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THE VERY LATEST

"TYPE" OF EXTENSIMETER 18, THE “O'TOOLE."

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A Simple,

Convenient,

Accurate, and Reliable

Instrument, designed by the Rev. Father O'Toole,

Black Rock College, Dublin, for Students' use in determining the coefficients of

expansion of metal rods, at a

moderate price.

Price, with steamjacket, graduated

spirit level and micrometer gauge,

complete,

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SOLE MAKERS

PHILIP HARRIS & CO., LTD.

144 EDMUND ST., BIRMINGHAM, 179 GT. BRUNSWICK ST., DUBLIN.

A N D

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Selenium 2

X-RAYS:

SCINTILLOSCOPE

SCREEN

.

GAMBRELL BROS.

THEIR EMPLOYMENT in CANCER and of High Sensitiveness to Light, with & without Evacuation.

other DISEASES.
FLAT,

BY
CYLIÁRRICAL (AS Figured),

.
Apparatus for Demonstrating Sensitiveness of Selenium to Light.

RICHARD J. COWEN, L.R.C.S.I., L.R.C.P.I., &c. Apparatus for Wireless Telephony by Light. HIGHLY SENSITIVE RELAYS (REGISTERED DESIGN). - Mustrated Price List now ready.

London : H. J. GLAISHER, 57 Wigmore Street, W.

, C. F. ADOLPH & CO.,14 EARRINGDON RD.,

,

JUST PUBLISHED. With 135 Illustrations and Coloured GLEW'S SCINTILLOSCOPE

Plate. Svo. sos. 6d. net. ( Shows a magnidcent alsplay of scintillations, AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF showers of sparks, direct from the mineral Pitch. blende, Radium, Polonium, Uranium, Thorium, or any radio-active substance, even a Welsbach mantle con.

SPECTRUM ANALYSIS.
tains sufficient Thorium to excite the very sensitive
screen of the Scintilloscope, which is far more sensi. By W. MARSHALL WATTS, D.Sc. (Lond.),
tive than the Spinthariscope. The Scintilloscope

B.Sc. (Vict.), F.I.C.,
rivals the most delicate Electroscope as a detector
of Alpha rays.

Senior Physical Science Master in the Giggleswick School.
The eye sees an inexhaustible shower of stars of

PROSPECTUS SENT ON APPLICATION. PITCH BLENDE white light, giving a very realistic idea of the ceaseless activity of these marvellous substances which are pro.

LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., 39 PATERNOSTER Row, ducing the terrific bombardment causing this beautiful display.

LONDON, E.C.
See NATURE, September 29, page 535:
Glew's Scintilloscope Superior Lens, with Extra-sensitive Pitchblende and

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U.K. Foreign Postage extra, weight 2 ounces.
Pieces of Pitchblende mineral, ground flat and polished, with Sensitive

PROCEEDINGS.
Screen attached, for use in Scintilloscope or with any strong pocket
magnifier, from 75. 6d. each, according to size.

Vol. XXV. Section C. Nos. 5 and 6. Sewed, with illustrations, 25. 6d. Radio active supplies of every description, on Sale or Hire. Radium

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With an Introduction, Notes, and Appendices by E. R. MCCLINTOCK Dix.

THE ANTRIM RAISED BEACH:
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THE SCIENCE YEAR BOOK

Diary, Directory, and Scientific Summary

for

1905.

CONTENTS.

FULL ASTRONOMICAL NOTES, TABLE OF ELEMENTS.

PRIZES AND GRANTS OFFERED. TABLES, AND EPHEMERIS. TIME. GEOMETRY.

TECHNICAL GOVERNMENT THE EARTH. METEOROLOGY. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

OFFICES. WIND PRESSURES. MAGNETISM. ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. UNIVERSITIES. THERMOMETER. MELTING SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POPULATION AND STATISTICS. POINTS. CONDUCTIVITY.

PERIODICALS.

COINAGE AND MONEY. TABLE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES.

POSTAL INFORMATION, &c., &c.
GLOSSARY of New Scientific

BIOGRAPHIES of all the principal
Terms.

workers in Science. MANY ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS, CHARTS AND DIAGRAMS, including a

Frontispiece Portrait of LORD KELVIN.

SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE IN 1904, including :

ASTRONOMY. By E. W. MIUNDER, MEDICAL SCIENCE. By Surg.-Major F.R.A.S., Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

G. MOORES, Scots Guards. BOTANY. By GEORGE MASSEE, F.L.S., METEOROLOGY. By WM. MARRIOTT, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Royal Meteorological Society. CHEMISTRY. By H. J. H. FENTON, MICROSCOPY. By F. SHILLINGTON F.R.S., Cambridge University.

SCALES, F.R.M.S., Cambridge. COSMICAL PHYSICS. By Dr. W. J. S.

NATURAL HISTORY. By W. P. LOCKYER, Solar Physics Observatory.

PYCRAFT, A.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., Natural HisELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. By

tory Museum. Prof. J. J. FLEMING, F.R.S., University

PHOTOGRAPHY. By CHAPMAN JONES, College.

F.I.C., F.C.S., Royal College of Science. GEOGRAPHY, By E. HEAWOOD, Librarian Royal Geographical Society.

PHYSICS. By Prof. A. W. PORTER, Uni

versity College, London. GEOLOGY. By Prof. GRENVILLE A. J. COLE, Royal College of Science, Dublin.

PHYSIOLOGY. By F. OSWALD, B.A.,

B.Sc.
MATHEMATICS. By Prof. G. H. BRYAN,
F.R.S., L'niversity, North Wales.

ZOOLOGY. By Dr. P. L. SCLATER, F.R.S. DIARY-One page to each day. Times of Sunrise and Sunset.

Meteorological and Astronomical Notes for each day, Cash
Accounts. Engagements, &c.

OVER 600 PAGES, Large Octavo, Handsomely bound in red cloth, gold lettering:

with a Changeable Monthly Calendar let into the cover.

PRICE

FIVE SHILLINGS NET, (Postage extra : Inland, 4d.; Foreign, 8d.)

PUBLISHED BY KING, SELL, & OLDING, Ltd., 27 Chancery Lane, London, W.C.

iv

BEWARE OF

FEEBLE
IMITATIONS

THE SYTAM SYSTEM

two

DO YOU WISH
TO BE
UP TO DATE

of arranging Bottles, Books,
in Scientific Demonstrating?
If so, send for our full descriptive pamphlet of Apparatus, Pamphlets, Specimens, MSS.,

the Kershaw. Patent Lantern
(Stroud and Rendall's and

Correspondence, “ Copy,” &c.
Kershaw Patents), made of
best seasoned mahogany,
French polished, lined with Saves an incredible amount of wall space and
asbestos and Russian iron.
Fitted with

double completely utilises dark corners, recesses, and achromatic objectives, 90° out-of-the-way places. silvered prism, complete with B.T. or mixed jet, in Prevents crowding and confusion. travelling case, measuring 23" X 16" x 9".

Allows for extension as and when required.
ALL ACCESSORIES SUPPLIED. ARC LAMPS, RESISTANCES, Always room for more, hence reorganisation

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CONTRACTOR TO H.M.'s GOVERNMENT.

Saves time, lightens work, and increases comfort

by producing perfect order in the Laboratory, NEW PATENT

Library, Study, Home, Office, &c.

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SOLE MAKER

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AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT THE SYSTEM ACCOMPLISHES :

One hundred 4 oz. bottles are arranged in one Sytam Bottle-Element occupying less than 1 sq. ft. of wall space, each bottle is instantly located, removed or replaced, and any size from } oz. to a Winchester can be accommodated in one and the same element.

BOOK-SPACE ECONOMISED IN LIKE MANNER.

THE SYTAM FITTINGS CO., 18 & 19 BASINGHALL BUILDINGS, LEEDS.

NEON, KRYPTON, XENON, RECTIFIED SPIRIT

ARGON, HELIUM.

(SPIRITS OF WINE). B.P. and higher strengths. Duty paid; or Duty

Free under Finance Act 1902.

METHYLATED SPIRIT

We have now in stock a number of
Vacuum Tubes of the above Gases,

GUARANTEED PURE.

ADAM HILGER, Ltd.,

75a Camden Road, London, N.W. AWARDED GOLD MEDAL, ST. LOUIS EXHIBITION, 1904. ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST OF SPECTROSCOPES, &c.,

POST FREE ON APPLICATION.

Special Quotations to large

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DISTILLERS SINCE 1730,
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LONDON, S.E.

JAMES SWIFT & SON'S

NEW PAN-APLANATIC OBJECTIVES LIQUID AIR AND LIQUID HYDROGEN.

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OF THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE OPTICAL EXCELLENCE.

Apochromatics. }" N.A., 1.30, oil immersion

£8 8 0 1.40

10 10 0 1/12" 1.40

8 8 0 Pan-Aplanatics. 1" oil immersion, N.A., 1.30

4 0 0 1/10" 1.30

4 0 0 1/12" 1.30

5 0
Dry Series Pan-Aplanatics.
" N.A., 0.30
£2 5 0 t" N.A., 0.80

1 16 0
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2 0 0 M"

0.88

2 17 0
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1 4 0

0.92

2 оо NATURE says :-"In the excellence of their 1/12-in. homogeneous oil immersion they have produced an English-made lens of first-rate capacity which is a marvel of cheapness."

LISTS POST FREE ON APPLICATION.

UNIVERSITY OPTICAL WORKS,
81 Tottenham Court Road, London.

Dr. HAMPSON'S AIR-LIQUEFIER is now made to a standard pe: tern, and numbers are in use in University Laboratories and else bese e various countries. The whole apparatus is neat and compact and its pars very easily moved ; the Liquefier, without stand, being a cylinder 17 inches high and 8 inches in diameter.

It begins to liquefy air in from 6 to 10 minutes after the admission of als at from 150 to 200 atmospheres pressure, making over a litre of liquid pe hour.

It requires no auxiliary refrigerant and produces a perfectly clear luged which requires no filtering.

The operator has only one gauge to watch and one valve to control. HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER to the designs of Dr. MORRIS W TRAVERS for use in conjunction with Air-Liquefier.

For Prices and Particulars apply to the Sole Makers : BRIN'S OXYGEN COMPANY LIMITED

ELVERTON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.

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RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LTD., BREAD ST. HILL, E.C., AND BUNGAY, SUFFOLK.

205

a

14

11

he says, “ I have always thought that there must have by re-distillation. Such a spirit is clear, has no strong been a formative epoch, in which every creature had odour, and leaves no residue when evaporated from the power of special adaptation to its own needs-nay the hand. Two or three years ago the best English even to its own wishes or caprice. In this epoch of petrol had a specific gravity of 0.680; but, for reasons

plasmation' when the so-called force of heredity- io be mentioned later, the density has been gradually which tends to reproduction according to the type of raised, and is now generally about 0.720 or more. the progenitor-had but little power, the world being Chemically, light oil or petrol is a mixture of several still young, the organism must have been far more members of the homologous series of paraffin hydrosusceptible of modification by external forces (p. 36). carbons, CnH2n + 2 It is generally assumed to be

.. The actual power of adaptation in organisms is mainly heptane, C,H6, and octane, C H18, but both at the present day well nigh non-existent as compared | lower and higher members are usually present, and with what they must have possessed in the past (p. 211), some analyses indicate that the range may commonly

The varied forms assumed by those groups of be from hexane, C,H, to undecane, CH, A point individuals called by naturalists species, would be to notice is that whilst petrol as a whole is a light, merely the result of a plasmative force exerted by volatile oil, it is by no means a homogeneous liquid. surrounding conditions on primitive beings (p: 208). The different hydrocarbons composing it have not the

: . May it not be that the Rafflesia, and a host of same volatility as one another, and they require other aberrant species, both animals and plants, are different quantities of air for their complete comexamples of the autocreation of organisms (derived bustion. from exceptional circumstances of the environment) The heavier oil obtained from crude petroleum correand suddenly appeared à l'improviste, as it were, in sponds to what is ordinarily known as kerosene, petrothat primitive epoch during which organic matter was

leum oil, or paraffin. It is obtained by refining the easily plasmated, so as to adapt itself with facility fraction which distils between 150° and 200°, and even to extraordinary conditions of existence ? (p. 389). has a density of about 0.78 to 0.81. This product con

.. Therefore, contrary to the present prevailing tains higher members of the paraffin series than those tendency to attribute a powerful action to variability of petrol. It is consequently less volatile, and has a during the existing period, and to consider every species higher flash-point. as inconstant, I hold the opposite opinion, namely, Kerosene is not only cheaper than petrol, but safer that at the present time species do not vary in Nature, in the handling. Why, then, is petrol used so largely returning thus to the old idea of the nearly absolute as a motor fuel instead of kerosene? And why are fixity of existing species (p. 210).” It is interesting

some kinds of petrol better than others? To answer 10 compare these views with those arrived at by Alfred

these questions we have to remember that, to form the Wallace, who wandered in the same jungles; and, as proper explosive mixture for the engine, it is necessary Dr. Guillemard, the English editor, rightly observes,

to have the vapour of the liquid mixed with a particular · Whether the scientific reader does or does not admit

proportion of air. With too little air the mixture burns the validity of all Dr. Beccari's theories concerning

too gently; with too much there is a diluent ellect. species-formation, he cannot call in question his and liability to failure of ignition. The ready volatility abundant experience of the country, or his knowledge of petrol allows of the requisite mixture being made of the subjects of which he treats.'

A. C. H.

more easily, more certainly, and with a simpler form of carburetter than when kerosene is used. Failure to

ignite is less frequent, and the combustion is cleaner. OILS FOR JOTOR-CARS.

Nevertheless, since the supply of petrol is not limit.

less, attempts are being made, with some success, to POSSIBLY this article may be of interest to readers utilise kerosene as a source of motor energy,

The of Nature who are not chemists, and therefore principle employed is that of heating up the vapour of no apology need be made for treating certain parts the kerosene, or the liquid itself, in order to allow of of the subject in an elementary manner.

The com

a readier admixture with the air in the carburetter. mercial naines for motor-ojis are numerous and con- This is effected either by the heat of the exhaust or fusing, and the automobilist may well be puzzled to by some other special contrivance. A “smokeless discriminate between them, even if his chemistry has petroleum engine” has recently been described which by no means become a mere schoolboy reminiscence. is said to run without smoke or smell, and without

The various liquids in use at the present time as sooting” the cylinder. It will not, however, start suels for motors are derived from three sources, namely, with the cold kerosene. Petrol is used for the first crude petroleum, coal tar, and alcohols. By far the revolutions in order to heat the vaporiser and raise largest quantity is furnished by the petroleum. Coal- the kerosene to the necessary temperature. tar" spirit" is scarcely beyond the experimental stage. As regards differences of quality met with in motor Alcohol is somewhat largely used abroad, but at pre- spirits (petrol), the first thing to notice is that the sent is almost out of the question in this country. higher the density of the liquid the nearer does it

Products from Crude Petroleum.—These, so far as approach to the character of kerosene and to the motor fuel is concerned, are two: a light oil and a possession of the disadvantages peculiar to the latter. heavier or" burning oil. The light oil, in one grade To meet the growing demand, makers have been 11:0re or another, is variously known as gasoline, petroleum and more inclined to eke out their supply of petrol by spirit. pelrol, petrol spirit, motor spirit, mineral spirit, including a portion of the heavier fractions that were motol, moto-essence, naphtha, petroleum-benzine, and formerly rejected. Hence many of the present oils are benzoline. Of these, gasoline has the lowest density, to that extent of inferior quality. Next, the density benzoline the highest. The oil is obtained in the dis- alone is not an infallible criterion, because a spirit tillation of American crude petroleum, and may be having a density of, let us say, 0.700, may be made up said generally to b: the portion of the distillate pass- in different ways. Ideally, it might consist of a single ing through the still between the temperature-limits hydrocarbon having the density in question. On the of 60° C. and 150° C., and having a specific gravity other hand, it might be compounded of two hydroranging from 0.68 10 0.74. The limits, however, vary carbons having widely different densities, such as 0.660 somewhat with the different refineries. To obtain a and 0.740 respectively. In the first case it would distil good motor ** spirit" this fraction of the distillate is completely at one uniform temperature, in the second purified with sulphuric acid and with soda, and rectified there would be a difference of perhaps a hundred

NO. 1835, vol. 711

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