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In the Zoologist for December Mr. A. H. Patterson Philosophical Society. In the most important of these the records a number of more or less remarkable specimens of author discusses the origin of the mammalian carpus and fishes captured off Great Yarmouth during the year. tarsus. After a brief review of the nature of these two Several examples of flat-fish with the two sides of the portions of the skeleton in other groups, Dr. Broom points same colour are recorded, a plaice of this type being further out that in dicynodonts and theriodonts the mammalian remarkable from the fact that the dorsal and anal fins approximation is most marked. To quote his own words, united beneath the tail. In second article Mr. G.“ In these latter we find more or less approximation to the Dalgleish directs attention to the recent migration into mammalian type, but if we take into consideration the India of birds native of eastern Central Asia-notably the extreme mammalian specialisation-the presence of a large mandarin-duck.

tibiale and fibulare, with a centrale which is not in the The October issue of the Proceedings of the Philadelphia

centre but comes between the tibiale and the first tarsale, Academy contains two papers devoted to the histology and

then we are driven to the conclusion that the mammalian early development of invertebrates. In the first Dr. J. A.

ancestor must have been a dicynodont, a theriodont, or a Nelson discusses that puzzling creature Dinophilus, referred

form belonging to a closely allied order. From the ex. by some authorities to the turbellarians, and by others to the

amination of the skull we have good reason to believe that annelids. · If the “trochophore " be regarded as a larval

the ancestor was a theriodont, and the evidence of the form common at least to all annelids, the development of

tarsus fully confirms that drawn from the skull and othe Dinophilus cannot be considered as primitive. Rather it

parts of the skeleton ; and the carpus, while it does not add may be looked upon as an annelid the larval stage of which

any very strong evidence, certainly does not afford any has become one towards which development tends, and

evidence that is not in harmony with this conclusion." which has consequently become specially modified. In the A REMARKABLE instance of what the author thinks may be second of the two papers Mr. T. H. Montgomery gives the true mimicry among plants is described by Dr. R. Marloth results of his investigations into the development and in the Transactions of the South African Philosophical structure of the larva of the parasitic thread-worm Society, vol. xv. p. 97. Years ago, it appears that the Paragordius.

traveller Burchell picked up on stony ground an object he The December issue (vol. vii., No. 2) of the Journal of

mistook for a pebble, but which on exaimnation proved to be the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

a plant of the genus Mesembrianthemum. Both in colour contains a full list of the marine invertebrate fauna of

and in form this plant, previously named M. Iruncatum, Plymouth, compiled from the records of the association.

presented a remarkable resemblance to the stones among An excellent map of the Plymouth district accompanies the

which it grew. A second species, M. bolusi, growing on list, together with notes on the various dredging-grounds

the hills around the Karru, generally produces two leaves and their characteristic zoological products. Some of these

about the size of a duck's egg, which have a surface like grounds, which formerly yielded rich harvests, have been

weathered stone, and a brownish grey colour tinged with more or less completely spoiled by being made the receptacle

green. In this state it closely resembles the surrounding for rubbish and refuse from the neighbouring towns.

stone, although for a short time its bright yellow flowers Attention is directed to the large number of species of

render it conspicuous enough. M. nobile is very similar. marine organisms attacking the limestone of which the

A fourth species of the genus, together with Plymouth breakwater is constructed. To such an extent,

Anacampseros papyracea (in which the leaves are covered indeed, is the stone eaten into by these creatures that con

with white papery stipules), resembles the quartz pebbles siderable damage is done to the structure, and constant

among which it grows. In the author's opinion, M. bolusi, repairs are rendered necessary.

M. nobile, and perhaps M. truncatum (which, unlike some We have received copies of three papers by Dr. J. E.

of the other plants mentioned, do not change their

characters under cultivation), may afford instances of true Duerden dealing with the morphology, development, and

mimicry, or “homoplasy. relations of corals and sea-anemones.

Their titles are respectively “ The Antiquity of the Zoanthid Actinians' We have received a report on forestry in the Transvaal (Rep. Michigan Acc., No. 6, pp. 195-8), Recent Results by Mr. D. E. Hutchins, conservator of forests, Cape Town. on the Morphology and Development of Coral-Polyps The report deals with the immediate necessity for the (Smithson. Miscell. Contrib., vol. xlvii. pp. 93-101), and afforestation of those large tracts of land in the colony which

The Morphology of the Madreporaria," No. 5 (Biol. are unsuitable for agriculture. The importance of forestry Bull., vol. vii., No. 2). The main thesis of the first two in the Transvaal cannot be over-estimated, as a perusal of papers is that, since ordinary hexamerous coral-polyps differ this report will show. After a tour of inspection, Mr. from sea-anemones to a great extent only by the absence

Hutchins has been able to indicate in his report the organof a skeleton, and the presence of such skeleton is a isation and equipment necessary for the scheme. A list of secondary development, the second group must be older trees suitable for cultivation in the Transvaal is given, than the first. From this basis it is argued that the together with short notes on their sylvicultural charactertropical polyps known as zoanthids, which differ in regard

istics and uses. It may be interesting to mention that the to the number of their septa from the hexamerous group,

common ash, Fraxinus excelsior, does not thrive in the bear a similar relationship to the Palæozoic tetramerous

Transvaal. rugose corals, and are consequently of still more ancient

Messrs. F. Darton and Co., St. John Strect, E.C., hare origin. In the author's own words, The Rugosa and Zoantheæ undoubtedly constitute

submitted to us a very handy and portable little instrument, group of

the “ Piesmic" barometer, invented by Mr. A. S. Davis. skeleton-forming and skeletonless polyps, just as do the

It consists of a glass tube about seven inches long, bent modern Madreporaria and ordinary hexamerous Actiniaria."

in the form of a syphon, the longer arm being of strong THREE papers by Dr. R. Broom on the fossil reptiles of capillary tubing of one-tenth inch bore, the shorter arm South Africa and their relationship to mammals appear in being of thin quill tubing. The end of the longer tube vol. xxv., part iii., of the Transactions of the South African opens into a small cast iron cistern, containing mercury:

same

a

common

when the instrument is out of action the tube lies hori- Messrs. MACMILLAN AND Co., Ltd., have published an zontally, and the mercury lies on one side of the cistern, edition of ' An Elementary Course of Mathematics,” by leaving the open end of the tube exposed to the air. When Messrs. H. S. Hall and F. H. Stevens, in which parts i. the tube is brought into a vertical position the mercury and ii. of the authors' “ School Geometry " have been flows over and closes the mouth of the tube, and then substituted for the parts of Euclid's elements contained in flows down the tube to a greater or less depth, dependent previous editions. upon the atmospheric pressure at the time. We have made

Messrs. F. Vieweg And Son, Brunswick, have issued a number of comparisons with a mercurial standard baro

the fifth edition of Wiedemann and Ebert's comprehensive meter, and find that its indications are correct to within

work on practical physics—“ Physikalisches Praktikum." about 0-12 inch. The readings, to the nearest tenth of an

The book contains a good systematic course of practical inch, or, by interpolation, to the hundredth of an inch,

work in physics, the experiments being well arranged and can be rapidly obtained. As a weather-glass it appears to

clearly illustrated. be very useful, and even less likely to get out of order than an aneroid, but it would not be suitable for accurate The issue of the Antiquary for January commences the scientific observations like an ordinary mercurial barometer. first volume of a new and enlarged series. The magazine, It has the advantage of being less costly, small in size, and which is devoted to the study of the past, has been enlarged easier of transport than an ordinary barometer.

by the addition of eight pages. A new section, called " At We have received from Messrs. C. F. Adolph and Co., the Sign of the Owl,” has been introduced, and consists of of 14 Farringdon Road, E.C., their new price list of about two pages of notes concerning books of archæological selenium cells and apparatus. This firm has introduced a interest. A good selection of articles is promised for the new type of selenium cell which possesses the advantage present year. over the old form of cell that it is exposed to the light on

There has now been published at the Patent Office a two surfaces with a consequent increase in the sensibility

subject list of works on the fine and graphic arts (including of fully 75 per cent. Complete sets of apparatus for demonstrating the sensitiveness of selenium to light and photography), and art industries, in the library of the

Patent Office. The list consists of two parts—a general the transmission of sound by means of light are also

alphabet of subject headings, with entries in chronological described and illustrated in the list.

order of the works arranged under these headings, and a In No. 21 of the Physikalische Zeitschrift Mr. Josef key, or summary, to these headings shown in class order. Rosenthal describes a number of improvements which he

The catalogue includes some 2916 works, representing 5373 has introduced in the construction of mercury air-pumps of volumes. the Sprengel type. These pumps usually suffer from the disadvantage that the glass tube in which the mercury falls is liable to sudden fracture after the pump has been in action

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. during a few weeks. The fracture appears to be due to the ANOTHER New COMET (1904 e).-A telegram from the friction of the mercury on the glass producing an electrical Kiel Centralstelle announces the discovery of a new comet charge which, by influencing the moist air without, con- by M. Borrelly at Marseilles on December 29, 1904. The verts the glass wall of the tube into the insulator of a

position of the object at gh. 7m. (Marseilles M.T.) was condenser. The possibility of a discharge through the glass

R.A.=ih. 13m. 4os., dec. = -10° o', is eliminated by surrounding the dropping tube with a larger and its apparent daily movement was found to be +1.6m. glass tube filled with oil, which acts as an efficient in- in R.A. and – 54' in declination. A nucleus was seen. sulator. It is stated that a tube protected in this way lasted

A further telegram states that the comet was observed five months, although in daily use.

by Dr. Cohn at Königsberg on December 31 at 6h. 22.2m.

(Königsberg M.T.), when its position was as follows :The American Journal of Science for November, 1904,

R.A. = 1h. 15m. 56.538., dec. -8° 29' 59". contains an investigation by Mr. Bertram B. Boltwood of the radio-activity of natural waters which is of particular

The position of the comet is near to that of a Ceti. interest because of an attempt that is made to explain its

Comet

1904 d (GIACOBINI).-Further observations of origin. It is shown that neither hot nor cold water dis- comet 1904 d are published in No. 3986 of the Astronomische solves any appreciable quantity of radium, as such, from a

Nachrichten, together with Herr Ebell's elements and

ephemeris. A photograph taken at the Konigstuhl Observmass of finely powdered uranium minerals consisting atory, Heidelberg, on December 19d. 17h. 37.3m. (Konigsprincipally of uranophane, although a brief contact with tuhl M.T.) showed a short tail and a complex nucleus, these minerals is sufficient to impart to water enough of whilst the position of the object for 1904.0 was the radium emanation to produce a very marked radio- R.A. (app.)=16h. 19m. 38.8s., dec. (app.)= +28° 23' 9". activity. Water can also acquire a measurable quantity of

ObserVATIONS OF LEONIDS at HARVARD, 1904.-Several the radium emanation by simple contact with gaseous observers at Harvard kept the eastern part of the sky under mixtures which contain it. It is considered that observation for meteors from 12h. to 17h. on the night of extremely minute trace of uranium minerals in the rocks November 14-15. As a rule, four observers kept watch, and soils through which a water percolates would be

whilst a fifth wrote down their results, and between them sufficient to impart to it a measurable radio-activity. But

they saw 275 meteors, of which 183 were Leonids.

The following table shows the horary rate, for a single waters such as those of Bath and Baden Baden, which con

observer, at intervals of twenty minutes :tain true dissolved radium, must owe the presence of the

Nov. 14-15 Rate

Nov. 14-15 Rate latter to a special decomposition taking place under the influence of high temperature and great pressure.

14 40 40

15 40

28
15 0
36

26

17 Messrs. LONGMANS AND Co. have in the press a trans

28 29 16 20

25 lation, by Mr. J. Garcin, of M. Blondlot's papers on n-rays

Of the total number 35 were of the first magnitude or communicated to the Paris Academy of Sciences. The

brighter, but none exceeded magnitude – 2.0. At the volume will contain additional notes and instructions for

moment of explosion the heads were generally blue or white, the construction of phosphorescent screens.

but in two cases, at least, the colour was clearly red or

an

Rate

Nov. 14-15

h. m.

h. m.

h. m. 16 40

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orange, probably indicating, according to Prof. W. H. ECLIPSE RESULTS AND I'ROBLEMS.-In th Pickering, a different chemical constitution.

number of the Bulletin de la Société astrou The radiant appeared to cover a considerable area, about M. le Comte de la Baume Pluvipel 8° in diameter, and seemed to be double, the two principal obtained during the total solar eclipses centres being situated at R.A. =9h. 56m., dec. = +24o, and years, and in connection with the stud at R.A. =9h. 4om., dec. = +26°.

phenomenon he outlines the problems Although elaborate preparations were made for securing further elucidation. To those interested photographs, only two trails appeared on the resulting the article will be found to be a useful re negatives. One, due to a Leonid, commenced at R.A. =

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CONTEMPORARY ASTRO gh. 17.2m., dec. = +28° 57', and ended at R.A.=9h. 8.8m., -We have received from Prof. Ernest Le dec. = +29° 52', a more careful measure showing that the meteor passed through a point having the posi- bibliography of contemporaneous writin

Charlemagne, Paris, an extract from a pl tion R.A. =9h. 57.om., dec. = +24° 14' (1855). The other trail extended from R.A. = 4h. 52.5m., dec. = +0° 52', to

work in astronomy, as submitted by him to

Congress of Historical Science held at Ro R.A. = 5h. 10.7m., dec. = -4° 39' (1855), and was, there

Judging from the list of authors named fore, not due to a Leonid (Harvard College Observatory

the specimen extracts given therein, the Circular, No. 89).

be found extremely useful by those work LIGHT-CURVE OF & Cephel.—Employing the method used who have occasion to refer to previous resa by Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer in his discussion of the observ- 1846. ations of n Aquilæ (Göttingen, 1897), Dr. B. Meyerman has reduced the observations of 8 Cephei.

As a result he obtained the following as the formula for PRIZES PROPOSED BY THE PARIS determining the epochs of maxima :

OF SCIENCES FOR 1905. 1840 September 26.3588+5:366404 E. (Bonn).

'EOMETRY.–The Francoeur prize (1000 A comparison of the phases determined from this formula

discoveries or work useful for the progre with observed values gives small differences which compare applied mathematics; the Poncelet prize (2000 favourably with those previously obtained by other observers. work in applied mathematics. The new observations are consistent with an invariable Mechanics.-A Montyon prize (700 francs). period (Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3985).

vention or improvement of instruments useful in

of agriculture, the mechanical arts or scic STRUCTURE THE THIRD CYANOGEN BAND,-Some

Poncelet prize (2000 francs), for a work on appi. interesting results concerning the structure of the third

matics; the Fourneyron prize (1000 francs), for cyanogen band have been obtained by Herr Franz Jung

on the theoretical or experimental study of steam bluth at Bonn. By employing the third order of a Rowland

Navigation.—The extraordinary prize of 60001 grating having 630 lines to the millimetre (i.e, about 16,000

a recompense for any work tending to increase the to the inch) and a focal length of 6.6 metres (about of the French naval forces; the Plumey prize (250 21.6 feet), he obtained a greater dispersion than has hitherto

for an improvement in steam engines or any other been used for this purpose.

contributing to the progress of steam navigation. His results, stated briefly, are as follow :-(1) the third

Astronomy.—The Pierre Guzman prize (100,000 cyanogen band consists of double lines ; (2) the maximum

for the discovery of a means of communicating intervals between successive lines in the four strongest series celestial body other than the planet Mars; failing the form an arithmetical progression ; (3) the view of King, that of the capital sum, the interest will be awarded ev. the inverted “ heads are to be regarded as tails " of the

years for a work important to the progress of astr bands connected with the known heads," possesses a high The Lalande prize (540 francs), for the observation, degree of probability; (4) the connection of groups of or work most useful to the progress of astronom “ heads” and “ tails " is such that the first head” and

Valz prize (460 francs), and the G. de Pontécoulant: the last tail” belong to the same series, the second (700 francs), under similar conditions. The Dam. “ head " to the penultimate “tail," and so on; (5) the prize (2000 francs); the question proposed for this hypothesis of Thiele, that the intervals between successive

as follows:-there are a dozen comets the orbit of lines in a band increase only to a certain point and then during the period of visibility, is shown to be of a decrease until the series ends in a tail, appears to be correct; bolic nature. The problem set is to find out whether his (6) the lengths of the successive series form an arithmetical

was the case before the arrival of the comet in the lar progression (Astrophysical Journal, vol. xx., No. 4).

system, going back to the past history of the comet - und New REFRACTION TABLES.-A set of new refraction tables

allowing for the perturbations of the planets. whereby one may find the refraction correction to 0.01 of a Geography:--The Gay prize (1500 francs), for an explorer second of arc are given in No. 3983 of the Astronomische

in Africa who has determined with great precision the Nachrichten by Dr. L. de Ball, of Vienna. The tables are

geographical coordinates of the principal points on his adaptable to a range of atmospheric temperatures and

journey; the Tchihatchef prize (3000 francs), as a roompressures and of zenith distances. Knowing the temperature

pense or encouragement for naturalists of any nationality and pressure at the place of observation, one finds the

who have most distinguished themselves in the exploration logarithm of the actual density of the atmosphere from

of the Asiatic continent, more especially in the lesser known table i., and with this and the known zenith distance finds regions; the Binoux prize (2000 francs). the refraction correction to the second decimal of a second

Physics.—The Hébert prize (1000 francs), for a discovery of arc from table ii.

or treatise on the popular applications of electricity: the

Hughes prize (2500 francs), for a work contributing to the THE “ANNUAIRE " du BUREAU DES LONGITUDES.-Con- | progress of physics; the Gaston Planté prize (3000 franci. tinuing the scheme inaugurated in last year's “ Annuaire for a discovery, invention, or important work in the field for the alternation of various subjects in the successive of electricity; the L. la Caze prize (10,000 francs), awarded issues, the volume for this year contains, in addition to the in one sum for works important in physics. astronomical data, tables regarding statistics, geography, Chemistry.-The Jecker prize (10,000 francs). for work &c., to the exclusion of data for chemistry and physics. in organic chemistry; the Cahours prize (3000 francs), for

The astronomical section contains, among many other the encouragement of young chemists; the Montyon prize. things, the following useful information :- table for unhealthy trades (2500 francs and a mention of 1500 francs). calculating the altitude from readings of the barometer, a

means of rendering a trade less unhealthy por complete table of the elements of variable stars of known dangerous; the L. la Caze prize (10.000 francs), for the periods, tables of stellar parallaxes, double stars and proper best work on chemistry during the last two years the motions, and an article of stellar spectroscopy by M. Bordin prize (3000 francs), for a memoir on the silicides Gramont, whilst the sun-dial, solar physics, the table of and the part played by them in metallic alloys. minor planets, &c., are reserved for the issue of 1906.

Mineralogy and Geology.-The Delesse prize the

for a

francs), for a work concerning geology, or, failing that, weathered masses known as La Ciudad de Rocas (“ The mineralogy ; the Fontannes prize (2000 francs), for the best City of Rocks "'). The outlines of the rocks are domed and publication on palæontology; the Alhumbert prize (1000 rounded, and they appear to be due to the weathering of franes), for a memoir on the period of the last volcanic fairly homogeneous rhyolitic materials. eruptions in France.

Particular attention is directed by the author to the Botany.—The grand prize of the physical sciences (3000 famous Cerro Mercado or Iron Mountain, a hill largely francs); the question proposed is the demonstration of the made up of solid iron-ore, and situated less than a mile various modes of formation and development of the egg in

north-east of Durango City. It rises abruptly from the the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes. The Desmazières alluvial plain to an average height of about 300 feet, with prize (1000 francs), for the best work published during the

single peaks 50 feet to 100 feet higher. The length of the preceding year on Cryptogams; the Montagne prize (1500

hill is about is miles, and its average width about onefrancs), for work having for its object the anatomy,

third of a mile. The ore appears to be chiefly hæmatite, physiology, development, or the description of the lower although some magnetite also occurs; in physical characters Cryptogams; the Thore prize (200 francs), for work on the it varies, being hard and soft, black, red, specular, and cellular Cryptogams of Europe.

earthy. Hard, solid black ore, however, forms the chief Anatomy and Zoology.—The Savigny prize (1300 francs),

mass of the mountain,” the black colour being in striking for the assistance of young travelling zoologists, not re

contrast to the yellow and green of the surrounding plain. ceiving Government assistance, who have especially occupied

The ridge is almost bare of vegetation, except for straggling themselves with the invertebrates of Egypt and Syria.

cacti, and its outline is bold and rugged. Steep cliffs 10 feet Medicine and Surgery.-A Montyon prize (2500 francs and

to 20 feet high are not infrequent, and places they exhibit a mention of 1500 francs), for works and discoveries useful

a distinct columnar structure like that of basalt (see Fig. 1). in the art of healing ; the Barbier prize (2000 francs), for a

The existence of this hill appears to have been made known valuable discovery in surgical, medical, or pharmaceutical 1 in 1552 A.D., but the first serious attempt to work the ironrience, or in botany having relation with medicine ; the Bréant prize (100,000 francs), for the discovery of an absolute specific against Asiatic cholera, or to point out in an irrefutable manner the causes of Asiatic cholera, so that the suppression of the disease will follow. Failing the award of the capital sum, the annual interest will be given for a rigorous demonstration of the existence in the atmosphere of matter capable of playing a part in the production or propagation of epidemic diseases. The Godard prize (1000 francs), for the best memoir on the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the genito-urinary organs; the Baron Larrey prize (750 francs), for the best work dealing with the subject of military medicine, surgery, or hygiene; the Bellion prize (1400 francs); the Mège prize (10,000 francs) ; the Serres prize (7500 francs), for a memoiron general embryology applied as far as possible to physiology and medicine; the Dusgate prize (2500 francs), for the best work on the diagnosis of death and the prevention of premature burial.

Physiology.-A Montyon prize (750 francs), and the Philipeaux prize (900 francs), for work in experimental physiology ; the Lallemand prize (1800 francs), for work on the nervous system; the Pourat prize (1000 francs), for an msay on the origin of muscular glycogen.

Statistics.-A Montyon prize (500 francs), for a memoir en French statistics.

Among the general prizes offered in 1905 are the following :--the Binoux prize (2000 francs), for a work on the history of science; the Trémont prize (1100 francs), the Gegner prize (3800 francs), the Lannelongue prize (1200 francs), the Wilde prize (4000 francs), the Saintour prize 13000 francs), the Petit d'Ormoy prizes (two of 10,000

Fig. 1.--Cliff showing columnar structure of iron-ore at western end of the

Cerro Mercado or Iron Mountain of Durango, Mexico. francs), all for work useful in the promotion of scientific knowledge. Of these prizes those bearing the names of Pierre Guzman, Lalande, Tchihatchef, La Caze, Delesse,

was made in 1828. Successful operations were not and Desmazières are especially mentioned as being awarded

conducted until 1888, and only within the last five years without distinction of nationality.

has a steady production been maintained. The amount of ore exposed above the level of the plain is estimated at 360 million tons. The author briefly discusses the origin

The GEOLOGICAL NOTES.

of the iron-ore, regarding it as probably igneous.

associated rocks of the district are rhyolites, probably of VERY little geological information appears to have been later Tertiary age, but the relation, either in time or manner

published on the State of Durango, in western Mexico. of origin, between the associated eruptive rock and the The observations therefore recorded during a brief journey iron-oxide, and the origin of the iron-oxide itself, seem as by Dr. O. C. Farrington are of considerable interest (Field yet difficult to determine. Columbian Museum, No. 89, geological series, vol. ii., A geological description of the Baraboo iron-bearing

His route extended from the city of Durango, district of Wisconsin, by Dr. Samuel Weidman, has been which is situated upon an alluvial plain hemmed in by low issued by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History and rugged hills, to the silver-mining town of Villa Corona Survey (Bulletin No. 13, economic series No. 8). The area " Ventanas, distant about seventy miles in a direct line. is formed mainly by pre-Cambrian quartzites, which stand The ground, which forms part of the interior plateau of out in bold north and south ranges, so connected both on Mexico, rises from about 6000 feet at Durango to 9000 feet. the east and west as to constitute a cordon of bluffs enclosing While large tracts of the area are semi-arid and sparsely a depressed drift-covered interior. Isolated areas of still covered with soil and vegetation, in some places corn is older rocks, rhyolite, granite, and diorite, occur along the uccessfully grown, and elsewhere there occur extensive outer borders of the ranges. Potsdam sandstone is found pine forests with caks. Views of the scenery are given. beneath the drift, and on the slopes of the Baraboo Eruptive rocks prevail, and near the Ciudad ranch, on one quartzites, while later Palæozoic strata are met with at of the highest parts of the plateau, there is a tract of higher levels. Special interest has recently been aroused by

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ore

Vo. 5).

I 2

the discovery of large deposits of iron-ore beneath the drift- Part ii. of the seventh volume of the Transactions of the covered valley, a discovery made while digging or drilling Geological Society of South Africa (Johannesburg. 1904) the farm wells in this otherwise well settled agricultural bears witness to the prevalence of research in Africa in all district. The iron-bearing rocks, termed the Freedom branches of geology. Dr. Hatch contributes two papers, formation, from the town of North Freedom, comprise one in conjunction with Prof. Corstorphine, who has been slate, chert, dolomite, and iron-ore, and all gradational drawn off from the service of Cape Colony into a more phases between these kinds of rock, including banded ferru- adventurous field. Mr. J. P. Johnson shows that two types ginous chert like that in the iron-bearing series of Lake of stone implements are found in the Taaibosch Spruit, the Superior. The author points out that the Baraboo pre- older and rougher lying beneath 15 feet of alluvium, and Cambrian series may be compared with the upper portion of the newer type upon the surface. Mr. F. W. Voit furnishes the Lower Marquette series, the Freedom formation corre- a paper of general interest on the geology of German Southsponding with the Negaunee iron-bearing formation. De- West Africa, in which a large series of ancient metamorphic tailed accounts are given of the various rocks and drift rocks is dealt with ; these are accompanied by intrusions of deposits, and of the circulation of underground water. granite. The author urges that some of what might be

The recent numbers of the Boletin del Cuerpo de regarded as ordinary contact-phenomena are here carried Ingenieros de Minas del Peru, issued during 1904, continue out on a regional scale, and must be referred to the action to testify to the energy and activity of the Government of pressure rather than to the invasion of the granite. The officers charged with the development of Peru. No. 8, by metamorphic rocks are impregnated with important de Señor Venturo, describes important deposits of hæmatite posits of copper-ore, sometimes localised in quartz veins, in the extreme north of the country, the ore appearing on and sometimes spread in cloud-like masses through the the surface, and being probably derived from the dehydration schists. of an old lake-iron deposit. Fragments of rocks from the In the first part of the Jahrbuch der k.k. geologischen margins of the former lake are found surrounded by the Reichsanstalt for 1904 (September 15), Franz Toula deiron oxide, and the iron itself seems to have been dissolved scribes the results of his journey to the Dobrudscha in 1892, out from the acid igneous masses in the neighbourhood. and discusses in particular the forms of Exogyra met with.

In view of the demand for nickel for plating, for alloy- Dr. Petrascheck, in examining the granitic mass near ing steel, and for coinage, Señor Eduardo de Habich was Brixen, in the Adige valley, reviews the nature of Seder. sent to report on the nickeliferous veins of the province of holm's“

Myrmekite," an intergrowth of triclinic felspar La Mar, which present practically a virgin field. His and quartz, and concludes that it is a primary product of memoir (No. 1) seems encouraging, the chief ores being

the consolidation of the igneous magma. Dr. Ampierer's ullmannite and 'nickeline (kupfernickel), occurring mostly important examination of the terraces along the valley of in veins of quartz, which may also contain both gold and the Inn (pp. 91-160) should be considered by all who seek silver. No. has probably the widest interest for to explain the topography of glaciated areas. The author geologists in general, giving as it does the results of a visit finds that the terraces of gravel rest on an earlier series to central Peru by Dr. Gustav Steinmann, of Freiburg-im- of terraces cut in the rock, which are at very different levels Breisgau, early in 1904. Señor Elmore is the author of on opposite walls of the valley. He summarises his results Boletin No. 13, on the water-supply of the Rimac valley. in a series of fifty-six propositions, among them being the It is shown that the permeable subsoil in the valley-floor, conclusion that the Inn valley, on the retreat of the ice, from Chosica downwards, becomes charged with a good

exhibited a succession of shallow basin-like excavations, potable water by infiltration from the River Rimac, and this which were filled in later by a continuous deposit of is capable of furnishing a healthy supply wherever it may

alluvium. These hollows, like the smaller details of the be desirable to tap it. The marked rise of this underground ice-erosion, were formed independently of the hardness of water in Callao is interestingly attributed to the obstacle the rocks concerned, and Dr. Ampferer believes that the furnished by the neighbouring island of San Lorenzo. The

variation in the activity of a glacier as an abrading agent economic aspect of Señor Elmore's report is sure to be

depends in reality on variations in the local pressure and widely welcomed in a populous and practically rainless

velocity. With reduced pressure and greater velocity the district.

same amount of erosion can be performed as with greater The fourteenth volume of the Berichte der natur

pressure and less velocity. The author opposes the view forschenden Gesellschaft zu Freiburg-im-Breisgau (1904)

that rock-obstacles on the walls of a valley are inevitably contains several papers of geological interest. A. Freiherr

worn away by the passage of glacier-ice; he urges, on the von Bistram's studies on the dolomitic region of the Alps

other hand, that such irregularities may be left standing of Lugano were commented on when they first appeared in

out, while others are actually produced by the lack of separate form (NATURE, vol. lxix. p. 112). Walther Schiller

uniformity in the forces of erosion, to which he specially and W. Paulcke are both concerned with the structure of

directs attention. the Engadine, the former giving a detailed account of the

The Verhandlungen der k.k. geologischen Reichsanstalt, region south-east of Schuls, of which the Piz Lischanna

Nos. 9-12, for 1904, continue to be rich in papers oo forms the centre, while the latter examines the structure of

Bohemia and Moravia, and students of petrology in the a wider area, from Landeck to the basin of the Po.

broad sense, as well as of Palæozoic and Mesozoic faunas, Palæontological papers seldom contain so much personal

must endeavour to keep pace with the monthly observations revelation as is to be found in Herr Georg Boehm's first

furnished by Dr. Katzer, Jaroslav J. Jahn, Friedrich section of his Beiträge zur Geologie von Niederländisch

Trauth, and others. The Dalmatian islands also receive Indien (Palaeontographica, supplement iv., Stuttgart, 1904).

attention in Dr. Waagen's reports of his recent journeys. The splendid series of ammonites therein described, probably from a Tithonian horizon, were obtained for the most part from the collection of a postmaster of Sula Besi, and from one of “die Alfuren," the latter name being

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND applied to any uncivilised natives. Some specimens were

RESEARCH. even extracted from concealment in the scanty clothing of

THE writings of Henry, Babcock, King, and others have the boatmen. The postmaster and his allies appear, con- made the University of Wisconsin familiar to English sciously or unconsciously, to have lost touch with the true agricultural students, so that considerable interest attaches locality of their finds, and to have opened up a delusive route to the twentieth annual report of the experiment station, through the forest in Taliabu, whereby Herr Boehm was which contains a short history of the College of Agriculture, led to a spot where he found abundant belemnites and

and summarises the results of twenty years' research. The Nuculæ, but none of the highly prized ammonites. The college is one of the best known in the United States, and “Alfuren-Sammlung " proves to be of unusual interest, and its record is typical of many similar institutions. A promay perhaps grow in the course of time, if judicious sums fessor of agriculture was appointed in 1866, there was the are expended on the “uncivilised " population. The in- usual attempt to teach before the materials for a course of clusion of fossils smuggled in from other places is now, university grade existed, and there was the usual failure. however, a possibility against which it will be difficult to Then, when the indignation and forcible action of " some guard.

thirty representative farmers " led the regents of the uni

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