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THE VERY LATEST

"TYPE" OF EXTENSIMETER IS, THE “O'TOOLE.”

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A Simple,

Convenient,

Accurate, and Reliable

Instrument, designed by the Rev. Father O'Toole,

Black Rock College, Dublin, for Students' use in determining the coefficients of

expansion of metal rods, at a

moderate price.

Price, with steamjacket, graduated

spirit level and micrometer gauge,

complete,

£2 : 2:0

SOLE MAKERS

PHILIP HARRIS & CO., LTD .

144 EDMUND ST., BIRMINGHAM, 179 GT, BRUNSWICK ST., DUBLIN.

AN D

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THEIR EMPLOYMENT in CANCER and of High Sensitiveness to Light, with & without Evacuation.

other DISEASES.
EYATÁDRICAL (As Figured),

BY
CONICAL.
Apparatus for Demonstrating Sensitiveness of Selenium to Light.

RICHARD J. COWEN, L.R.C.S.I., L.R.C.P.I., &c.
Apparatus for Wireless Telephony by Light.
HIGHLY SENSITIVE RELAYS (RegisterED DESIGN).
1 Illustrated Price List now ready.

London : H. J. GLAISHER, 57 Wigmore Street, W. C.F. ADOLPH & CO., 14 FARBINGDON RD.,

JUST PUBLISHED. With 135 Illustrations and Coloured
GLEW'S SCINTILLOSCOPE

Plate. 8vo. sos. 6d. net.
(PATENT).
Shows a magnificent display of scintillations,

of scintillations, AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF
showers of sparks, direct from the mineral Pitch
blende, Radium, Polonium, Uranium, Thorium, or any
radio-active substance, even a Welsbach mantle con.

SPECTRUM ANALYSIS.
tains sufficient Thorium to excite the very sensitive
screen
of the

Scintilloscope, which is far more sensi- By W. MARSHALL WATTS, D.Sc. (Lond.), tive than the Spinthariscope. The Scintilloscope

B.Sc. (Vict.), F.I.C.,
rivals the most delicate Electroscope as a detector
of Alpha rays.

Senior Physical Science Master in the Giggleswick School.
The eye sees an inexhaustible shower of stars of

PROSPECTUS SENT ON APPLICATION. PITCH BLENDE white light, giving a very realistic idea of the ceaseless activity of these marvellous substances which are pro

LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., 39 PATERNOSTER Row, ducing the terrific bombardment causing this beautiful display.

LONDON, E.C.
See NATURE, September 29, page 535.
Glew's Scintilloscope Superior Lens, with Extra-sensitive Pitch blende and

Polonium Screens, giving brilliant effects, Complete, 75. 6d., Post free, ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY.

U.K. Foreign Postage extra, weight 2 ounces.
Pieces of Pitchblende mineral, ground flat and polished, with Sensitive

PROCEEDINGS.
Screen attached, for use in Scintilloscope or with any strong pocket
magnifier, from 75. 6d. each, according to size.

Vol. XXV. Section C. Nos. 5 and 6. Sewed, with illustrations, 25. 6d. Radioactive supplies of every description, on Sale or Hire. Radium Bromide, 1,800,000 units on hire for lectures.

IRISH BIBLIOGRAPHY. F. HARRISON GLEW, Radiographer (Silver Medallist, Paris, 1900), Two Papers by the late Sir JOHN T. GILBERT, LL.D. 156 Clapham Road, London, S.W.

With an Introduction, Notes, and Appendices by E. R. McCLINTOCK Dix.

THE ANTRIM RAISED BEACH:

A Contribution to the Neolithic History of the North of Ireland. MANUFACTURERS

CATALOGUES

By GEORGE COFFEy and R. LLOYD PRAEGER.
OF

FREE.

WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, W.C. ELECTRICAL TESTING INSTRUMENTS.

With 30 Original Illustrations. Price 2s, 6d.
DURHAM HOUSE, NORTH SIDE,

The HYGIENE of the MOUTH.
CLAPHAM COMMON, LONDON, S.W.

A Guide to the Provention and Oontrol of Dental Diseaser.

By R. DENISON PEDLEY, L.D.S. Eng., F.R.C.S. Ed., SEND FOR NEW LIST OF

Dental Surgeon to the Evelina Hospital, Southwark. Microscopical Specimens in

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

The DISEASES of CHILDREN'S TEETH MARINE ZOOLOGY

Well Illustrated. Price 7s. 63.

SEGG & CO., 289 and 291 Regent Street, London, .
POST FREE ON APPLICATION.
List OF SECOND-HAND INSTRUMENTS AIso Post Free.

JOHN WHELDON &
C. BAKER, 244 HICH HOLBORN, LONDON.

CO'S

CATALOGUE OF
MINERALS, ROCKS, FOSSILS.
A large stock of BRITISH AND FOREIGN MINERALS always on view.

Pt. 2.-GEOGRAPHICAL (comprising faunas of all countries). CORNISH MINERALS

Ready in January.
A SPECIALITY.

Pt. 1.-INVERTEBRATA, 36 pp. Now ready, Special display for Teachers and Students on Saturdays. Open till 7 p.m.

SENT POST FREE ON APPLICATION.
RICHARDS' SHOW ROOMS,

38 GREAT QUEEN ST., LONDON, W.C. 3 Beauchamp Place, Brompton Road, South Kensington,

London, S.W.
THE IRISH NATURALIST.
A Monthly Magazine of Irish Zoology, Botany, and and Periodicals promptly supplied at lowest rates.

Geology. Price 6d.
Edited by GEO. H. CARPENTER, B.Sc., and R. LLOYD

CATALOGUES POST FREE ON APPLICATION.
PRAEGER, B.A.
Annual Subscription, 5s. Post Free to any Address.
Dublin : EASON & SON, LTD., 40 Lower Sackville Street

W. MULLER, (to which Address Subscriptions should be sent). London : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, & Co., Ltd. i 59 CASTLE STREET EAST, OXFORD STREET, LONDON, W.

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ZOOLOGICAL BOOKS AND PAPERS.

FOREIGN SCIENTIFIC BOOKS

THE SCIENCE YEAR BOOK

Diary, Directory, and Scientific Summary

for

1905.

CONTENTS.

FULL ASTRONOMICAL NOTES, TABLE OF ELEMENTS.

PRIZES AND GRANTS OFFERED. TABLES, AND EPHEMERIS. TIME. GEOMETRY.

TECHNICAL GOVERNMENT THE EARTH. METEOROLOGY. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

OFFICES. WIND PRESSURES. MAGNETISM. ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. UNIVERSITIES. THERMOMETER. MELTING SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POPULATION AND STATISTICS. POINTS. CONDUCTIVITY.

PERIODICALS.

COINAGE AND MONEY. TABLE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES.

POSTAL INFORMATION, &c., &c.
GLOSSARY of New Scientific

BIOGRAPHIES of all the principal
Terms.

workers in Science. MANY ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS, CHARTS AND DIAGRAMS, including a

Frontispiece Portrait of LORD KELVIN.

SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE IN 1904, including :

ASTRONOMY. By E. W. MAUNDER, MEDICAL SCIENCE. By Surg.-Major F.R.A.S., Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

G. MOORES, Scots Guards. BOTANY. By GEORGE MASSEE, F.L.S., METEOROLOGY. By WM. MARRIOTT, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Royal Meteorological Society. CHEMISTRY. By H. J. H. FENTON, MICROSCOPY.

By F.

SHILLINGTON F.R.S., Cambridge University.

SCALES, F.R.M.S., Cambridge. COSMICAL PHYSICS. By Dr. W. J. S.

NATURAL HISTORY. LOCKYER, Solar Physics Observatory.

By W. P.

PYCRAFT, A.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., Natural HisELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ву

tory Museum. Prof. J. A. FLEMING, F.R.S., University

PHOTOGRAPHY. By CHAPMAN JONES, College.

F.I.C., F.C.S., Royal College of Science. GEOGRAPHY. By E. HEAWOOD, Librarian Royal Geographical Society.

PHYSICS. By Prof. A. W. PORTER, UniGEOLOGY. By Prof. GRENVILLE A. J. COLE,

versity College, London. Royal College of Science, Dublin.

PHYSIOLOGY. By F. OSWALD, B.A.,

B.Sc.
MATHEMATICS. By Prof. G. H. BRYAN,
F.R.S., L'niversity, North Wales.

ZOOLOGY. By Dr. P. L. SCLATER, F.R.S. DIARY_One page to each day. Times of Sunrise and Sunset.

Meteorological and Astronomical Notes for each day, Cash
Accounts. Engagements, &c.

OVER 600 PAGES, Large Octavo, Handsomely bound in red cloth, gold lettering :

with a Changeable Monthly Calendar let into the cover.

PRICE

FIVE SHILLINGS NET, (Postage extra : Inland, 4d.; Foreign, 8d.)

PUBLISHED

BY KING, SELL, & OLDING, Ltd., 27 Chancery Lane, London, W.C.

£8.

BEWARE OF

FEEBLE
IMITATIONS

THE SYTAM SYSTEM

DO YOU WISH
TO BE
UP TO DATE

of arranging Bottles, Books,
in Scientific Demonstrating ?
If so, send for our full descriptive pamphlet of Apparatus, Pamphlets, Specimens, MSS.,

the Kershaw-Patent Lantern
(Stroud and Rendall's and

Correspondence, “ Copy," &c.
Kershaw Patents), made of
best seasoned mahogany,
French polished, lined with Saves an incredible amount of wall space and
asbestos and Russian iron.
Fitted with double completely utilises dark corners, recesses, and
achromatic objectives, 90° out-of-the-way places.
silvered prism, complete
with B.T. or mixed jet, in Prevents crowding and confusion.
travelling case, measuring
23" X 16" x 9".

Allows for extension as and when required.
ALL ACCESSORIES SUPPLIED. ARC LAMPS, RESISTANCES, Always room for more, hence reorganisation

STANDS, &c.
SOLER A. KERSHAW, Dorrington St., Leeds.

seldom or never necessary.
CONTRACTOR TO A.M.'s GOVERNMENT.

Saves time, lightens work, and increases comfort by producing perfect order in the Laboratory, Library, Study, Home, Office, &c.

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two

NEW PATENT

ELECTRIC FURNACES

AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT THE SYSTEM ACCOMPLISHES :

One hundred 4 oz. bottles are arranged in one Sytam Bottle-Element Occupying less than 1 sq. ft. of wall space, each bottle is instantly located, removed or replaced, and any size from

oz. to a Winchester can be accommodated in one and the same element.

FOR
Crucibles, Muffles, Combustion Analysis, Kjeldahl's

Nitrogen Estimations, Assay Work, &c. Temperature easily regulated up to 2500° Centigrade ; if neat resisting material can be found up to 3000° C.

Arranged from 70 to 250 Volts.
Price List and full details on application.

SOLE AGENTS FOR UNITED KINGDOM,
A. GALLENKAMP & CO., Ltd.,

19-21 SUN STREET, FINSBURY, LONDON, E.C.

BOOK-SPACE ECONOMISED IN LIKE MANNER.

THE SYTAM FITTINGS CO., 18 & 19 BASINGHALL BUILDINGS, LEEDS.

NEON, KRYPTON, XENON, RECTIFIED SPIRIT ARGON, HELIUM.

METHYLATED SPIRIT

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(SPIRITS OF WINE). B.P. and higher strengths. Duty paid; op Duty

Free under Finance Act 1902.

We have now in stock a number of
Vacuum Tubes of the above Gases,

GUARANTEED PURE.

ADAM HILGER, Ltd.,

75a Camden Road, London, N.W. AWARDED GOLD MEDAL, ST. LOUIS EXHIBITION, 1904. ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST OF SPECTROSCOPES, &c.,

POST FREE ON APPLICATION.

Special Quotations to large

Institutions.
BOORD & SON,

DISTILLERS SINCE 1780,
115-121 Tooley Street,

LONDON, S.E.

HYDROGEN.

PAN-APLANATIC OBJECTIVES LIQUID AIR AND LIQUID

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JAMES SWIFT & SON'S
NEW
OF THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE OPTICAL EXCELLENCE.

Apochromatics.
" N.A., 1.30,
oil immersion

£8 8 0 1.40

10 10 0 1/12" 1.40

8 8 0 Pan-Aplanatics. " oil immersion, N.A., 1.30

4 0 0 1/10" 1.30

4 0 0 1.30

5 5 0
Dry Series Pan-Aplanatics.
" N.A., 0.30
£2 5 0 {" N.A., 0.80

1 16 0
0.50
2 о о

0.88

2 17 0
0.30
1 4 0

0.92

2 о о NATURE says :-" In the excellence of their 1/12-in. homogeneous oil immersion they have produced an English-made lens of first-rate capacity which is a marvel of cheapness.'

LISTS POST FREE ON APPLICATION.

UNIVERSITY OPTICAL WORKS, 81 Tottenham Court Road, London,

1/12"

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Dr. HAMPSON'S AIR-LIQUEFIER is now made to a standard per. tera, and numbers are in use in University Laboratories and else beste various countries. The whole

apparatus is neat and compact and its pars very easily moved ; the Liquefier, without stand, being a cylinder 17 i

incess high and 8 inches in diameter.

It begins to liquefy air in from 6 to 10 minutes after the admission of a at from 150 to 200 atmospheres pressure, making over a litre of liquid pe hour.

It requires no auxiliary refrigerant and produces a perfectly clear Ingad which requires no filtering.

The operator has only one gauge to watch and one valve to control. HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER to the designs of Dr. MORRIS W TRAVERS for use in conjunction with Air-Liquefier.

For Prices and Particulars apply to the Sole Makers :BRIN'S OXYGEN COMPANY, LIMITED,

ELVERTON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.

RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LTD., BREAD ST. HILL, E.C., AND BUNGAY, SUFFOLK.

he says, " I have always thought that there must have by re-distillation. Such a spirit is clear, has no strong been a formative epoch, in which every creature had odour, and leaves no residue when evaporated from the power of special adaptation to its own needs-nay the hand. Two or three years ago the best English even to its own wishes or caprice. In this epoch of petrol had a specific gravity of 0.680; but, for reasons

plasmation when the so-called force of heredity- io be mentioned later, the density has been gradually which tends to reproduction according to the type of raised, and is now generally about 0.720 or more. the progenitor--had but little power, the world being Chemically, light oil or petrol is a mixture of several still young, the organism must have been far more members of the homologous series of paraffin hydrosusceptible of modification by external forces (p. 36). carbons, C,H2n+2- It is generally assumed to be .The actual power of adaptation in organisms is mainly heptane, C,H., and octane, C,H, but both at the present day well nigh non-existent as compared lower and higher members are usually present, and with what they must have possessed in the past (p: 211), some analyses indicate that the range may commonly

. . The varied forms assumed by those groups of be from hexane, CH4, to undecane, CH A point individuals called by naturalists species, would be to notice is that whilst petrol as a whole is a light, merely the result of a plasmative force exerted by volatile oil, it is by no means a homogeneous liquid. surrounding conditions on primitive beings (p. 208). The different hydrocarbons composing it have not the

May it not be that the Rafflesia, and a host of same volatility as one another, and they require other aberrant species, both animals and plants, are different quantities of air for their complete comexamples of the autocreation of organisms (derived bustion. from exceptional circumstances of the environment) The heavier oil obtained from crude petroleum correand suddenly appeared à l'improviste, as it were, in sponds to what is ordinarily known as kerosene, petrothat primitive epoch during which organic matter was leum oil, or paraffin. It is obtained by refining the easily plasmated, so as to adapt itself with facility fraction which distils between 150° and 200°, and even to extraordinary conditions of existence? (p. 389). has a density of about 0.78 to 0.81. This product con

. . Therefore, contrary to the present prevailing tains higher members of the paraffin series than those tendency to attribute a powerful action to variability of petrol. It is consequently less volatile, and has a during the existing period, and to consider every species higher flash-point. as inconstant, I hold the opposite opinion, namely,

Kerosene is not only cheaper than petrol, but safer that at the present time species do not vary in Nature, in the handling. Why, then, is petrol used so largely returning thus to the old idea of the nearly absolute

as a motor fuel instead of kerosene? And why are frsity of existing species (p. 210).” It is interesting

some kinds of petrol better than others? To answer to compare these views with those arrived at by Alfred

these questions we have to remember that, to form the Wallace, who wandered in the same jungles; and, as proper explosive mixture for the engine, it is necessary Dr. Guillemard, the English editor, rightly observes, to have the vapour of the liquid mixed with a particular * Whether the scientific reader does or does not admit proportion of air. With too little air the mixture burns the validity of all Dr. Beccari's theories concerning too gently; with too much there is a diluent ellect. species-formation, he cannot call in question his and liability to failure of ignition. The ready volatility abundant experience of the country, or his knowledge of petrol allows of the requisite mixture being made of the subjects of which he treats.' A. C. H.

more easily, more certainly, and with a simpler form of carburetter than when kerosene is used. Failure to

ignite is less frequent, and the combustion is cleaner. OILS FOR MOTOR-CARS.

Nevertheless, since the supply of petrol is not limit

less, attempts are being made, with some success, to OSSIBLY this article may be of interest to readers utilise kerosene as a source of motor energy..

The of Nature who are not chemists, and therefore principle employed is that of heating up the vapour of no apology need be made for treating certain parts the kerosene, or the liquid itself, in order to allow of of the subject in an elementary manner. The com- a readier admixture with the air in the carburetter. mercial names for motor-oils are numerous and con- This is effected either by the heat of the exhaust or fusing, and the automobilist may well be puzzled to by some other special contrivance. A “ smokeless discriminate between them, even if his chemistry has petroleum engine” has recently been described which by no means become a mere schoolboy reminiscence. is said to run without smoke or smell, and without

The various liquids in use at the present time as "sooting” the cylinder. It will not, however, start fuels for motors are derived from three sources, namely, with the cold kerosene. Petrol is used for the first crude petroleum, coal tar, and alcohols. By far the revolutions in order to heat the vaporiser and raise largest quantity is furnished by the petroleum. Coal- the kerosene to the necessary temperature. tar ** spirit" is scarcely beyond the experimental stage. As regards differences of quality met with in motor Alcohol is somewhat largely used abroad, but at pre- spirits (petrol), the first thing to notice is that the sent is almost out of the question in this country. higher the density of the liquid the nearer does it

Products from Crude Petroleum.—These, so far as approach to the character of kerosene and to the motor fuel is concerned, are two: a light oil and a possession of the disadvantages peculiar to the latter. heavier or " burning" oil. The light oil, in one grade to meet the growing demand, makers have been nore or another, is variously known as gasoline, petroleum and more inclined to eke out their supply of petrol by spirit, petrol, petrol spirit, motor spirit, mineral spirit, including a portion of the heavier fractions that were motol, moto-essence, naphtha, petroleum-benzine, and formerly rejected. Hence many of the present oils are benzoline. Of these, gasoline has the lowest density, to that extent of inferior quality. Next, the density benzoline the highest. The oil is obtained in the dis- | alone is not an infallible criterion, because a spirit tillation of American crude petroleum, and may be having a density of, let us say, 0.700, may be made up said generally to be the portion of the distillate pass- in different ways. Ideally, it might consist of a single ing through the still between the temperature-limits hydrocarbon having the density in question. On the of 60° C. and 150° C., and having a specific gravity other hand, it might be compounded of two hydroranging from o 68 10 0.74. The limits, however, vary carbons having widely different densities, such as 0.660 somewhat with the different refineries. To obtain a and 0-740 respectively. In the first case it would distil good motor “ spirit” this fraction of the distillate is completely at one uniform temperature, in the second purified with sulphuric acid and with soda, and rectified there would be a difference of perhaps a hundred

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