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OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

the period August, 1903, to January, 1904, the average time

of rotation was gh. 55m. 41.525. ASTRONOMICAL OCCURRENCES IN JANUARY, 1905.

He points out that this is a remarkable increase on the Jan. 2-3. Epoch of January meteors (Radiant 230° +53). rotation period (viz. gh. 55m. 39.66s.) of the preceding 6. th. 52m. to 7h. sm. Transit of Tupiter's Sat. III.

year. (Ganymede).

REPORT OF THE UNITED STATES NAVAL OBSERVATORY. 8. 2h. Saturn in conjunction with Moon (Saturn

Rear-Admiral Chester's report of the work done at the 3° 3' S.). 9. zh. Venus in conjunction with Moon (Venus 2° 13' | ing June 30, 1904, shows that the observatory and the staff

United States Naval Observatory during the fiscal year endS.). 11h. Juno in conjunction with Moon (Juno o° 11'S.).

are still maintaining their reputation as regards the number

and excellence of the observations made. In all 15,287 sh. gm. to 6h. 23m. Moon occults ♡ Aquarii observations were made, including photographs of the sun (Mag. 4.4).

taken on 210 days which show an increase of 93 days on Perihelion Passage of Encke's Comet.

which spots and faculæ were recorded on the solar disc. 13. 8h. 52m. to nih. 6m. Transit of Jupiter's Sat. III.

A new photo-visual triple objective with an aperture of (Ganymede).

7.5 inch and a focal length of 65 feet, giving a 7-inch 1ob. 36m. Minimum of Algol (8 Persei).

image, is to be obtained for the photoheliograph, and will 15. Venus. Illuminated portion of disc=0'650, of also be used on future eclipse expeditions for photographing Mars=0-903.

the corona. In regard to next year's eclipse the superin16. 7h. 25m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei).

tendent asks for a special grant of 1200l. and 12h. 43m. 10 13h. 4om. Moon occults B Virginis commends the employment of a man-of-war and its crew to

(Mag. 3:8). 27. Ioh. Mars in conjunction with Moon (Mars 2° 45' made at two widely separated stations in Spain.

assist in the observations, which he suggests should be S.).

The report also contains individual reports from the 28. 15h. 7m. to 16h. im. Moon occults y Libræ

assistant in charge of each department, and records the (Mag. 4'1).

personnel, the routine work performed with each instruELEMENTS AND EPHEMERIS OF COMET 1904 d.--Circular ment, and the publications issued during the period with No. 69 from the Kiel Centralstelle contains a set of elements, which it deals. alculated by Herr M. Ebell from the observations made on The branch observatory at Tutuila, Samoa, has now been December 17, 18, 19, and a short ephemeris, for comet established, and placed under the supervision of assistants 1904 d, recently discovered by M. Giacobini Nice. They

from Washington. are as follows :

Elements.
т 1905 Jan. 3'2814 Berlin.

MATHEMATICAL DRAWING."
00 = 75' 9':8

THE appearance of a useful little book by Prof. Gibson 8 = 225° 1' 2 1904'o

may be made the occasion of emphasising the importi = 103° 27''3]

ance of drawing in mathematics, whether pure or applied, log 9 = 0'27173

especially as the University of London has recently made a

paper on drawing compulsory for all mathematical candiEphemeris 12h. (M.T. Berlin).

dates for the B.Sc. degree. It was not without due conlog A Bright.

sideration of the attendant difficulties that this step was h. m. s. Dec. 26 16 37 56 +31 45 0'3328

taken. For the last two years the paper on drawing 16 49 48 +33 53 0-3234 I'17

was left optional for the candidates in order that teachers 17 2 37 +36 8 0-3146

as well as students should have time to obtain some definite Brightness at time of discovery = 1.0.

notion of what is required; but even now, in the absence

of well established text-books, a considerable amount of From the above it will be seen that both the northern uncertainty exists as to the nature and scope of the subject. declination and the brightness of the comet are increasing,

Time will, no doubt, set this right, and we welcome Prof. but at the same time its right ascension is approximating

Gibson's text-book as assisting towards the desired object. more closely to that of the sun, thereby rendering observ

There are three prominent conceptions of mathematical ations increasingly difficult, and only possible during the drawing which may be noticed. These are :-(1) plotting, lew minutes preceding dawn.

which means the construction of curves by taking a set of

successive values of an abscissa and from them calculating OBSERVATIONS OF BRIGHT METEORS.--During

(by a book of tables or otherwise), the values of the correkoyage undertaken in 1903-4, Dr. J. Möller, of Elsfleth, sponding ordinate, and finally marking the positions of the observed a large number of meteors, and in No. 3984 of points on squared paper ; (2) the construction of curvesthe Astronomische Nachrichten he records the essential data usually conic sections-from certain geometrical data ; regarding the observations of the sixteen brightest objects (3) what is generally called geometrical drawing, seen during November-December, 1903, and March, 1904. embodying the principles and processes of projective of these, two were as bright as Jupiter, and five were geometry, and including problems in three dimensions. brighter than Saturn. The latitude and longitude of the This is, perhaps, a rough division, but it will suffice. place of observation are given in each case, so that in the Plotting may be a very humble process—“ mere plotting, event of duplicate observations having been made the real as it is sometimes contemptuously called-or it may be what paths may be computed.

has long been known as curve tracing, and is to be found The same observer recorded in No. 3971 of the same in treatises on the differential calculus. But even in this journal an authenticated naked-eye observation of Jupiter's latter and higher character it is not (at least as usually third satellite on November 1, 1903.

employed by students) a system of accurate drawing. The

construction of circles, and conics generally, from assigned THE GREAT RED SPOT ON JUPITER.-In a note to No. 3983

data is certainly not a pure exercise in drawing, because it ol the Astronomische Nachrichten Mr. Denning gives the

involves a very large knowledge of theorems on the part results of his own and the Rev. T. E. Phillips's observations

of the student. An exercise in this subject is apt to be, in v the Great Red Spot since the last conjunction of Jupiter.

reality, a severe examination in Euclid or in the theory of They show that for the seven months prior to last September

conic sections, and it cannot be what was intended by the the motion of the spot indicated a rotation period, for the

advocates of a paper on drawing. With regard to projective zone wherein it is located, of gh. 55m. 38.6s., a shorter

geometry the case is somewhat different; the principles inperiod than any observed since 1883, when it was al 33m. 38.25.

volved are not very numerous, and it cannot be said that a In the same publication Mr. Stanley Williams gives the

I "An Elementary Treatise on Graphs." By George A. Gibson, M.A.,

F.R.S.E., Professor of Mathematics in the Glasgow and West of Scotland results of his observations of this phenomenon, and shows

Technical College. Pp. x + 183. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.) that from his eye-estimates of the times of transit, during Price 35. 60.

1904-5

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knowledge of a large assortment of theorems is necessary; The solutions of the above examples have all been of a but the practical value of the study to students who are purely geometrical kind, and have not involved the plotting neither engineers nor architects is another matter.

of points by coordinates arithmetically calculated. There There is, however, another kind of mathematical drawing are other problems of a slightly different kind, still inwhich does not fall under any of these heads, and which dependent of plotting, but involving trial; the value of a consists in the invention of graphic solutions of equations certain unknown quantity which has to satisfy a certain which can be solved with great difficulty, if at all, by the geometrical condition is found by trial to do so very nearly stock processes of accurate mathematics. This branch is

if not completely. In all such cases Taylor's theorem at once the most useful and the most vague; it is impossible furnishes a still closer value than the observed one, and to lay down its principles in systematic order—it must be completes the solution with all desirable accuracy. learnt by abundant exemplification.

For example, many problems lead to the equation The ordinary academic problems of statics and hydro- a sin 2(0-a)=b sin for an unknown angle 8, the other statics furnish many examples of this subject, but only a quantities being all given. This can be solved by two few of these can be noticed here.

circles thus :--draw a line AB equal to b, and on it as If AB and BC are two ladders freely jointed together at diameter describe a circle the centre of which is C, draw B, of different weights and lengths, placed with the ends AD making the angle BAD=a and cutting the circle in D: A and C resting on a rough horizontal plane, A being pre- draw CD and produce it to E so that CE=a, and on CE vented from moving while C is drawn out along the plane, as diameter describe a circle. Now find on the circumthe inclinations, 0, $, of AB and BC to the ground when ference of the first circle a point P such that if CP meets the limiting position is reached are determined from two the second circle in Q we have BP=EQ. This is done with equations of the forms

great accuracy by the eye, and Taylor's theorem will ima sin 0-b sin $=0; m tan 0+n tan ø=k,

prove the solution. where a, b, m, n, k are all given quantities. The graphic

An equation which can be solved also very easily by trial solution of these equations is effected with great ease thus :

is a sin’ 0=b cot 0, which may be taken in the form draw a line OH equal to m, and produce OH to O' so that

a sin (=b cos 6, and a graphic solution suitable to each HO' =n; at H draw HC perpendicular to 00' and equal

form is easily found. to k ; through O draw any line oQ meeting HC in Q; take

Finally, we may notice equations of the form a point R in CH such that CR=HQ, and draw O'R; then

tan x=ax/(c-xo), the point, P, of intersection of OQ and O'R is a point on the locus represented by the second of the above equations, which we obtain from Bessel functions in certain problems the angles 0, $ being POO' and PO'O. These points, P, relating to vibrations. Such an equation is easily solved are therefore constructed with great ease and rapidity. Also by the intersections of the curve y=cot x with the hyperbola the locus represented by the first equation is a circle having y=(c-x>)/ax, and the construction of the hyperbola belongs for diameter the line joining the points which divide 007 to the most simple case of this curve, viz. given one point internally and externally in the ratio a: b, and the points on the curve and the asymptotes. . As compared with the of intersection of these two loci give the required values of graphic solution of equations given by physical problems, 0 and $.

the graphic solution of algebraic equations is unimportant. The following problem leads to precisely the same equa- though not devoid of interest, because Horner is always tions as the above :-rays of light emanate from a fixed available for numerical cases. point P in one medium separated by a plane surface from a Prof. Gibson gives many examples of the solutions of second medium ; find the ray proceeding from P which will quadratics and of cubics by graphic methods; but as me be refracted to a given point, Q, in the second medium. gards quadratics it must be confessed that there is no

Again, the fact that when a uniform chain hangs with utility in the process, and too much space is usually devoted free extremities over two fixed supports of equal heights to it.

For cubics in general he gives a graphic solution there are either two figures of equilibrium or none results and an interesting discussion. In a second edition of his from the solution of an equation of the form xea/x = k, which book he might treat the biquadratic similarly, because its is effected by drawing the curve y=ex and the right line graphic solution can be easily effected by means of a circle y=kx/a, and then it is at once seen that there are either and a parabola, or by means of a right line and a curve two points of intersection or none.

easily derived from a parabola. Many curves occurring in When a heavy wire rope has its ends fixed at two points physics are dealt with in the book-such as isothermals in the same horizontal line, and a load is suspended from and adiabatics; there is also a useful discussion of Fourier's the lowest point of the rope, the rope forms parts of two theorem, and a treatment of the curves belonging to vibradistinct catenaries, and the determination of these curves tions, damped as well as undamped. The graphic method leads to an equation of the form

is also applied to the solution of some of the simpler mixed et te -- [47°+a) +a]/[(x2+62)++b].

trigonometric and algebraic equations, and the book con

cludes with a chapter on the properties of conic sections, in which x alone is unknown. The tracing of the curve

GEORGE M. VISCRUX. obtained by putting y equal to the right-hand side of this equation is quickly effected by means of two fixed circles and the drawing of right lines. The figure of equilibrium of a revolving self-attracting

CENTRAL AMERICAN MAMMALS. liquid spheroid gives an equation

which is a particular case THREE years ago the author of these volumes published of x(a+bx*)/(c+ x^)=tan-ix, and this is best solved by the in the same serial, a valuable synopsis of the mammals tracing of two curves. If we put y equal to the left-hand of North America and the adjacent seas. In the present side we have a curve of the third degree the geometrical larger work he has taken in hand the mammals of the tract construction of which is exceedingly simple, and requires generally known in this country as Central America, tot only a fixed circle and right lines.

on the other side of the Atlantic termed, at any rate by Whenever a problem involves two unknown angles in two zoologists, Middle

America, together with those of the West equations one of which is of the form m cos 0+n cos $=, Indian islands. The greater bulk of the present work is where m, n, c are given, all angles satisfying this equation accounted for, not so much by the greater number of species can be represented as the base angles of a triangle the base (690 against 606) as by the increased elaboration of of which, AB, is fixed, and the vertex of which describes the mode of treatment, the addition of diagnostic ** kers" what may be called a quasi-magnetic curve, the geometrical to the various genera, and by a fuller account of the habits construction of which is this: take any two fixed points, of many species, the latter feature rendering these volumes A, B; about A as centre, with radius m.AB/c describe a proportionately more valuable to the naturalist, and at the circle ; about B describe a circle with radius n. AB'C; draw same time of more general interest, The illustrations any line perpendicular to AB meeting these circles in Q and too, are more numerous, comprising, besides crania, figures R respectively; then the lines AQ and BR intersecť in a of the external form of a considerable number of species, point on the required curve. When m=n

we have the

1 " The Land and Sea Mammals of Middle America and the West common magnetic curve the construction of which is not

Indies." By D. G. Ello nearly so well known as it should be.

Field Columbian Museum Phatigue,

Zoological Series, vul. iv., part. 1 and 11. prxx1+850 illustrated,

classic Rome. One point in regard to the plan of the work —whether intentional or accidental it is not easy to saystrikes us as unsatisfactory. In the case of certain species, such as Odontocoelus americanus and Ovis cervina (pp. 69 and 84), for example, of which the typical form does not occur within the limits of the area under consideration,

the addition of the latter likewise tending to popularise the work.

In his preface Dr. Elliot reiterates and emphasises the remarks made in the companion volume as to “ the excessive and probably unwarranted multiplications of species and races (made easy by the too liberal application of the trinomial system) ” of American mammals in general. Many of the forms, he adds, which have received separate names are separated on the evidence of comparative instead of distinctive characters. That is to say, their differences from other types are so slight as to be incapable of definition except by comparison with the latter, often, indeed, involving the necessity of placing specimens of each side by side. Consequently, in many instances specimens cannot be referred to their respective species or races without access to museums.

Perhaps it is rather unfortunate that the author did not see his way to go one stage further, and mention what species and races are entitled, in his opinion, to recognition. A step would then have been made towards the elimination of the forms named on insufficient distinctive characters. Nowadays it is the fashion to assign a distinct name to every recognisable form, however slight may be its points of difference; but some limit in this direction will apparently have to be imposed before long, unless zoology is to become an impossible science. In our opinion, one way of mitigating the difficulty is by using specific terms in a comparatively wide sense, thus leaving the subspecies, or races, to be recognised or not according to the discretion of the individual student.

Nomenclature is another point on which the author has a good deal to say, and he mentions that some of the names employed in the companion volume have been changed in the present work. He hopes, however, that as the result of such changes “ a nomenclature that at least will approach stability may, in the distant future, be expected to be reached.” Possibly it may-at the cost of rendering all the older standard works on zoology, palæontology, distribution, and scientific travel worse than useless—but a proposal like that of emending such a name as Odocoileus in universal use among his naturalist countrymen) to Odontocælus scarcely seems calculated to pave the way to such a happy millennium !

Among changes in nomenclature that we specially regret to see is the substitution of Agouti for Calogenys as the name of the paca, largely on the ground that the former is the popular title of a totally different group of rodents, for which reason we think its use in the scientific sense should be barred. It is also distressing to see the familiar

[graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]

the species-name itself does not appear in the list at all, but only the subspecies, such forms consequently lacking a distinctive number, and thus rendering the census of specific · types occurring within the area inaccurate.

Otherwise we have nothing but commendation to bestow on the general mode of treatment of the subject, and it may be safely affirmed that the author has earned the gratitude of all naturalists on this side of the Atlantic by putting in a convenient and easily accessible form such a vast amount of information with regard to the mammalian fauna of an extremely interesting region. The illustrations (two of which are reproduced), it may be added, are, for the most part, beyond praise.

R. L.

[graphic]

THE FISHERIES OF SCOTLAND. THE twenty-second annual report of the Fishery Board

for Scotland, for the year 1903, is issued in three parts as usual, the first dealing with the sea fisheries, the second with the salmon fisheries, and the third being concerned with marine research.

With regard to sea fisheries, tables are given showing the results of the trawl fishing and the line fishing. The number of steam trawlers has been increasing steadily for the last seven years, and rose from 109 in 1896 to 280 in 1903. The average catch per vessel increased from 5030 cwt. to 5594 cwt., while the value of the catch per cwt. was practically the same in 1903 as it was in 1896.

In the line fishing the number of steam liners increased from 39 vessels in 1898 to 91 vessels in 1903, the number having varied somewhat in the intermediate years, 23 vessels having been added in 1903. The total number of boats was slightly less than in 1898, owing to a steady decrease in the number of sailing craft. The catch, since

FIG.1.-Lord Derby's Opossum and young. From Elliot's " Mammals of

Middle America."

name Hapale, for the marmosets, banished in favour of Callithrix, so long used for the titi monkeys, which now figure as Saimiri. On a par with the latter is the substitution of Tayassu for Dicotyles, of Coendu for Cercolabes, and of Potos for Cercoleptes, which is like an invasion of zoological Goths and Vandals into the sacred precincts of

to

1898, has steadily decreased from 1,050,000 cwt. We know that all the fish of one hatching do not migrate 602,600 cwt., and the value per cwt. has slightly decreased. to the sea at the same time. Some migrate at one year oid, The reason given for the reduction in value of line-caught the great majority at two years, and some again at three fish is that the trawlers have been landing large quantities years. of cod. Thus, in spite of the large increase in the number For the smolt to grilse stage Mr. Calderwood mentions of steam liners, which are, of course, independent of wind three cases in which the smolts returned after a year and in getting to the fishing grounds, the catch per boat fell some months as grilse of 3i. 31, and 6 lb. respectively. from about 182 cwt. to about 121 cwt.

and says “ we have no data to show any other seasonal It is interesting to note that for the herring fishing in migrations which may occur at this stage." We do not the Buckie and Peterhead districts experiments have been know whether the authority for the cases is untrustworthy. made with sailing boats fitted with auxiliary steam power. but we recollect records of smolts marked and released being The value of steam power is shown in another part of the re-caught after a few months as grilse up to 8 lb. weight report, where the catch of the Scotch boats (sailing craft) Such cases are mentioned by Fraser (" On the Salmon, &c." working from English ports during October and November

1833. pp. 15, 16) and by Brown ("* Stormontfield Experiis compared with that of the English boats, a large number ments," p. 92), who says *the experiments here have shown of which are steamers. The Scotch boats caught more than that all the smolts of one year do not return the same 655 per cent. of the total catch, but only got 460 per cent. year as grilse, the one half returning next spring and of the total value, the steamers always being able to make summer as small salmon." the market first.

Mr. Calderwood shows that what he considers five-year-old The west coast mackerel fishing has shown great improve- fish do not increase in weight in the way that four-year-olds ment, the catch in 1903 being 57 per cent. better than in and six-year-olds do, and he suggests that this may represent 1902. The trade apparently only requires development, as the period in the life of the adult salmon when the repro “ shoals of mackerel almost every year visit the coast. ductive function is at its best, and thus asserts itselí at the

In the report on salmon fisheries we learn that during the expense of the body-growth. year Mr. Calderwood, Inspector of Salmon Fisheries for Surely this classing of fish into ages by size can only Scotland, made inquiries as to the views of the various be roughly correct at best. We do not yet know to what fishery boards with regard to the limitation of netting in extent fish spawn annually or biennially, or whether a fish narrow waters, this move being an outcome of the report may rest several seasons after spawning. Yet i Mr. of the Royal Commission on Salmon Fisheries.

Calderwood's suggestion that the activity of the reproductive Some of the boards have already taken steps to reduce organs checks growth is sound, surely a fish spawning three the netting in their rivers. In the Annan all nets have been years in succession-as No. 7298 suggests may happenremoved, while in the Spey only about three miles of water would be considerably smaller than a fish of the same age is now netted. In the Aberdeenshire Dee an association which spawned in alternate years or less often. has, for about thirty years, annually bought off the nets There are several other interesting papers in this part, on some sixteen miles of water, and now both upper and but space precludes us from referring to them. lower proprietors are seeking to secure the permanent re- Part iii., scientific investigations, contains eight papers moval of these nets.

on various subjects connected with marine fisheries. Dr. While eleven of the boards consulted passed resolutions T. Wemyss Fulton, the superintendent, gives an account of in favour of reducing the netting, six were unable to express the trawling investigations, and in another paper continues an opinion, and only one, the North Esk Board, passed a the report of his investigations on the rate of growth of resolution against any such reduction. In Mr. Calderwood's fishes. He also reports upon the operations of the Nigg words :-“ 'The resolution was prepared and agreed to by Marine Hatchery, and has another paper entitled " Ichthyuthe lower proprietors—who are in the majority-before the logical Notes" on the various interesting species taken meeting took place, and was based upon the argument, during the year. supported by good evidence, that the present amount of An important paper is that by Dr. Williamson on the life netting in the district—which netting has been constant for histories of the edible crab and other decapod Crustacea. a great number of years—has not produced a decline in the Dr. Williamson has discovered that the ova of the crab are stock of fish. The question of improving the general not attached by mucilage to the long hairs of the spinnerets interest of their whole district is complicated by other con- as was supposed, but that the eggs are actually pierced by siderations which need not be referred to here."

the hairs, and are thus spitted in rows, the eggs not being One of the most important papers in this report is Mr. attached to one another. Calderwood's contribution to the life-history of the salmon Dr. Thomas Scott contributes a paper on some rare and as observed by means of marking adult fish, the first part interesting marine Crustacea, and another upon some fish of which appeared in the report for 1901. Since then 62 parasites new to the Scottish marine fauna. additional re-captures of marked fish have been made, which, The report is published at His Majesty's Stationery Office, with those previously caught, gives a total of 252 re-captured and can be obtained through any bookseller. fish. From this material, and also from other results

FRANK BALFOUR BROWSE obtained in Scotland, Ireland, and Norway, Mr. Calderwood has been able to draw some important conclusions. We now have evidence bearing out the commonly accepted view that

PRIZE AWARDS OF THE PARIS ACADEMY the great majority of salmon after visiting the sea return to the river they left.

OF SCIENCES. The marking experiments seem to show that grilse spend AT the annual meeting of the Academy of Sciences the less time in fresh water than salmon, running up and down list of prizes awarded for the year 1904 was announod from the redds more quickly than the latter.

as follows: Another very interesting fact brought out is that a grilse Geometry.-The Bordin prize to M. Servant, for his kelt after running down to the sea may return within a memoir on the determination of surfaces applicable to the few months as a summer salmon of about 10 lb., or may paraboloid of revolution which pass through a given conremain in the sea until the following year, returning to the tour; the Vaillant prize, divided between M. Emile Borel river as a spring salmon. This partly upsets the belief that (3000 francs), and M. Bricard (1000 francs); the Francour spring salmon are old fish, for, although there is no doubt prize to M. Emile Lemoine; and the Poncelet prize to M. that old fish do run up in the spring, we now know that Désiré André. a fish of 18 or 20 lb. may only be five years old, according Mechanics.--A Montyon prize to M. Gustave Richard. to Mr. Calderwood, and on its second return from the sea. Navigation.—The extraordinary prize, of 6000 francs,

There is evidence showing that some fish spawn in two divided in equal parts between M. Jacob (for his theoretical successive seasons, and one case, No. 7298, seems to suggest researches on the transmission of submarine explosions!, that the fish was spawning for the third year in succession. M. Gayde (for a study of the resistance of hulls to sub

There is a diagram, in which fish of various weights are marine explosion), and M. La Porte (for hydrographic work considered as being of various ages, which shows the on the coast of Brittany); the Plumey prize to M. Lucien interesting facts observed as to the " dual migration " which Mottez, for important services to submarine navigation. exists, perhaps, in all stages of the salmon's life-history. Astronomy.— The Pierre Guzman prize is not awarded : the Lalande prize to Mr. S. W. Burnham, for his work on the Saintour prize to M. Charles Frémont, for his experidouble stars; the Valz prize to M. de Campos Rodrigues, mental researches on the elasticity of metals; a Montyon jor work done at the Lisbon Observatory, with especial prize (statistics), divided between M. V. Lowenthal, for relerence to the determination of the solar parallax by means twelve memoirs relating to the depopulation of France, and of the planet Eros; the Janssen medal to M. Hansky. M. Paul Razous, for his memoir on the mortality and

Geography. The Binoux prize, divided between M. liability to disease in dangerous professions, MM. Henry Baratier (for his work in connection with Colonel Mar-Guégo, E. Maury, and Ott receiving mentions; the Jeanchand's expedition in Central Africa), M. Bénard (for his Jacques Berger prize is divided between MM. J. Resal work on Arctic exploration), and M. Alphonse Berget (for (6500 francs), A. Alby (3500 francs), Laurent (2000 francs), nis book on the physics and meteorology of the globe); Grimaud (1500 francs), and Retraint (1500 francs). the Gay prize to Mr. Bell Dawson, for his hydrographic work in eastern Canada ; the Tchihatchef prize to Lieut.Colonel Lubanski, for his explorations in Indo-China; the Delalande-Guérineau prize to M. Auguste Pavie, for work

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL in French China.

INTELLIGENCE. Physics.—The Hébert prize to M. Georges Claude, for LIVERPOOL.—The arrangements for excavations to be his book on electricity for general readers; the Hughes made during the winter under the auspices of the university prize to Lieut.-Colonel E. Ariès, for his publications on institute of archæology, in Upper Egypt, have been comthe theory of heat and chemical statics; the Kastner- pleted, and the work will be begun at Hierakonpolis before Boursault prize to Captain Ferrié, for his work on wireless the New Year. The excavations have been placed as in (elegraphy.

previous years at Beni-Hasan, Negadeh, and elsewhere Chemistry. - The Jecker prize, divided between MM. under the care of the university reader in Egyptian Freundler, Minguin, and Lespieau; the Cahour prize, archæology. divided between MM. Chavanne, Kling, and Binet du Jassoneix; a Montyon prize (unhealthy trades), divided Dr. Norman Moore has been appointed a member of the between MM. Dupont and Détourbe.

consultative committee vice Prof. Bertram C. A. Windle, Botany.—The Desmazières prize to M. Guilliermond, for F.R.S., who has resigned his membership upon appointment Tis work on cryptogams, especially fungi; the Montagne as president of Queen's College, Cork. Dr. Moore is chairprize to M. Camille Sauvageau, for his work on algæ; the man of the board of advanced medical studies of the je la Fons-Melicocq prize is not awarded.

University of London, and represents the Royal College of Anatomy and Zoology.-The Savigny prize to M. Physicians upon the General Medical Council. Krempt ; the Thore prize to M. d'Orbigny. Vedicine and Surgery.-A Montyon prize to M. Paul

The annual meeting of the Geographical Association will Reclus, for his memoir on the proper use of cocaine in

be held at the Royal Colonial Institute, Northumberland Surgery; to M. Kermogant, for his work on exotic

Avenue, London, W.C., on Friday, January 6, at 4 p.m. pathology and hygiene; and to M. Cazalbou, for his re

The president, Mr. Douglas W. Freshfield, will be in the Parches on the trypanosomiases of the French Soudan.

chair. A report on the eighth international geographical Ventions are also accorded to MM. P. Launois and Roy, for

congress will be read by Mr. H. Yule Oldham, and there their biological studies on giants; MM. F. Bezançon and

will be a discussion on practical geography in schools. 11. Labbé, for their treatise on hæmatology; and to M. On December 20 Lady Warwick distributed the prizes Odier, for his work on the action of electricity and certain gained by the students of the evening classes and of the parisons on nerve cells. MM. F. Marceau, P. Briquel, day secondary school of the Carpenters' Company at Strat1. Gagnière, and R. Voisin are accorded citations. The ford. In the course of some remarks upon the school, she Harbier prize to MM. Prenant, Bouin and L. Maillard, for said that England needed a better system of secondary their book oa histology, and a mention M. Pierre Lesage; education, and it was now acknowledged that the State the Bréant prize (accumulated interest) to M. Frédéric should take the matter in hand. But in the meantime the Borel, for his memoir on cholera and plague in relation to city companies were doing a good work in bringing Mahometan pilgrimages; the Godard prize to MM. J: secondary education to the doors of the people. Ibarran and L. Imbert, for their memoir on tumours of the kidney; the Baron Larrey prize to M. Conor, for work

The annual conference of the Public Schools Science on typhoid fever, M. E. Lafforgue receiving a mention ;

Masters' Association will be held at Westminster School the Bellion prize to M. Jules Delobel, for his book on

on Saturday, January 14, 1905. The following are among hygiene in schools, M. Gabriel Gauthier receiving a

the subjects to be discussed :-(1) the importance of inmention; the Mège prize to M. G. Delamare, for his experi- cluding both Latin and natural science in a scheme of mental researches on morbid heredity.

general education ; (2) recent proposals for school leaving Physiology.-A Montyon prize to M. J. Jolly, for his certificates ; (3) the use and misuse of terms in science teachmemoir entitled Experimental Researches on the Indirect | ing ; (4) the possibility of teaching scientific method Division of the Red Blood Corpuscles," a very honourable

boys whose education is almost entirely literary and who mention being accorded to M. C. Fleig, for his work on

have no time for a regular course in chemistry and physics. the mode of action of chemical stimulants on the digestive Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., is the president of the associglands; the Philipeaux prize to M. Cristiani, for his work

ation for the year. on thyroid grafting, an honourable mention being accorded

New buildings of the Willesden Polytechnic, erected at a 10 M. Joseph Noé; the Lallemand prize, divided between

cost of about 10,000l., were formally declared open by Sir M. Maurice de Fleury (for his works on the nervous system) W. Anson on December 21. After distributing prizes to and MM. J. Camus and P. Pagniez (for their memoir on the successful students, Sir W. Anson remarked that polypsychotherapy); the Pourat prize to M. J. Tissot, for a

technics marked what he hoped was becoming the modern study of the physical and chemical phenomena at high view of education, that it did not consist of independent altitudes; the Martin-Damourette prize, divided between

sets of studies, but was a composite whole, no part of M. A. Frouin (1000 francs) and M. Manquat (400 francs). which did not rest upon or form a foundation for another Among the general prizes, the Lavoisier medal was

part. It should be borne in mind that a polytechnic did not awarded to Sir J. Dewar, for his work on the liquefaction merely train a student in a handicraft. The object of such of gases; the Berthelot medal to MM. Freundler, Minguin, an institution was to combine theory and practice, to teach Lespieau, Kling, Binet du Jassoneix, Dupont, and Paul

the student not only how to do a thing, but why it was l'illard; the Jerome Ponti prize to M. Maurain ; the Trémont

done in a particular way, so that he became not only skilful prize to M. A. Guillemin; the Gegner prize to M. J. H.

in the craft upon which he was engaged, but got to underFabre; the Lannelongue prize to Mme. Vve. Nepveu ; the

stand the scientific principles underlying his work. Leconte prize to M. René Blondlot, for his work taken as

whole; the Wilde prize to M. Paul Villard, for his work MR. L. L. Price read a paper at the meeting of the Royal in physics: the Houllevigue prize to MM. Henri de la Statistical Society on December 20 entitled “ Accounts of Vaulx and Henri Hervé, for their work in aëronautics ; the Colleges of Oxford, 1893-1903, with Special Reference

to

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