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marriage, and continuing to do so in successive gener- pological. Noticeable details are that the action of ations. Now here we have in A and B not only the jealousy is very strong in the Dieri tribe; that, as the two moieties of the future tribe, but the tribe itself, in Rev. O. Siebert puts it, “the practice of Pirrauru is the making. The bisection grew out of a quasi- worthy of praise for its strength and earnestness in purposive exogamous instinct against marriage within regard to morality, and in the ceremonial with which the fire-circle.

it is regulated, since no practice could be less in accord There seems to be nothing against Aristotle's view with the hetairism which Lord Avebury has imagined that the tribe grew out of the family, except the for the Australian aborigines " (p. 186). curious but fashionable prejudice in favour of an It is disappointing to find that no mention is made organisation for primitive man of the baboon type. of Cunow's theory of the four and eight subclasses; Mr. Atkinson in a remarkable paper has dealt the it would have been instructive to see what light an latest and one of the shrewdest blows at this prejudice, ! unrivalled personal knowledge of the system and an and doubtless anthropologists may in time "revert to acquaintance, doubtless extensive, with the dialects Darwin's suggestion that the earliest form of the might have thrown on the view that these classes are human family resembled rather that of the unsocial age-divisions, and have primarily nothing to do with anthropoids, such as the gorilla. It is noteworthy that marriage-restrictions. The kurnai with their totems Dr. Howitt modifies considerably the earlier concep- which do not affect marriage, and their local, not classtion of the Undivided Commune, and regards it as divisions, present a fascinating problem, and no one having been originally something like “what occurs knows more about the Kurnai than does Dr. Howitt. when the modified Communes of the Lake Eyre tribes Their marriage by elopement, and the systematic use reunite." The battleground of the two schools is, of therein of priestly assistance, are remarkable customs.

“ It was the business of the Bunjil-yenjin to aid the elopement of young couples. For instance, when a young man wanted a wife, and had fixed his mind on some girl, whom he could not obtain from her parents, he must either go without her, persuade her to run off with him, or call in the aid of the Bunjil. yenjin. In the latter case his services were retained by presents of weapons, skin-rugs, or other articles." The Bunjil-yenjin then sang a magic song until he thought his magic strong enough to secure the “covering up ” of the parents in a state of coma.

The author in a very interesting essay applies the facts of “ maternal descent" to the Teutonic Salic Laws. Among the more important features of the book is the masterly and final settlement of the vexed questions of the native headmen, and the belief in supreme beings, like Daramulun. The connection between the two questions is that the headman in the sky is the analogue of the headman of the tribe on the earth. Among the Kurnai-to note another difference between many of the south-eastern tribes and those studied by Spencer and Gillen--the know. ledge of Mungan-n gaua is confined to the initiated men, who impart it in all sincerity to their novices; the Arunta, as Spencer and Gillen inform us, take this opportunity of explaining their deity away as a being only believed in by women and children. Among further details of interest are the Kurnai custom of

the Dead Hand, the performance of the Indian Rope FIG. 2.- The Bret or Dead Hand. From Howitt's “The Native Tribes of South-East Australia."

Trick by Kurnai medicine-men, the magical influence

which exists between opposite sexes, and the belief course, the so-called group-marriage of the tribes last

that the initiated elders infuse their own magical named.

In this connection the author does good power into boys at confirmation. service by putting together a full and revised account

The book is a fitting crown to Dr. Howitt's labours, of the Dieri marriage-system, with its Tippa-malku of all studies of the Australian race.

and is, in effect, the most considerable and important or individual marriage, and its Pirrauru or groupunion. We are thus enabled with some certainty of

A. ERNEST CRAWLEY. data to compare the notorious Urabunna and Arunta systems. But when Dr. Howitt says, the germ of individual marriage may be seen in the Dieri practice; for as I shall show later on, a woman becomes a

CHANGES UPON THE MOON'S SURFACE. Tippa-malku wife before she becomes a Pirrauru or group-wife” (p. 179), the logic strikes one as curious. a very general opinion that the moon was a cold, The inference should surely be that the group-marriage dead world, or, as it has been sometimes expressed. has been evolved from the individual system, and not

a burned out cinder, upon which nothing ever the other way about.

happened. This view was apparently due to the fact The author still regards the practice, as amongst that the men who wrote the text-books on astronomy the Wiimbaio, of exchanging wives on the approach were not the men who studied the moon. Among the of a pestilence, as a survival of group-marriage, and selenographers themselves, those astronomers who the right of access as a survival of the jus primae made a special study of the moon, there is not one, noctis and an expiation " for individual marriage. so far as the writer is aware, who has not expressed One had thought that these two last categories had his belief that changes of some sort, volcanic or other. been relegated to the limbo of outworn fictions anthro- | wise, occasionally occur upon our satellite Reference


is made to such men as Mädler, Schmidt, Webb, ation records two small white spots, one of which he Elger, and Vieson.

thinks may have been the original crater, and the As the result of his lunar observations in Peru, other is possibly a neighbouring hill. Both of them Jamaica, and California, the writer has come to the as shown by this sketch were evidently very small conclusion that physical changes do occur upon the objects as compared to the present formation. The moon, and that they may be classified under three fifth observation records a bright streak passing beads, those due to volcanic action, those due to the through the spot in question and extending for about formation and melting of hoar frost, and those due to thirty miles across the floor. Evidently if the present vegetation.

sandbank had been in existence at that time Mr. In the first class the classical example is that of Williams could not have failed to have seen it and Linne, which, according to the measurements of recorded it upon his sketches. Between this sand heap Lohrmann, Mädler, and Schmidt, prior to 1843, had and the crater wall a large craterlet now exists. It a diameter of between four and seven miles. Its is, in fact, the largest upon the floor, measuring about diameter at present is three-quarters of a mile. А two miles in diameter, but owing to its peculiar posifew years ago a new crater was announced by Klein tion, and also to the fact that it is never bright like in the vicinity of Hyginus. The writer is not most of the others, it can only be seen at lunar sunsufficiently familiar with this region to speak from set, and even then is not conspicuous. personal experience, having but a few sketches of it, Turning now to the second class of physical changes but he believes that a change there of some sort is visible upon the moon, those due to the formation and generally admitted by selenographers.

disappearance of hoar frost, we find numberless exPerhaps no area of its size upon the moon has been amples scattered over the surface, but in most cases so thoroughly examined as the floor of Plato. It has favourable atmospheric conditions and a large_glass been studied at intervals of about eleven years, first are necessary to render them clearly visible. Before in 1870 by a committee of the British Association, next dealing with any specific cases, however, it may be by A. S. Williams and others in 1881, and again a well to endeavour to answer some of the objections few years later, then by the writer at Arequipa in raised on theoretical grounds to the possibility of the 1892, and again this past summer in California. existence of water vapour upon the moon, In each survey about' forty craterlets have been The writer believes that he himself was one of the mapped, and each time some new ones have been dis- first to point out that if water vapour existed upon the covered, while at the same time a few of those pre- | lunar surface, it must sooner or later be dissipated viously observed had ceased be visible. The into outer space (Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1892, original trigonometrical survey of 1870 was based xi., p. 781). That such a dissipation must have been upon four craterlets located near the centre of the going on in times past seems to be inevitable, but floor, and selected as primary stations. The eastern- before reaching a conclusion as to the present existence most of these was last seen as a crater in 1888. A of water vapour upon the moon, there are one or two trace of it was suspected in 1892, but a search for it important considerations that must be taken into this past summer with a 16-inch telescope working account. under most favourable climatic conditions failed to Vulcanologists are now generally agreed that the reveal any trace of it whatever. Even the large white vast quantity of water, amounting to thousands, and area upon the floor which formerly marked its posi- sometimes to millions of tons, given off during tion has partially disappeared.

volcanic eruptions is not rain water, nor yet water A map of the floor of Plato, based on a survey made that has reached the interior from the ocean, but is in 1892, is given in the Harvard Annals (xxxii., water that either is being expelled for the first time plate 5.). On this map the craterlet numbered 3 corre- from the earth's interior or is being expelled by sponds to craterlet number 22 of the older surveys. heat from the rocky materials of the earth's crust with This craterlet was tenth in order of conspicuousness which it was previously united by the forces of crystalin 1870. In 1881 it had risen to the seventh place, lisation. If the earth is still discharging such large In 1892, although carefully looked for, it could not be quantities of water from its interior there is no reason found, and it was entered on the map as a missing why the moon should not be doing the same thing. crater. A study of this region during the past summer It is true the moon is smaller, but then also it began revealed the presence of what appeared to be a large life later than the earth. The reason why the earth crescent-shaped bank of sand, six miles in length by has oceans is that it is large enough and massive from one to two miles in breadth. Its height was enough to retain the expelled water in that form. The computed at not far from 1000 feet. It is the only moon, on the other hand, is too small to do so, and object of the sort upon the floor, and the writer has the water therefore appears scattered widely over its so far found no previous record of its existence. surface in the form of hoar frost before being dissiWhen the sun is setting upon Plato it is by far the pated into outer space. most conspicuous object within the crater walls, and Another objection to the theory of the existence of was readily revealed by a 6-inch objective in Cam- water vapour that has been raised is the statement bridge, Mass., working under very unfavourable atmo- that there is no evidence of erosion upon the moon. spheric conditions. At sunrise it was also in part seen This statement is clearly a mistake, but the eroded without difficulty under fair conditions. It seems in- valleys are small, and it requires good atmospheric credible that so conspicuous an object as this should conditions to detect them. Fairly conspicuous exhave been overlooked by all the earlier observers, had amples, however, exist upon the central peaks of it then been visible.

Theophilus and Eratosthenes. Although the valleys I accordingly wrote to Mr. Williams, and he kindly are small, it is hard to understand how the comparasent me a list of forty-two observations made during tively minute amount of hoar frost at present found the vears 1879 to 1890, dealing with the particular in these regions could have produced so great an portion of the crater floor where this formation was effect, and we must conclude that formerly there must situated, Five of these observations were made during have been a great deal more of it. The only strong that portion of the lunar day when the object is now evidence that water in the liquid state ever existed upon conspicuous, and when it is much more so than any the surface of the moon lies in the dry river-beds. The of the craterlets upon the floor. Three of Mr. best example of these lies on the eastern slopes of Williams's observations record that nothing was Mt. Hadley, at the base of the Apennines. Another visible upon this portion of the floor. One observa 'river-bed, partially fragmentary, discovered this past summer lies sixty miles due south of Conon. They reach their minimum size five days after sunAlthough difficult objects, the former has been seen rise, when the smaller is about half a mile in diameter. in Cambridge, Mass. A sketch of it is given in the They then begin to increase, the northern one attainHarvard Annals, xxxii., plate vii.

ing a length of five miles shortly before sunset. If Turning now from theory to fact, one of the clearest these markings are due to white quartz, or some evidences of hoar frost upon the moon is found in similar rock, it is difficult to account for their change connection with the pair of small craters known as in size. Messier and Messier A. Sometimes one of these The third class of physical changes with which we craters is the larger and sometimes the other. Some- shall deal the writer believes to be due to the presence times they are triangular and sometimes elliptical in of vegetation. Changes of this class are more conshape. When elliptical their major axes are some- spicuous than those of either of the other two, and if times parallel and sometimes nearly perpendicular to the explanation of vegetation is admitted, both the one another. When the sun first rises on them they other explanations almost necessarily follow. It is are of about the same brilliancy as the mare upon therefore important to study these changes with the which they are situated, but three days later they both greatest care. suddenly turn white, and remain so until the end of Before describing the facts, it may be well first to the lunation. When first seen the white areas are deal with the principal objection that has been made comparatively large, especially that surrounding to the suggested explanation, namely, the lack of Messier itself, but it gradually diminishes in size under water on the moon in the liquid form. The reason the sun's rays. By the eighth day little is left outside that we believe liquid water to be lacking is that it the crater itself, while at the end of the lunation is known that as we reduce the atmospheric pressure only the bottoms and interior western walls remain the boiling point of water is gradually lowered, until

[graphic][graphic][merged small][merged small]

brilliant. The general character of these changes can when we reach a pressure of 4.6 millimetres the boilbe followed even with a 4-inch telescope working undering and freezing points coincide. Below this pressure only moderate atmospheric conditions. Photographs ice changes at once into the gaseous form without of these craters showing their varying shapes and passing through the liquid state. While, therefore, sizes will be found in the Harvard Annals (li., p. 28). there can be no free water upon the surface of the Those to whom the Annals are not accessible will find moon, there is yet nothing to prevent it from occurring these photographs and most of the other illustrations beneath the surface of the ground, retained by the referred to in this article in my book “ The Moon." capillary action of the soil. This action is so strong

The white area surrounding Linné also show's that, as has recently been shown by Cameron (Science, evidence of change in size during the lunation. Soon 1903, xviii., p. 758), it is capable of extracting water after sunrise it measures 4" in diameter, at noon 2", from a membrane against a calculated osmotic pressure and at sunset 35.5. The change is evidently analogous of 36 atmospheres. to that shown by the polar caps of the earth and Mars, Since on the earth plants can live on moisture which lunar noon in this case corresponding to midsummer they have in turn extracted from such a soil, there for the planets, and sunrise and sunset to spring and seems to be no difficulty in understanding how they autumn.

could live on the moon, in a soil which could thus In the crater Eratosthenes there is a brilliant white retain considerable moisture in spite of the low atmoarea on the summit of the central mountain range. spheric pressure. Although in a state of nature, even When the sun first rises on it it measures five miles in desert regions, all plants are occasionally exposed in length by two in breadth. It on, however, begins to water in the form of rain or dew, yet under artificial to dwindle, and two and a half days later all is gone conditions we knot that even such highly organised save two little spots, each about a mile in diameter. structures as house plants can flourish on water that

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