various countries of cannot honestly congratulate him on his success. Europe. It would indeed be well if the last chapter
T. G. B. were separately printed and distributed as a pamphlet
to the various boards of guardians and health officers
throughout the Empire. TRACHOMA.
We have nothing but praise for the way in which Trachoma. By Dr. J. Boldt. Translated by J. the translators have carried out their work. We
Herbert Parsons, D.Sc., F.R.C.S., and Thomas could nowhere detect a trace of German origin in th Snowball, M.B., C.M. With introductory style. chapter by E. Treacher Collins, F.R.C.S. Pp. lii +
232. (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1904.) DR. R. BOLDT’S monograph on “ Trachoma,” pub
OUR BOOK SHELF. lished at the end of last year, deals with a subject The Cyclones of the Far East. By Rev. José Algué, presenting many problems to which no satisfactory S.J. Second (Revised) Edition. Pp. 283. (Manila : solutions can at present be offered. It is therefore a
Bureau of Public Printing, 1904.) matter for congratulation that an English translation In the present edition the author has extended the of such an excellent résumé of the subject has been area dealt with in the earlier editions, and as abundant prepared. Dr. Boldt has been working for many years
additional data have been collected, not only from the in one of the trachoma infested centres of Germany, I coasts, this information has now been embodied. The
Philippines themselves, but also from the surrounding and has been constantly faced during that time with
author says that, “ owing to the opening up of the these unsolved problems, and in the book before us he Far East in recent years, an endeavour has been made clears the ground of all the lumber which gathers to extend the usefulness of the work by giving a round any subject of discussion, and states clearly the greater compass to the study of the phenomena which present condition of our knowledge and the lines on cause, accompany, and follow the atmospheric perwhich future investigation must go.
turbances which are experienced in the various seas
of the Far East." The title of the revised edition is The first and most important difficulty met in deal
changed from Cyclones of the Philippines ” to ing with trachoma is that at present the ætiological “ The Cyclones of the Far East.” The present edition factor is unknown. The discussion of this question appears in English, and is freed from the formidable in chapter iv. particularly, and incidentally in chapters i list of errors found in the English version of an earlier iii. and v., will be, to ophthalmic surgeons, the most
edition. Among the many additions contained in this interesting part of the book. The author distinctly for navigating in case of encountering a typhoon, and
new edition may be mentioned some practical rules inclines to the view that there is a specific organism,
a list and description of the ports of refuge during the primary cause of trachoma, as yet undiscovered, storms in the Far East, especially in the Philippine but that also an individual predisposition and a number Archipelago. of subsidiary causes, such as climate, soil and race, Commendation should certainly be given of the careovercrowding, uncleanliness, and other social evils, are ful arrangement and division of the whole work, which
aid much the general study and grip of the valuable also contributing causes.
material, whilst numerous illustrations add much to Many workers at the present time are inclining to
the elucidation of the subject. Father Algué must lay much greater stress on the importance of the in- be credited with what is only too commonly overdividual predisposition and to hold the view that the looked. At the conclusion of each chapter reference disease may be set up by any bacterium which is patho- is given to the works which may be consulted in congenic for the conjunctiva. The large number of cases
nection with the branch of the subject dealt with. in which some scrofulous taint can be traced is dis
The references appear to have been chosen with the tinctly in favour of this view. It has been frequently ine work as complete as possible
. This example may
greatest impartiality and with the sole desire to render shown that in such people any infection will give rise commend itself to authors of other branches of scien. to a lymphoid hypertrophy, and the essential pathology tific work. of trachoma is primarily a hypertrophy of lymphoid The principal cause which influences the progressive follicles with subsequent degeneration of the lymphoid movement of typhoons is said to be the general movetissue and formation of scar tissue. Dr. Boldt, with
ment of the atmosphere in which they take place, absolute fairness, gives both hypotheses and the argu
not of that part only which overlies the land and sea
over which they pass, but especially of that portion of ments which have been advanced by various writers
the atmosphere which moves at higher altitudes, as in support of them.
we are to look there for the seat of the greater part It would be of undoubted benefit to the community of the energy and power which nourish and sustain if this book were to get into the hands of two classes in
the atmospheric whirls. This opinion is endorsed by
all who discuss the nature and law of storms, but, particular, the men who are concerned in the adminis- unfortunately, too little light can be thrown on the tration of the Poor Laws of the country, and those con
movement of the upper air, although praiseworthy cerned in the medical and sanitary administration of efforts are being made in this direction.
The storms which visit the Philippine Archipelago Zellenmechanik und Zellenleben. By Prof.
Dr. vary greatly in frequency according to season, the Rhumbler. Pp. 43. (Leipzig : J. A. Barth, 1904.) months with the greatest number being July, August, Price i mark. and September, whilst the months with the least This little work represents a sketch of the author's frequency are January, February, and March. Much views on the causes and means of manifestation good work is done in the classification of cyclones, and of cellular activity. The point of view adopted is a diagrams are given showing the paths of eleven materialistic one. It is considered that the whole different types. Considerable attention is paid to the subject should be dealt with from the physical or the precursory signs of cyclones, and naturally much im- physico-chemical aspect, even when this fails to present portance in this direction is attached to the form and a complete solution of all the difficulties that may arise. movement of clouds.
It is becoming more and more recognised that many The whole treatise is suggestive of further scientific of the acts which used to be regarded as specially the inquiry, and Father Algué has done much by this work outcome of vital activity find their parallel in inorganic to advance our knowledge of the law of storms. nature. An ameba when ingesting a filament of
C. H. oscillatoria much longer than itself is able com
pletely to enclose it because the algal thread becomes The Animals of New Zealand : an Account of the coiled up within the protoplasmic body of the protoColony's Air-breathing Vertebrates. By F. W.
But an exactly similar state of things is proHutton and J. Drummond. Pp. xiv + 381; illus
duced if a drop of chloroform is placed in water and trated. (Christchurch and London : Whitcombe and Tombs, Ltd., 1904.)
a filament of shellac be then presented to it. The fila
ment is drawn into the chloroform, and coiled up much SOME months ago, when noticing Captain Hutton's as the alga in the amaba; and if a short glass thread valuable “ Index " of the New Zealand fauna, we had be coated with shellac, it is also “ ingested,” but as ccasion to refer to the impending issue of the present the lac becomes dissolved the glass thread is volume; now that it is before us, we are happy to be gradually extruded. The whole question here resolves able to state that it fully realises our expectations, itself into one of surface tension, and perhaps the proand forms a most valuable history of the air-breath- cesses of ingestion and excretion may ultimately prove ing vertebrates of the colony, written in a pleasant style to be essentially similar in nature. which cannot fail to make it acceptable to a large circle Again, the remarkable uniformity in the details of of readers. At starting, the authors refer to their in- nuclear divisions (karyokinesis), from whatever source debtedness to the late Mr. T. H. Potts, who did such the cells may originate, strongly suggests that a comgood work in describing a fast vanishing fauna before prehensive physical explanation of the process will one it was too late. The melancholy story of the waning day be forthcoming. of this curious and interesting fauna forms, indeed, But although the physical aspects of cellular activity the key-note of the introduction of the volume. From will certainly become more clear and definite, this is the time that Captain Cook, in 1773, turned down pigs only the first step on to the threshold of the temple in in Queen Charlotte's Sound, the native fauna has had which the secret of life is guarded. Behind the proxito contend with competitors from Europe of stronger mate physical phenomena lies a vast complex of changand more aggressive type, the natural result being ing chemical conditions, and it will be long before we that many forms, like the tuatera lizard, have already are likely to be able exhaustively to analyse them. The disappeared from the mainland, although in some more successfully we do so, however, the more nearly instances surviving in the adjacent islets, and many shall we be able to grapple with the physical problems more are destined to go ere long. Among the latter of movement and the like. Rhumbler regards changes (if, indeed, it be not already extinct) is the short-tailed of surface tension, and the reactions that affect it, as bat, the sole representative of the genus Mystacops, constituting one of the most profitable of the many its rarity, or extermination, being attributed to the possible lines of cytological investigation. destruction of insect life caused by the introduction of European birds.
Studies in Astronomy. By J. Ellard Gore, F.R.A.S., From a purely commercial standpoint the authors do
M.R.I.A. Pp. xi+ 336. (London: Chatto and not, however, by any means condemn the introduction Windus, 1904.) Price 6s. of many of the foreign species, having even a good In this book the reader is presented with a series of word to say for the much abused sparrow. Without disconnected essays on a variety of astronomical subthe sparrow, or some other bird equally common,” they jects, many of which include interesting and suggestive write, “ residents in the colony would be over-run with results of calculations made by the author. The subthe insects again, and life would be insupportable. jects range from “ giant telescopes to the “ construcThe phrase concerning insects, it may be explained, tion of the visible universe,” but Jupiter is the only refers to the plagues" of various species which planet to which any detailed reference is made, and occurred when European food-crops were first intro- the sun is only dealt with from the point of view of duced into the colony. On the other hand, the intro- its stellar magnitude and its motion in space. The duction of certain species, such as the greenfinch and, chapter on " Messier's nebulæ,” bringing together all above all, the rabbit, is most strongly condemned. The the recent information with regard to these objects, acclimatisation of several kinds of deer is considered will be of considerable value to those who possess to be of considerable advantage to the general pro- telescopes, and the notes comprising.“ recent advances
perity of the islands, as it leads to the visits of in stellar astronomy give a useful summary of the European sportsmen.
state of our knowledge of the subjects dealt with at Among the species which have suffered most severely the beginning of the present year. from foreign competition may be mentioned the two Most of the papers have already appeared as bats, the kiwis, the weka rail, and the tuatera. The magazine articles, and, notwithstanding the revision 1025 appear
to have been completely and the which has been made for the present purpose, there is Votornis all but exterminated by the Maories before necessarily a considerable amount of repetition. Apart the European advent.
from this, however, the book provides a very acceptLimitations of space alone prevent further commendable course of not too difficult reading for those who ation of a very excellent, interesting, and beautifully have a general elementary acquaintance with the illustratrd work.