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versity to realise the need of “better directed measures,” births remaining unvaccinated being 20.8 in 1899, 19-9 in there was a change of policy. The farmer's educational 1900, and 17.3 in 1901. The epidemic of small-pox which requirements were studied, suitable courses were devised, raged in London in 1901-2 again directs attention to the and research in his interests was begun. The success of danger of small-pox hospitals in disseminating this disthis changed policy is testified to by every chapter of the ease in their vicinity. Practically all the London cases report, and is strikingly shown by the material progress of were removed to the hospital ships moored in the Thames the institution. When the present director took charge in at Long Reach, opposite to which is the village of Purfleet, 1880 the buildings consisted of a dwelling house and two containing a number of unvaccinated persons, and an barns, worth about 1000l. ; the present buildings are worth excessive incidence of small-pox prevailed there attributable more than 60,oool. In 1881 the income of the agricultural to aërial conveyance of infection from the ships. The department was represented by the salary of the professor populations of Purfleet garrison and of the training ship and a grant of about 1000l. for experiments. In 1903 the Cornwall close by were, however, thoroughly vaccinated College of Agriculture had an income of 10,000l. for and re-vaccinated, and not a single case of small-pox administrative and teaching purposes, and of 6000l. for re- occurred in these communities, another instance of the prosearch; and in addition free instruction in languages, tective power of vaccination. The report by Dr. Bulstrode mathematics, and pure science was provided for agricultural on outbreaks of typhoid fever at Winchester and Southstudents in other departments of the university.

ampton attributable to infected oysters has already been But the “ better directed measures" of the regents of noticed in these columns (see NATURE, vol. Ixviii. p. 303). Wisconsin University have had an influence outside the An outbreak of throat illness at Lincoln attributable to College of Agriculture. At the jubilee of the uni

inilk was the subject of investigation by Dr. Mair. versity last summer, Prof. Chamberlin, of Chicago, de- Although bearing considerable resemblance to scarlatina livered an address on The State University and Research.” the outbreak was conclusively proved not to be one of this In this address it was argued that “the fundamental pro- disease. From a few of the cases a yeast was isolated from motion of education lies in an increase in the intellectual the throat by Drs. Klein and Gordon which proved pathopossessions of a people, and in the mental activities and genic to mice, and reproduced on inoculation some of the attitudes that grow out of the getting, the testing, and features of the human disease. the using of these possessions " (Experiment Station Record, Dr. Bulstrode's report on the excessive incidence of xvi., 3). As an illustration of the effects of properly directed typhoid fever at Bridgend (Glamorgan) supplies an instrucresearch on a community, the work of the Wisconsin Experi- tive instance of the superiority of properly conducted ment Station was referred to in the following words :- bacterioscopic examination over chemical analysis for de“It was my privilege to compare the Agricultural con- tecting a slight degree of pollution of water supplies. ventions of this State at two periods separated by a decade, Turning to the scientific investigations carried out for the within which the experiment station became a potent in- board, it is difficult in a short space to give adequate notice fluence. The dominant intellectual and moral attitude of of their contents and importance. the earlier period was distinctly disputatious and dogmatic. Dr. Klein records some observations on the bacteriological ... In the second period the dominant attitude was that diagnosis of plague, and the manifestations of this disease of a scientific conference. ... The whole was character- in the rat. He regards the natural disease in this animal ised by a notable approach to the methods of approved as one of slight virulence and feeble infectivity, and conscientific procedure. The intellectual and moral contrast of siders that it is spread from rat to rat mainly through their the two periods was one of the most pronounced expressions fighting propensities. Dr. Klein, in continuation of his of advance in the higher education in a great mass of people study of agglutinins, also details experiments made to test in the midst of a practical life which it has ever been my the ability of two or more agglutinins to coexist in the privilege to witness."

blood of the same animal. Cultures of B. typhosus and The educational value of research may be traced here and B. enteritidis (Gärtner) injected simultaneously in an animal there in our English shires, where agricultural experts were found to produce agglutinins corresponding to each have won the confidence of farmers by conducting well of these microbes. But if the cultures were injected not devised experiments in their midst. But our education simultaneously, but in sequence, the agglutinin of the first authorities still view research with suspicion, and one finds microbe was to a large extent replaced by that of the second agricultural experiments, for example, labelled demon- microbe injected. strations " for no other reason than to satisfy the county Dr. Sidney Martin has continued his investigations of the auditor! One wishes that education committees, toxic substances elaborated by diarrhæa-producing bacteria, entrusted as they are with funds for the encouragement dealing in the present instance with those of the Proteus of agriculture, would study the “ better directed measures vulgaris. He finds the toxin to be proteid in nature, but which have been so successful in Wisconsin, and not in not albumose, and readily extractable from the bacterial Wisconsin only, but throughout the States. They would cells by distilled water. An injection of the toxin produced probably find in the American institutions confirmation of diarrhea with depression of temperature. a view expressed by Prof. Chamberlin in the above quoted The report by Dr. Mervyn Gordon on a bacterial test for paper.

the estimation of pollution of air is one of great interest He remarks that while it is a good thing to provide and importance. First examining the natural bacterial technical instruction in agriculture, it is a much higher flora of the saliva, he found that a streptococcus having and truer function to develop the science of agriculture, to the power of producing acid in glucose and in lactose media, increase the intellectual activity of every farmer, to improve acid and clot in milk, and of changing the colour of an the agricultural art on every farm, and by such improved anilin dye neutral red, was extremely abundant, no less than art to furnish better and safer food to every citizen.

10,000,000, and in some cases 100,000,000, being contained T. H. MIDDLETON. in i c.c. of saliva, and by using a neutral red broth and

incubating anaërobically minute traces of saliva may be detected. By placing, therefore, dishes of neutral red broth

at varying distances from a speaker, and subsequently inSCIENTIFIC REPORTS OF THE LOCAL

cubating and examining, the distance to which particles of GOVERNMENT BOARD.'

saliva may be carried can be ascertained. It was found

that particles of saliva were present in the air no less than AS is customary, the report under notice is divided into 40 feet in front of and 12 feet behind the speaker during

three portions, (1) an excellent digest by the principal loud speaking. Dr. Houston has carried out an exhaustive medical officer, Mr. Power, of the contents of the volume ; study of the bacterial flora of human dejecta, with special (2) statistics of vaccination and details on outbreaks of reference to the colon bacillus. He finds that not less than disease investigated by the board's inspectors; and (3) the 90 per cent. of the total number of this organism present reports of scientific investigations carried out for the board, have the characters of the typical B. coli. and of the board's vaccination department.

The same observer details the results of the chemical and It is reassuring to learn that abstention from vaccin

bacteriological examination of Tunbridge Wells deep well ation seems to be steadily diminishing, the percentage of waters, and, in conjunction with Dr. Klein, reports on the I applement cnntaining the Report of the Medical Officer for 1902–33.

use of nutrose agar for the identification of the typhoid (Thirty-load Annual Report of the Local Government Board, 1902-03.) bacillus.



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The remainder of the volume is occupied with reports of

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. scientific investigations carried out in the board's vaccine

LONDON, laboratories by Dr. Blaxall, Mr. Fremlin, and Dr. Green, and a number of excellent plates illustrating the various

Royal Society, Novrml er 17, 1904.-" Theory of Amphoresearches.


teric Electrolytes." l'art ii. By Prof. James Walker, F.R.S.

In a previous paper (see NATURE, April 7, 1904, vol. Isis. UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL p. 545) it was shown that it is possible to express the conINTELLIGENCE.

centrations of the ions present in the aqueous solution of CAMBRIDGE.-During the first fortnight of last month

an amphoteric electrolyte in terms of the concentration of

the un-ionised substance, the dissociation constants of the some four hundred candidates were being examined at

substance acting as acid and as base respectively, and the Cambridge for entrance scholarships. The majority of the now combined into two groups, the

ionisation constant of water. larger colleges are

In the present paper the

values for the aminobenzoic acids have been re calculatet, larger of which includes Pembroke, Gonville and Caius,

and a closer concordance obtained between theory and Jesus, St. John's, Christ's, King's, and Emmanuel, whilst

experiment than was apparent in the former calculations. the smaller comprises Peterhouse, Clare, Trinity Hall,

As a knowledge of the concentration of the un-ionised puuTrinity, and Sidney Sussex. Queens' examined alone, and

portion of an amphoteric electrolyte in solution is of fundaa week later than the two large groups. As a result of the examination of these thirteen colleges a sum amounting is given of the values of this magnitude with varying con

mental importance in the application of the theory, a table 10 a little more than 6oool. was awarded in scholarships stants and total concentration. From this table it appears to 108 successful candidates. This total does not include

that when the acidic and basic constants approximate in the sum, which amounted to some hundreds of pounds, value, dilution has little effect on the total ionisation of an given in exhibitions, sizarships, and subsizarships, and in amphoteric electrolyte, although the proportions of the two certain extra scholarships offered by some of the colleges positive ions, and consequently the molecular conductivity, after the result of the first selection had been published.

may vary greatly. It is interesting to note the number of scholars and the For a series of amphoteric electrolytes with a constant value of the scholarships given in the different subjects. product kako. where ka' is the acidic and ks the basic on Out of a little more than 6oool. awarded to 108 candidates,

stant, it may be shown that the simultaneous alteration of classics gained 28501., divided amongst 49 scholars, mathe- 1/ka, kj. and v in the same ratio has no effect on the total matics, with 34 scholars, earned 19451., and the natural ionisation. From this and the preceding result it may be sciences divided 990l. amongst 20 successful competitors, deduced that in such a series, beginning with an infinitely whilst candidates in history and oriental and modern small value of ks. the total ionisation falls off as ka languages were successful in only five instances, and these diminishes and kn increases, the fall being at first rapid, 5 divided amongst them 2201.

thereafter becoming slower until, through a comparatively

long range, it is practically constant at the minimum value, Among the papers down for reading at a conference of which is actually reached when ka= ks. At this point the the National Federation of Head Teachers' Associations,

substance is absolutely neutral. As I still further arranged to be held at Cambridge yesterday and to-day, is diminishes, and ko correspondingly increases, the ionisaone by Sir Lauder Brunton, F.R.S., on

** The Proposed

tion begins to increase, very slowly at first, and the subNational League for Physical Education and Improvement. stances considered become more and more basic in character. Science announces that Mr. E. D. Adams has given

Finally, the ionisation increases rapidly, and we deal at 10,0001. to Columbia University for the foundation of a last with a practically simple base for which lia is infinitely research fellowship in physical science. The gift is accom

small. panied by a valuable collection of scientific apparatus to

The theory has been applied to cacodylic acid and to be allotted to the electrical, physical, and psychological asparagine with satisfactory accordance with the experilaboratories of the university.

mental results. Tue prospectus for 1904-5 of the Colorado School of December 1, 1904.--"On Chemical Combination and Mines shows that much importance is attached in the metal

Toxic Action as exemplified in Hæmolytic Sera." By Prof. lurgical courses to visits arranged for the students to works

Robert Muir and Carl H. Browning. where typical processes in metallurgy can be seen in oper

This paper deals with the mode of action of complements ation under commercial conditions. Immediately after

-those comparatively labile bodies which are present in the taking up the study of metallurgy, trips extending through

serum of normal animals, and which are the active sub out the junior and senior years are begun. These

stances in hæmolysis and bacteriolysis. Towards red corcxcursions, intended to illustrate the lectures, are taken while

puscles treated with the suitable immune-body (the antithe particular topics are under discussion, and tend to aid

substance developed by the injection of such corpuscles into greatly in an appreciation of approved machinery and

an animal of other species) a complement may be regarded practice. By means of outlines with which the student is

as a toxin, and already many points of similarity in the provided, which he is required to fill out, care is taken

constitution of toxins and complements have been brought

forward. The hæmolytic dose of a particular complement that all the important points in connection with each plant visited are studied and reported upon.

varies greatly in the case of different corpuscles, when each

variety is treated with the corresponding immune-body, The following recent educational appointments and the question dealt with in this communication is whether announced :-Dr. Foster P. Boswell assistant in psychology such variations in dosage are due to variations in the comand Mr. Edwin Lee Norton instructor in philosophy at bining affinities of complements or to variations in their Wisconsin. Miss Florence Fitch associate professor of toxic action. For example, the hæmolytic dose of guineaphilosophy in Oberlin College. Prof. F. S. Luther, who pig's complement is ten times greater in the case of its own occupies the chair of Trinity College, Hertford, Conn., has corpuscles than it is in the case of the ox's corpuscles, and been elected president of the college. Dr. J. Stebbins has the writers show by quantitative methods that in the former been appointed assistant professor of astronomy, and Mr. case the whole of this large dose of complement enters A. H. Wilson instructor in mathematics, at Illinois; Dr. into combination with the guinea-pig's corpuscles (through H. B. Evans assistant professor of mathematics at the medium of the immune-body); there is no want of comPennsylvania ; Mr. C. P. Weston assistant professor of bining affinity of complement, but its toxic action is slight mechanics, Mr. H. R. Willard instructor in mathematics, A similar result was obtained with each of three sera in. and Mr. R. K. Morley tutor in mathematics, at Maine ; Mr. vestigated-a relative non-sensitiveness of the corpuscles of W. D. Cairns associate professor of mathematics, and Mr. an animal to its own complement; in one case there was J. R. Luckey assistant in mathematics and physics, at also a deficiency in the combining power of the complement. Oberlin ; Mr. E. D. Grant associate professor of mathe- All the results go to emphasise the importance of disa matics at the Michigan College of Mines ; Dr. K. Schmidt tinguishing these two factors in the action of a complement, professor of mathematics and astronomy at Lake City, which correspond with the two chief atom groups desigFlorida.

nated by Ehrlich "haptophore," or combining, and



" zymotoxic." As bearing on the general biology of the subject, the following may be quoted :-“No one has yet succeeded in producing an anti-substance or immune-body by injecting an animal with its own corpuscles or cellssuch a body as with the aid of complement would produce destruction of these cells. This is manifestly a provision against self-poisoning, and Ehrlich has applied to it the term gutotoxicus horror. The results which we have trought forward, if they were found to hold generally, would go to show that even if some substance should appear which acted as an immune-body, there is a provision whereby the complement of an animal should produce comparatively little harmful effect."

Chemical Society, December 14, 1904 – Prof. W. A. Tilden, F.R.S., president, in the chair.—The following papers were read :-Hydrolysis of ammonium salts: V. H. Veley. It is shown that when aqueous solutions of ammoniunı salts are heated the evolution of ammonia and the concomitant acidity of the solutions are due not to dissociation, but to hydrolysis.-The viscosity of liquid mixtures, part ii. i A. E. Dunstan. The author's conclusions, given in a previous paper (Chem. Soc. Trans., 1904, Ixxxv., 817), are confirmed by the present series of viscosity-concentration measurements

number of binary mixtures containing hydroxy-compounds.-The diazoreaction in the diphenyl series, part ii., ethoxybenzidine : J. C. Cain. The author has examined the action of heat on the solution of the diazonium salt prepared from ethoxybenzidine, and has shown that the diazonium group, adjacent to the ethoxy-group, is normally substituted by hydroxyl, whilst the other remains intact.—The sulphate and the phosphate of the dimercurammonium series : P. C. Rây. When dimercurammonium nitrite, NHg,NO,, is treated with an oxyacid, the dimercurammonium complex remains intact. In this way, the author has succeeded in preparing the sulphate and the phosphate of the series.

method for the direct production of certain aminoazocompounds : R. Meldola and L. Eynon. The authors have found that most diazotised amines when treated in aqueous solutions with a strong solution of sodium dichromate give crystalline precipitates of diazonium chromates. These chromates are more or less explosive when dry, and it is suggested that some of them might find technical application high explosives.—The combination of mercaptans with olefinic ketonic compounds: S. Ruhemann.--Studies in optical superposition, part i. : T. S. Patterson and F. Taylor. Menthyl acetate, l-menthyl J-tartrate, and l-menthyl diacetyl-d-tartrate have been prepared and their rotations examined between oo and 100°. It is shown to be possible by analogy to trace the separate effects of the different active groups composing menthyl tartrate and its diacetyl derivative.

Linnean Society, December 15, 1904. - Prof. W A.II. rdman, F.R.S., president, in the chair.-The ecology of woodland plants in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield : Dr. T. W. Woodhead. The plant-associations of this portion of west Yorkshire having been dealt with on broad lines by Smith and Moss, the author has endeavoured to carry the study a stage further by paying special attention to a very limited area. A small wood (Birks Wood, near Huddersfield) was framined in great detail, and the main factors determining the distribution of the more important plants of the undergrowth studied, such as soil, shade produced by the dominant tree, moisture, exposure, and wind. The results thus obtained were then tested by an examination of the woodlands in an area of 66 square miles to the south and West of Huddersfield ; special attention was also paid to the distribution of these species beyond the limits of the woodlands.-Experimental studies in heredity in rabbits : C. C. Hurst. The studies were based on breeding between a Belgian " hare" and an albino Angora; the second generation showed but little outward variation from the Belgian parent, but the third generation displayed great diversity of colour-albino, grey, black, and variegated. These esperiments tallied in a very close degree with the numbers expected according to the Mendelian laws.

Faraday Society, December 19. 1904. – Mr. J. Swinburne, vice-president, in the chair.-The electric furnace: its origin, transformations, and applications, partii. : M.

Adolphe Minet.-Electrolytic analysis of cobalt and nickel : Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin and W. C. Prebble. Cobalt.The aim of the experiments was to obtain bright deposits of the metal that should be quantitatively accurate. The most satisfactory results were obtained with a solution containing an alkali phosphate and a little phosphoric acid, the latter to prevent the precipitation of the double sodium cobalt phosphate. Nickel.-Similar solutions were tried for nickel deposition. In this case good results were obtained with a borate solution, while a phosphate solution, which gave good figures in the case of cobalt, was not at all satisfactory.-1) The electrolytic preparation of tin paste ; (2) note on the electrolytic recovery of tin : F. Gcistharp. The electrolytic process is less costly than other processes in spite of the low current efficiency (50 per cent.), and it can be worked continuously. The process consists in dissolving anodes of tin, roughly cast from commercial ingots, in dilute hydrochloric acid, and depositing the metal in the form of sponge on kathodes of block tin or tinned iron. In the second note an experiment is described that has some bearing on the conditions necessary for electrolytically stripping tin plate.

Paris. Academy of Sciences, December 26, 1904.-M. Mascart. in the chair.-On the theorem of areas and conservative systems : Paul Painlevé.-Groups of negative bands in the air spectrum with a strong dispersion : H. Deslandres. A detailed examination under high dispersion of the ultraviolet band 13914.

This band is intense round the negative pole in vacuum tubes filled with air or nitrogen, and it constitutes nearly exclusively the kathode light of gases; it is found in the aurora borealis and in the radium light.-On the constitution of the sodium salts of certain methenic and methinic acids : A. Haller and P. Th. Muller. A differential optical method has been employed in this work, comparing the molecular refraction of the sodium salt with its corresponding acid, so far as possible in the same solvent and at equal concentrations. The substances studied included cyanacetic ester, propionyl-cyanacetic ester, malonic and cyanomalonic esters, malonitrile, and cyanocamphor. The results indicate that all the sodium salts examined have a different constitution from that of the generating acid, and hence that the latter should be classed as pseudo-acids.-On

new geological discoveries in the Soudan : A. de Lapparent. The fossils found present a fresh proof of the existence of an arm of the sea penetrating into the Soudan.-On the new Giacobini comet : M. Giacobini. Observations, the elements and ephemeris of the new comet, discovered on December 17, 1904, at the Observatory of Nice.—The provisional elements of the Giacobini comet (December 17, 1904): G. Fayet and E. Maubant. -Observations of the Tempel comet (1873, 2) made at the Observatory of Algiers with the bent equatorial of 31.8 cm. aperture : MM. Rambaud and Sy.-On the stability of aërostats fitted with steering apparatus : G. A. Crocco. -On the fragility of certain steels : A. Perot and Henri Michel Levy. A study of the effect of shock on notched test-pieces, a photographic method of recording the results being adopted.--On the kathode rays and the laws of electromagnetism : P. Villard. Diagrams are given showing the comparison of the theoretical curves with those actually obtained, and it was found that none of the experimental results present anomalies requiring the assumption of a magnetic friction.-On the thermoelectricity of the aluminium alloys : Hector Pécheux. Alloys of aluminium with tin, lead, bismuth, magnesium, antimony, and zinc were studied at 100°, 180°, and 380° C.-On the theory vi magnetism : P. Langevin. An application of the hypothesis of electrons to the explanation of the phenomena of para- and dia-magnetism.--On a phenomenon of retinal adaptation relating to visual perception of faintly illuminated colours : A. Polack.-On the reduction by amorphous boron of the oxides of manganese, and on the preparation of a new boride of manganese : Binet du Jassonneix. The composition of the new boride studied is represented by the formula MnB. It fits into the series of well defined and crystallised borides FeB, NiB, and COB prepared by M. Moissan by means of the electric furnace.-On quadri




220 220

valent oxygen : E. E. Blaise, Ethyl ether and magnesium

FRIDAY, JANUARY 6 iodide form a well defined, crystalline compound from


The Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Physical Degukrawhich the ether is only driven off when heated to tempera- tion : Sir Lauder Brunton, F.R.S. tures approaching 190°C. Its probable constitution is GROLOGISTS' AssocIATION. at 8.--The Third Issue of the British Associs given as

tion Geological Photographs: Dr. C G. Cullis. C,H, II .

Royal GEOGRAPHICAL Society, at 3,30.- National Antarctic Expeditica:

Capt. R. F. Scott. (Lecture to Young People.)

CH Mg C,U,

Society of CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.-Some Chemical Aspects of the

St. Louis Exhibition : Walter F. Reid. in which the oxygen must be tetravalent. If this substance is treated with an ether containing an alkyl group of higher

Roval GEOGRAPHICAL Society, at 8.30.- Mr. Reginald Enock's Jour

neys in Peru : the President, molecular weight, as amyl ether, the latter replaces the

TUESDAY, JANUARY 10. ethyl ether, and a vigorous reaction ensues.-On the re- INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-The Recent Visit to be duction of the anhydrides of the dibasic acids : G. Blanc. United States and Canada : Sir William Heory White, K.C.B. (The

Address will be repeated on the following day at 3.30 p.m.) The anhydrides of pyrotartaric, aa-dimethylsuccinic, aa-dimethylglutaric, BB-dimethylglutaric, and camphoric Society of Public ANALYSTS, at 8.–Brandy: Otto Hehner.

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 11. acids, when reduced with sodium and absolute alcohol, give

THURSDAY, JANUARY 12. good yields of the corresponding lactones.-A general MATHEMATICAL Society, at 5.30.-Generational Relations for the Abstra method for the synthesis of aldehydes with the aid of sub- Group simply Isomorphic with the Abstract Group LF (2,1; Dr W.

Bussey.-On a Class of Expansions in Oscillating Functions: Prol. stituted glycidic acids : Georges Darzens. A mixture of

A. C. Dixon.--I sogonal Transformation and the Diameter Transformamonochloracetic ester with any ketone is treated with sodium tion: H. L. Trachtenberg.-A Generalisation of the Legendre Poly ethylate in powder. The acid formed by this condensation nomial : H. Bateman. --Current Flow in Rectangular Conductors:

H. Fletcher Moulton.-Basic Generalisations of some well known is unstable, and splits up easily into carbon dioxide and an

Analytic Functions: Rev. F. H. Jackson. aldehyde of the type RR'CH-CHO, where the original ketone was RR':00. The reaction has been applied to a considerable number of ketones and found to be quite general.-On the diastatic coagulation of starch : A.


PAGE Fernbach and J. Wolff. It is shown that the diastatic

Modern Optical Methods. By Prof. G. H. Bryan, coagulation of starch is only possible if it is in a state of


217 liquefaction, this being produced either by a liquefying American Cytology. By H. H. D.

218 diastase or artificially:-On the combustion of sulphur in

Physical Research at Leyden

218 the calorimetric bomb: H. Giran. The heat of combustion

Practical Silicate Analysis

219 of sulphur has been determined in the Berthelot bomb at

Our Book Shelf :pressures varying between 2.5 and 45 atmospheres, with

Lassar-Cohn and Tingle : Application of some the unexpected result that the heat of formation of sulphur

General Reactions to Investigations in Organic dioxide increases with the pressure. This result is regarded

Chemistry.”—J. B. C. as being possibly due to the formation of the persulphuric Leonard and Salmon : " A Further Course of Practical anhydride of Berthelot.-On the electrical conductivity of

Science" colloidal solutions : G. Malfitano. In order to eliminate

Eichhorn : “Die drahtlose Telegraphie the effect possibly produced by the presence of minute traces

Campbell: "Notes on the Natural History of the Bell of electrolytes in solution, the conductivity of the colloidal

Rock."--R. L. . solutions was taken both before and after filtration through

Bedding : “ The British Journal Photographic a thin film of collodion, it having been shown by pre

Almanac, 1905” liminary experiments that solutions of pure electrolytes Letters to the Editor :undergo no appreciable change after such filtration. It

Mean Temperatures of High Southern Latitudes.was found that the conductivity due to the fine particles

Prof. Julius Hann in suspension was practically nil.-On the comparative pro

Reversal of Charge from Electrical Induction duction of alcohol and carbonic acid during fermentation :

Machines. - George W. Walker . M. Lindet and P. Marsais. The ratio of alcohol to

Fishing at Night.-F. G. Aflalo carbonic acid has been followed throughout the whole The Cost of Chemical Synthesis. . R. J. Friswell course of a fermentation, the effect of varying temperature “Bastard” Logwood.-S. N. C. being also studied.—Study of calcium carbide used as an

Intelligence of Animals.—Dr. F. J. Allen explosive in mining work : Marcel P. S. Guédras. The A New Contribution to Assyrian History. (Illas. cartridge used consisted of a charge of calcium carbide

trated.) separated by an insulating membrane from water. The

Seismology in Japan. (Illustrated.) membrane is broken by a cap controlled electrically, and The Founder of Australian Anthropology. (Iles. after five minutes the explosive mixture is fired also by

trated.) By A. Ernest Crawley . electrical means. The explosion takes place in a manner Changes Upon the Moon's surface. (Tilustrated) well adapted for mining work.-On the histology of the By Prof. William H. Pickering myocardium in the primitive molluscs : P. Vigier and Fr. Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart., F.R.S. Vies.--Intranuclear 'fat in the suprarenal capsules of


Notes mammals : P. Mulon.-On the migration of glucosides in Our Astronomical Column:plants : W. Russell.-On the destruction of the winter egg Another New Comet (1904 e).

233 of Phylloxera by lysol : G. Cantin. An account of experi- Comet 1904 d (Giacobini)

233 ments demonstrating the practical efficacy of a i per cent. Observations of Leonids at Harvard, 1904

233 solution of lysol against the disease. -On the mineral light-curve of 8 Cephei

234 species of arable earth : A. Delage and H. Lagatu.--The Structure of the Third Cyanogen Band geology of Sahel, Algeria : General de Lamothe.--The New Refaction Tables .

234 culture of the parasite of dysentery of warm countries : The “Annuaire" du Bureau des Longitudes

234 A. Lesage.-On infectious anæmia of the horse : MM.

Eclipse Results and Problems Carré and Vallée.

Bibliography of Contemporary Astronomical Works 234

Prizes Proposed by the Paris Academy of Sciences
Geological Noies. (Illustrated.


Agricultural Education and Research. By Prof. RÖNTGEN SOCIETY, at 8.15.—Description of an Automatic Vacuum Pump:

T. H. Middleton

236 C E. S. Phillips. (The apparatus will be shown at work. )- Exhibition Scientific Reports of the Local Government Board. of a Method by which Strongly Adherent Films of Alumninium may be

By Prof. R. T. Hewlett applied to Glass.-A Note on the Coloration of G'ass by Radium

237 Radiation.

University and Educational Intelligence
CIVIL AND MechanICAL Engineers' Society, at 8.— Than es B srage: Societies and Academies
James Casey.

Diary of Societies

1 240


222 222



for 1905

238 238

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WORKS-ELMERS END, KENT (Adjoining S.E.R. Station).

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