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be too late for the dissemination of the forecasts by the each public school connected with the Headmasters' Conmorning papers. Under the existing arrangements it was ference is of just the kind to help parents to a decision as found that 'sixteen out of twenty-four.“radiation" fogs to where to send their boys to be educated. and four out of eight * smoke" fogs were anticipated. The three “cold surface" fogs and four “cloud" fogs

Prof. Fritz Heise, of the Berlin School of Mines, has were not forecasted. The present forecasts rarely, if ever,

been appointed director of the Bochum School of Mines, and contain any indications of the intensity of the fog expected.

Mr. Georg Baum, the author of several works og coalThe problem of the issue of fog warnings for individual

mining, has been appointed to succeed him in the Berlin districts has been approached from two points of view.

chair. Mr. August Schweman, mine manager of Neurode, As was pointed out in the previous report, the observations

has been appointed professor of mining at the Aachen of drift smoke, during the incidence of fog usually show

Technical High School to fill the vacancy caused by the

death of Mr. Lengemann. an indraught of air to some central district of London, but this is rarely symmetrical; a preponderating direction, In view of the educational and scientific progress which usually identical with that due to the barometric gradient, Japan has made in recent years, the two lectures on "The can in most cases be identified, and plays a most important Japanese Spirit, which will be delivered by Mr. Y. part in determining the region of thickest fog. Ouť of Okakura, of the Imperial University, Tokyo, at the London forty-four days of fog twenty-seven showed the thickest fog School of Economics, Clare Market, w.C., on January 17 to leeward, five showed it to windward, while in the remain- and January 20, should be of special interest. Tickets of ing twelve cases no particular preference for any one locality admission may be obtained free from the secretary of the could be identified. Captain Carpenter had suggested that school. a more detailed study of the distribution of temperature might prove useful in this connection, and Mr. Lempfert

Science reports that Mr. W. A. Riebling, of Newark

N.J., has sent an additional 2000l. to the Rensselaer Polsreproduces diagrams which show conspicuous differences of temperature within the London area, in which the thickest

technic Institute, Troy, N.Y., to be used in replacing the fog is also to be found in the coldest region. Four out of

building destroyed by fire. Mr. Riebling gave 2000l last the five apparently exceptional cases in which fog was

June. A gift of 1000l. from Mr. George B. Cluett is also thickest to windward show the lowest temperatures also on

announced. Wellesley College has received 3600l., we also the windward side. It is the more to be regretted that

learn, from the Robert Charles Billings fund, the income the inquiry has had to be discontinued as the winter proved

of which is to be applied to the department of botany. to be singularly free from fog. Investigation of the thick The West Riding Education Committee has resolved, fogs of the present season from this point of view would says the British Medical Journal, subject to certain cooprobably have yielded interesting results.

ditions, to make grants, which will doubtless be renewed annually, to the Universities of Leeds and Sheffield of

45001. and 1500l. respectively. In thanking the county UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

council for the grant to Leeds, the Pro-Chancellor, Mr. INTELLIGENCE.

A. G. Lupton, stated that of the 100,000l. for which the

university was now asking a sum of 64,000l. had already EDINBURGH.--The annual report for 1904 shows that the

been subscribed. total annual value of the university fellowships, scholarships, bursaries, and prizes now amounts to about 18,2701. THE 1905 edition of the “ Schoolmaster's Yearbook and In addition, a sum of upwards of 6ool., being the income of Directory " follows on the same excellent lines as the issue the Earl of Moray endowment fund, is annually available

of last year.

It contains an immense amount of well for the encouragement of original research. As already arranged information, and has become indispensable to all announced, in response to the appeal for subscriptions to engaged in educational work. If the publication continues provide for the further development of the university, Sir to increase in size, as it seems to do annually, the section Donald Currie has made the munificent gift of 25,000l. He on the books of the year might be dispensed with, as inhas expressed a wish that the revenue from his money formation of the same kind can be obtained from many should be applied to the remuneration of a staff of lecturers educational periodicals. The editor is to be congratulated such as the authorities of the university may find it advisable on the fact that this useful work of reference has become from time to time to appoint. The university court, being established so securely. desirous of permanently associating his name with the fund,

A RESEARCH scholarship or scholarships, founded by Mr. has resolved to designate it “The Sir Donald Currie

Andrew Carnegie, will be awarded shortly on the recomLectureship Endowment Fund." Other contributions to the

mendation of the council of the Iron and Steel Institute. extension scheme have also been intimated to the extent of

Candidates, who must be under thirty-five years of age. 15,000l., including a sum of 5000l. given by Sir John

must apply on a special form before the end of February Jackson to the Tait memorial fund, for the encouragement to the secretary of the institute. The object of this scheme of physical research.

of scholarships is not to facilitate ordinary collegiate LIVERPOOL.—The committee of the institute of archæ- studies, but to enable students, who have passed through ology has been enabled by the munificence of Sir John a college curriculum or have been trained in industrial Brunner to take in hand the publication of a History of establishments, to conduct researches in the metallurgy of Egypt,” to include all the results of modern research, and iron and steel and allied subjects, with the view of aiding to be, so far as possible, a complete history of the Egyptian its advance or its application to industry. There is no civilisation from the earliest times down to the conquest restriction as to the place of research which may be selected, by Alexander the Great. It is estimated that the work will whether university, technical school, or works, provided it take two years to complete, and it will be published with be properly equipped for the prosecution of metallurgical full photographic illustrations.

investigations.

A CONFERENCE of teachers from elementary and secondary A CONFERENCE on school hygiene has been arranged by schools and technical institutes was held under the auspices the Royal Sanitary Institute, to be held in the University of the London County Council at the Medical Examination of London, under the presidentship of Sir Arthur W. Rücker, Hall, Victoria Embankment, on January 5, 6, and 7. On F.R.S., on February 7-10.

the first of these days, under the presidency of Sir William A COURSE of ten lectures on

Mr. Enzymes ” will be given

Collins, the teaching of arithmetic was discussed. by Dr. W. M. Bayliss, F.R.S., at University College,

C. T. Millis, principal of the Borough Polytechnic, said London, commencing on January 18. The lectures are open

that what is needed in the teaching of arithmetic is that to all internal students of the university, and also to medical

some of the time now spent in teaching special rules in men on presentation of their cards.

money sums should be devoted to giving a sound know

ledge of general principles. Mr. S. O. Andrew, during the THE sixteenth issue of the “ Public School Year Book" course of a paper on the same subject, remarked that what -that for 1905—with its select list of preparatory schools, ever part of arithmetic may be given up or postponed, there is as useful as ever. The information given respecting is a general agreement that it must still include a knowledge of the standards of measurement necessary for the part of geographical study. Mr. B. B. Dickinson described

an experiment in the teaching of practical geography carried ordination of the elementary instruction in arithmetic and out by him at Rugby School. The report of the association geometry was emphasised by subsequent speakers.

shows that 123 new members have been added to the roll,

making the total membership 448. The members now inThe third annual meeting of the North of England

clude teachers of every grade, school inspectors, directors Education Conference was held in Liverpool on January 6 of education, technical education committees, and others and 7. More than 2000 members of education committees,

interested in geographical education, both at home and teachers, and others attended. The question of leaving abroad. certificates was discussed at the first meeting, and during the course of the discussion Sir Oliver Lodge said the use and not the abuse of examinations is admitted by all as an

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. adjunct to teaching, but the point is to determine the relation between teachers and examiners, also between

'LONDON. teachers and inspectors. People are no longer going to be Royal Society, December 1, 1904.—"The Ascent of satisfied with purely external examinations imposed from Water in Trees. By Dr. Alfred J. Ewart, Lecturer on above upon the schools. It is not a dignified position for Botany in the University of Birmingham. the schools, and they have rebelled. Prof. Sherrington, Since the time when Strasburger's researches seemed to F.R.S., read a paper later on child study, in which he urged show that the ascent of water in trees was a purely physical that this study could not devote itself more profitably at phenomenon, attempts have been made by Dixon and Joly, the present time than to what may be termed the natural as well as by Askenasy, to prove that the ascent of water history of the child. In healthy school life lay the first line is due to a tensile stress set up by transpiration in the of defence against race deterioration. It would help leaves, and transmitted downwards' by continuous watersociety if teachers and physiologists could combine to columns which are practically suspended from them. A examine into the mischief to growth resulting from hours knowledge of the resistance to the transpiration current in of breathing vitiated air, from want of warm clothing that the stems of trees, and of the influence of various factors economised food, from semi-starvation, from improper food, upon it, forms, however, an essential preliminary to any from chronic fatigue, and from insufficient rest and sleep such explanation. in bed. Among other subjects dealt with were the teach- The author finds that when the vessels are completely ing of geography, the teaching of domestic science, and filled with water and are open at both ends, the flow through the place of handwork in the school curriculum.

them takes place in accordance with Poisseuille's formula,

the rate of flow being directly proportional to the pressure A DEPUTATION from the executive committee of the

and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the liquid and Association of Education Committees (England and Wales) the square of the radius of the vessel. Hence in climbing recently waited upon the Board of Education to urge the plants where a rapid rate of flow is required the vessels adoption of a more liberal scale of grants for secondary are large, approaching i mm. in diameter, and in such schools, to ask for a larger share from the Government of cases the total viscosity resistance during average transthe cost of training pupil teachers, and to urge the necessity | piration is equal to a head of water considerably less than for the compulsory attendance up to the age of fourteen at the height of the stem. Under normal conditions, however, evening continuation schools of all children who do not air bubbles always appear in the conducting vessels of continue as whole-day scholars up to that age. Sir William angiospermous trees, and each bubble exerts a resistance Anson, in reply to the deputation, agreed that more money to flow which is directly proportional to the surface tension should be allowed to secondary schools, but though such a of water against air and inversely proportional to the radius demand would have his support, Sir William Anson said of the tube. In a tall tree the theoretical resistance due he was by no means sure of obtaining the necessary funds. to this cause alone might amount to as much as 300 atmoHe expressed the opinion that the question of cost made it spheres, whereas calculations from direct experiments gave almost impossible to enforce a system of compulsory attend- total resistances for the tallest trees of 100 atmospheres ance at evening continuation schools up to fourteen years of during active transpiration. age for children leaving the day school before that time. No leaf could produce or maintain an osmotic suction of C'ntil we have better security that the education given in this intensity, nor could the water columns in the vessels the elementary school lasted, and a better secondary educa- transmit it without rupture. In addition, actual obserytion system with larger grants for secondary schools, Sir ation showed that although differences do occur in the William added, he would not be a party to asking for another osmotic concentration of the cell-sap in the leaves at different penny for elementary education, as such. It is satisfactory levels, these are not sufficient to overcome the resistance to find it recognised officially that this country must spend to average flow in the intervening portions of the trunk. more money on secondary and technical education if we It appears, therefore, that a staircase pumping action must are to have an educational system which will assist national be exercised in the wood of a tall tree, which enables the progress.

leaves to obtain the water they require without their being

forced to exercise tensions of more than toj of an The annual meeting of the Geographical Association was

atmosphere. No satisfactory physical explanation of such held on January 6. Mr. Douglas Freshfield presided, and

action has yet been given, but the author points out that an interesting discussion took place on the teaching of

by appropriate surface-tension action along the length of practical geography in schools. Prof. Dryer, of the State

a Jamin's chain the water could be led upwards from waterNormal College, Terre Haute, Indiana, opened the debate,

column to water-column, and maintained in a labile conand said that practical geography meant in America

dition ready to flow in any direction where moderate suction laboratory work. This work is not necessarily done in a was exercised. Various indirect estimations have been made special room, and, indeed, the best part of it is done out

which lend support to this view, but direct observations of doors. The study of maps plays a large part in this

have not hitherto yielded satisfactory proof, so that further laboratory work. Contoured topographical maps are also

investigations are still needed in this direction, and these much used, together with raised models illustrating different

are, in fact, in progress. forms of the earth's surface. Pictures, photographs, and Lantern slides also have a conspicuous place in the school's December 15, 1904.-" An Analysis of the Results from equipment. The instrumental study of the earth's atmo. the Falmouth Magnetographs on "Quiet' Days during the sphere is taken next by the students, who keep records of Twelve Years 1891 to 1962." By Dr. Charles Chree, their own observations for a period of three months. The F.R.S. official weather charts can be obtained daily at every school, The paper contains an analysis and discussion of the and, owing to the area covered by them, it is possible to results obtained from the declination and horizontal force follow cyclonic and anti-cyclonic disturbances for several magnetographs at Falmouth on quiet days from 1891, when days together, and sometimes to predict in the school itself the records commenced, until 1902. the arrival at a particular time of an atmospheric disturb- The total secular changes of declination from 1891 to ance. Field excursions are regarded as the most important | 1900 at Kew and Falmouth were identical, and the changes

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from year to year were closely alike. In horizontal force portion of the range of temperature on the hydrogen scale
the annual changes recorded at the two stations did not are given in the following table :
agree so closely, and on the average the change at Falmouth
was somewhat the greater.

At 120° abs. At 180° abs.
Ice ...

O 0062
Whilst the mean daily range of temperature at Falmouth

O 0058 . 0:0052

Naphthaline -a seaside station-is notably less than at Kew, the daily

0*0013 ... O'COTI

O'COOẠI Aniline ...

Oʻ00086 0'00070 ranges of declination at the two places are as nearly as

Nitrophenol (para) O'0010 o'00085 *00070 possible equal, and the daily range of horizontal force is

Glycerine

O*00078 O'00082 Oʻ00076 somewhat larger at Falmouth. The annual variation of diurnal temperature range is

Paraffin wax ...

O'00060 0'00065 O'odoor

O'00067 0'00065 again notably less at Falmouth than at Kew, the winter B.Naphthol

O'Coco3 range at the former station being relatively high, and the

Diphenylainine

0'00058 0.00054 O 03052 summer range low. There is in this case a somewhat Geological Society, December 21, 1904.-Dr. J. E. Marr. analogous state of matters in magnetics, the difference F.R.S., president, in the chair.-On certain genera and between the diurnal ranges at midsummer and midwinter species of Lytoceratidæ : S. S. Buckman. This paper deals being relatively less at Falmouth than at Kew.

with certain specimens sent by Mr. Beeby Thompson from Analysing the diurnal inequality of temperature into the Northampton Sands, one of which is remarkable for its harmonic terms, General Strachey (Phil. Trans. for 1893) homæomorphy with Phylloceras.—The Leicester earthfound that the local time of occurrence of the maxima was quakes of August 4, 1893, and June 21, 1904: Dr. C. distinctly earlier at Kew than at Falmouth, the difference Davison. The earthquake of 1893 was a twin, with its being greatest for the 24-hour term, for which it amounted principal epicentre between Markfield and Woodhouse to nearly an hour. When the declination and horizontal Eaves, and the other near Tugby, about seventeen miles force diurnal inequalities are similarly analysed, the local to E. 34o S. Its disturbed area contains about 2200 square times of occurrence of the maxima are so nearly alike at miles. On June 21, 1904, two shocks were felt: the first the two stations that it is impossible to say with certainty a very slight one, at about 3.30 a.m., the second at 5:28 a.m. which is the earlier. This result applies to the average The epicentre of the earlier shock was in the neighbourhood year of a sun-spot cycle.

of Markfield and Groby, or near the south-eastern margin When the annual variations in the amplitudes of the daily of the north-western focus of 1893. The distance between ranges in declination and horizontal force at Kew, and of the epicentres of the earthquakes of 1904 was about twelve the 24, 12 and 8-hour terms in the diurnal inequality, were miles. Thus the foci of 1904 appear to have occupied the expressed as Fourier series, with an annual and a semi- nearer margins of the foci of 1893.-The Derby earthquakes. annual term, there proved to be a remarkably close agree- of July 3, 1904: Dr. C. Davison. Although weaker than ment between the dates of occurrence of maximum in the the earthquake of March 24, 1903, this shock, owing to its annual terms, and also in those of the semi-annual terms occurrence at 3.21 on a Sunday afternoon, was felt over for the several elements. The same phenomenon appears

a much wider area (about 25,000 square miles). As in 1903. at Falmouth, and there proves, moreover, to be a remark. the earthquake was a twin, the epicentres being almost ably close agreement between corresponding Kew and exactly coincident with those of that year, one being situated Falmouth dates. This result again applies to the average near Ashbourne, and the other, about six or seven miles year of a sun-spot cycle.

from it, near Wirksworth and Matlock Bath.—Twin-earthApplying Wolf's formula R=a+bs, associating the range quakes : Dr. C. Davison. In a twin-earthquake, the shock R of a magnetic element with sun-spot frequency S, results

consists of two maxima of intensity, or of two distinct parts are obtained for the variation of b and bla throughout the separated by a brief interval of rest and quiet. In Great year at Falmouth very similar in character those Britain, one in every twenty earthquakes is a twin, and previously obtained for Kew.

our strongest shocks (the Colchester earthquake of 1884 Taking the above formula, but making S represent in the Hereford earthquake of 1896, &c.) belong to the same turn the areas of whole sun-spots, umbræ and faculæ as class. The phenomena show that twin-earthquakes cannot given by the Astronomer Royal, values are calculated for be caused by reflection or refraction of the earth-waves, or a and b in the case when R represents the range of declin-'| by the separation of the waves of direct and transverse ation or horizontal force in the mean diurnal inequality for vibrations, or by the repetition of the impulse within the A comparison is then instituted between the

an overlapping focus. They must therefore be ranges for individual years of the 12-year period as calcu- due to impulses in two detached, or practically detached, lated from the values of a and b thus found, and the

foci; and it is shown that all the known phenomena of Astronomer Royal's mean yearly data on the one hand,

twin-earthquakes can be thus accounted for. In British and as actually observed on the other. When S represents twin-earthquakes, the distance between the epicentres varies areas of whole sun-spots or of umbræ, the agreement from four to twenty-three miles, the average for seven recent between observed and calculated ranges is nearly though

earthquakes being between ten and eleven miles. As a rule, not quite so good, especially in horizontal force, as when the foci are elongated approximately in the direction of the S represents Wolfer's sun-spot frequencies; but when s line joining them, showing that they are portions of the represents areas of faculæ the agreement is much inferior, same fault. The foci appear to be situated at different especially in years of sun-spot maximum.

depths, and, in two cases, the fault probably changes hade

in the region between them. “ The Effect of Temperature on the Thermal Conduc- Royal Microscopical Society, December 21, 1904.tivities of some Electrical Insulators." By Dr. Charles H. Mr. G. C. Karop in the chair.-Mr. Conrady read a short Lees.

paper explaining an experiment he exhibited to prove the The substance the thermal conductivity of which is to phase-reversal in the second spectrum from a grating of be determined has the form of a cylinder about 8 cm. long, broad slits, the mathematical proof of which he gave in 2 cm. diameter, surrounded by a thin cylinder of brass and placed in a Dewar tube. The heat is supplied by the passage

his paper on theories of microscopical vision read before

the society at its last meeting. The object consisted of of an electrical current through a platinoid wire embedded two gratings one above the other, similar in every respect in the substance parallel to the axis of the cylinder, and except that one had broad slits and the other had narrow about 0.4 cm. distant from it. The temperature is measured slits. In accordance with what was theoretically predicted by the electrical resistance of two short spirals of No. 40 by the author, the difference was brought out when the pure platinum wire, down the centre of one of which the direct light plus the first and second spectra of one side heating wire passes.

were admitted, but when the direct light was cut off by The difference of temperature of the two spirals is deter- the movement of a shutter the image of the broad slits mined by making them two arms of a resistance bridge, underwent a startling change. The lines jumped across to the other two arms of which are equal. By means of positions mid-way between the correct ones, showing there mercury cups resistances may be placed in series with either was an antagonism of phase between the light of the first of the spirals until a balance is obtained. A few values of the conductivities in C.G.S. units for a

and that of the second spectrum. Some photographs show.

ing the effects produced by cutting out the various spectra

to

the year.

same

or

of one side were exhibited by Mr. Rheinberg, who in the flame, under the action of the high temperature. suggested to Mr. Conrady that the experiment should be The measurement of the conductivity of dielectrics by means made to test the correctness of the theory.-Mr. J. W. of ionised gases : Charles Nordmann. One of the faces Gordon then gave a summary of his paper on the theory of the dielectric, the other of which is connected with earth, of highly magnified images,

is supplied with known quantities of electricity per unit

of time, and the variation of the potential of this face is EDINBURGH.

observed with an electrometer. The constant charge is proRoyal Society, December 5, 1904.-Dr. R. H. Traquair duced by means of a radio-active substance placed between in the chair.—The igneous geology of the Bath

the plates of an air condenser, and the stationary potential gate and Linlithgow Hills: J. D. Falconer. Five

is measured. Details of the measurements will be comsuccessive zones of igneous rocks were described in detail,

municated in a later paper.-The influence of steam on the and important conclusions drawn as to their geological age

reduction of the oxides of iron by carbon monoxide and and to the relations between the intrusive rocks and dykes light on the results of employing dried air in the blast

dioxide : O. Boudouard. With the view of throwing some so characteristic of the region. The region has been very recently re-surveyed by the Geological Survey, and Dr.

furnace, the author has made experiments on the influence Horne, Dr. Peach, and others of the staff were able 10

of moisture on the reducing action of carbon monoxide, corroborate many of Mr. Falconer's results, the value uf

either pure or mixed with the dioxide, upon ferric oxide. which could not be over-estimated. A further paper was

It has been found that the dry gases exert a more energetic promised dealing with the petrology of the district.

reducing action than the moist gases, but that this differExperiments on the simultaneous removal of spleen and

ence, which is considerable at low temperatures, becomes thymus: Drs. Noel Paton and Goodall. Already the

negligible at high temperatures.-On the existence of a authors had found that the removal of either had no apparent

normal green chromic sulphate : Albert Colson. The deleterious effect upon the life of the animal, and now they

separation of the three dimethylanthracenes obtained by the proved that the removal of both in no way affected the

action of methylene chloride upon toluene in the presence vitality. The experiments were made on guinea-pigs.

of aluminium chloride : James Lavaux. Modifications of

the Friedel and Crafts method are described, by means of Crystallographical notes : Dr. Hugh Marshall, F.R.S. The author suggested (1) that the “ axis of compound

which larger and more constant yields are obtained. These symmetry of second order should not be used in crystallo

modifications appear to be not only advantageous in this graphical work, as it is not a definite direction in the crystal,

particular case, but are applicable to any reaction carried and that the " centre of symmetry " should be used instead;

out in the presence of aluminium chloride.—Observations (2) that in order to simplify the classification of crystals

of the Giacobini comet (d 1904) made at the Observatory of for teaching purposes, the rhombohedral and scalenohedral

Algiers with the 31.8 cm. equatorial : MM. Rambaud and classes should be treated as members of the hexagonal and

Sy.-On the crystalline rocks collected by the Sahara exnot of the trigonal system.

pedition : F. Foureau and L. Gentil.—The resistance of December 19, 1904.—Sir John Murray in the chair.—A

water to the motion of vessels. Hulls of least resistance : supplementary note on the Lower Devonian fishes of

Vice-Admiral Fournier.-Hydrogen peroxide in the nascent Gemunden: Dr. Traquair. The author brought forward

state and its bactericidal activity on organisms in water : Ed. Bonjean.

It is shown that whilst 0.291 gram of further evidence in support of his original description, which had been criticised by Prof. Bashford Dean.-A specimen of

hydrogen peroxide per litre was required to sterilise a litre

of Seine water in six hours when commercial hydrogen salmon caught in the Galway River which appears to be intermediate between the smolt and grilse stages : W. L.

peroxide was employed, under the same conditions, 0.060 Calderwood.— Networks of the plane in absolute geo

gram was sufficient to produce sterilisation in four hours metry: D. M. Y. Sommerville. Networks built up of

when the hydrogen peroxide was in the nascent state the various regular figures in the Euclidean plane were dis

from calcium peroxide.--Hyphoids and bacteroids : Paul cussed at considerable length, and the investigation was

Vuillemin. Hyphoids and bacteroids are not purely parathen extended to non-Euclidean planes.

sitic formations, but are symbiotic products.---Research on

plant radio-activity : Paul Becquerel. No trace of radioParis.

activity of plant products could be observed if precautions Academy of Sciences, January 2.-M. Troost in the were taken to prevent the moisture transpired by the plant chair.-The cooling power of a current of fluid on from reaching the electrometer. The author therefore reellipsoid with unequal axes immersed in the current : gards the positive results announced by M. Tommasina as J. Boussinesq.-Interference fringes produced by a system being due to a neglect of this precaution. On the accentuof two perpendicular mirrors: G. Lippmann. The system

ation of the alpine characters of leaves in juniper galls : C. of fringes formed, possessing a white central fringe, is Houard.-On the increase of weight of organic and mineral parallel to the intersection of the plane of the mirrors. The

substances in oats a function of the age : Mlle. experimental arrangement for the production of these M. Stefanowska.-Respiratory measurements on marine fringes, which is described in detail, is simpler than that fishes : J. P. Bounhiol. By means of a specially devised required for the Fresnel fringes.-On the alkaline micro

tank the author has been enabled to determine the carbon granites of the Zinder territory : A. Lacroix. The rocks dioxide per gram-hour, the oxygen per gram-hour, and the are ægyrine and amphibole microgranites, and ratio C0,/0, for several fishes. The effect of captivity in characterised chemically by their extreme poorness in lime diminishing the respiratory exchanges was well marked. and magnesia, and by the quantity of alkali, the potash

New South Wales. being slightly in excess of the soda. -On limiting functions Linnean Society, November 30, 1904.—Dr. T. Storie and functional operations : Maurice Fréchet.-On substitu- Dixson, president, in the chair.--Contributions to the study tions with three variables and invariant curves by a contact of Australian Foraminifera, part i. : H. 1. Jensen. This transformation : S. Lattès.-On invariant subgroups of paper, for the most part, is a compilation of the species index pa : G. Miller.-On the deviation of freely falling which have been identified in samples of sand or other bodies : M. de Sparre. It is shown that the formulæ materials obtained from various sources.--Revision of usually given for this deviation are based on incomplete Australian Lepidoptera, part ii. : Dr. A. Jefferis Turner. data, and a new expression is deduced. It is, however, Some supplementary remarks on the family Notodontidæ impossible to check the calculations by experiment, on (revised in a previous paper) are offered, and the family account of the smallness of the deviations, which would Syntomidæ, comprising four genera with forty-four species amount at most to o.1 mm. for a fall of 1000 metres.-On (of which eight are described as new), is reviewed. A a fundamental formula in the kinetic theory of gases : P. yellow race of Bacillus pseudarabinus from the quince : Dr. Langevin. The formulæ given by Maxwell and Boltz- R. Greig Smith. The organism is identical in its morphomann for the diffusion of gases is re-investigated, and the logical and cultural characters with the white race previously results applied to the diffusion of ionised gases. The author isolated from the sugar-cane. The gum obtained from the arrives at the conclusion that the conductivity of flames is, slime was also identical in giving the reactions of arabin for the most part, due to the presence of free kathodic and in yielding only galactose upon hydrolysis. While the particles arising from spontaneous corpuscular dissociation cultivations of the sugar-cane raie were always white, those

an

as

are

245

of the quince race were yellow. The bacterial origin of

THURSDAY, JANUARY 19. *** Macrozamia gum: Dr. R. Greig Smith. An organism, ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4:30.- Probable Papers : On the " Blaze Currents of Bacillus macrosamiae, n.sp., isolated from the tissues of,

the Gall Bladder of the Frog : Mrs. A. M. Waller.The Dual Force of Macrozamia spiralis which was exuding a gum, produced,

the Dividing Cell. Part i. : The Achromatic Spindle Figure illustrated by Magnetic Chains of Force : Prof. M. Hartog.-Note

on the Effects upon lævulose media, a slime from which a gum was produced on Rats by the Trypanosomata of Gambia Fever and Sleeping obtained.-On a new species of Rhizophyllum from the Sickness: H. G. Plimmer. Further Histological Studies on the Localisa. Upper Silurian rocks of Yass, New South Wales : A. J.

tion of Cerebral Function. The Brains of Felis, Canis and Sus compared

with that of Homo : Dr. A. W. Campbell. Shearsby. A third species of Calceola-like, operculate,' LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.--Botanical Collecting : Dr. A. Henry –On the rugose corals is described.

Cranial Osteology of the Families Osteoglossidæ, Pantodontidz, and

Phractolæmidæ : Dr. W. G. Ridewood.
Society of Arts, at 4.30.-The Gates

of Tibet : Douglas W. Fresbfield.

FRIDAY, JANUARY 20. ;
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-New Low Temperature Phenomena : Sir

J. Dewar, F.R.S.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 12.

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.
MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY, at 5:30.-Generational Relations for the Abstract

INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Some Impressions of Group simply Isomo rphic with the Abstract Group LF (2, pn]; Dr. W.

American Workshops : A. J. Gimson.-Waterworks Pumping "ngines in Bussey.-On a Class of Expansions in Oscillating Functions : Prof.

the United States and Canada : J. Barr.--Some Features in the Desigt A. C. Dixon.-Isogonal Transformation and the Diameter Transforma

and Construction of American Planing Machines : A. Kenrick, fun : tion: H. L. Trachtenberg.-A Generalisation of the Legendre Poly.

Engines at the Power Stations, and at the St. Louis Exhibition : nomial : H. Bateman. -Current Flow in Rectangular Conductors :

A. Saxon.
H. Fletcher Moulton.-Basic Generalisations of some well known
Analytic Functions : Rev. F. H. Jackson.-On the Kinematics and
Dynamics of a Granular Medium in Normal Piling : J. H. Jeans. -On
Alternants and Continuous Groups : Dr. H. F. Baker.

CONTENTS.

PAGE INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.—The Combination of

Dust Destructors and Electricity Works Economically considered: Scientific Thought in Europe. By Prof. G. H. W. P. Adams. (Conclusion of Discussion.)--Fuel Economy in Steam

Bryan, F.R.S.

241 Power Plants : Wm. H. Booth and J. B. C. Kershaw.

The Problems of Variation. By E. B. P.

243 FRIDAY, JANUARY 13. ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-On the Temperature of Sun-spots

Mathematical Theory of Eclipses. By W. E. P. 244 and on the Spectrum of an Artificial One : W. E. Wilson. -On Terms of English Field-Botany. Long Period in the Complete Expression for the Moon's

Longitude : E. Nevill. - The Longitude of the Moon's Perigee : P. H. Cowell.-On the

Sanitary Engineering. By T. H. B.

246 Relative Brightness of Stars : J. E. Gore.-On the Variable Star Our Book Shelf :Y Auriga: A. S. Williams.-The Spiral Nebula H I. 153 Ceti : W. S. Franks. --Sun-spots and Magnetic Storms: A. Schuster.-Promised

Ariès: “La Statique chimique basée sur les deux Papers : Magnetic Storms and Associated Sun-spots: Rev. A. L. Principes fondamentaux de la Thermodynamique" ; Cortie. --On the Possible Effect of Radiation on the Motion of Comets : Roozeboom : “Die heterogenen Gleichgewichte vom H. C. Plummer.-Note on the Re-determination of the Paris-Greenwich Longitude (communicated by the Astronomer-Royal).-Observations of

Standpunkte der Phasenlehre."-J. W.

247 the Spectra of Sun-spots, Region C to D (communicated by the Astro- Stone: “The Timbers of Commerce and their nomer-Royal).- Probable Discussion of Mr. Maunder's Paper in the Identification"

247 Monthly Notices, on the Connection of Magnetic Storms with the “ Verhandlungen der deutschen zoologischen Gesell

Rotation of the Sun.
INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.-Theory of Electricity and

scaft, for 1904."-R. L.

247 Magnetism : James Swinburne.

Hyatt-Woolf: The Optical Dictionary”

248 MALACOLOGICAL Society, at 8.- A Review of the Genera of the family Hewitt : “ Practical Professional Photography

Mytilidæ : A. J. Jukes-Browne.-Note on the Type of Geomelania, with
Description of New Species : E. R. Sykes. -On Three Species of

Price : “Solutions of the Exercises in Godfrey and Dyakia from Sumatra : E. R. Sykes.- Some Nudibranchs from the

Siddons's Elementary Geometry".

348 Pacific, including a New Genus, Chromodoridella : Sir C. Eliot, K.C.M.G. Letters to the Editor :

Notes on Two Rare British Nudibranchs, Hero formosa, var. arborescens, and Staurodoris maculata : Sir C. Eliot, K.C.M.G.- Average Number of Kinsfolk in Each Degree..Description of a new Achatina from the Zambesi: H. B. Preston.

Dr. Francis Galton, F.R.S.

248 MONDAY, JANUARY 16.

On the State in which Helium Exists in Minerals. – VICTORIA INSTITUTE, at 4.30.—The History of Rajputana : Col. T. Hol

Prof. Morris W. Travers, F.R.S. . bein Hendley.

The Pollination of Exotic Flowers.-Ella M. Bryant 249 TUESDAY, JANUARY 17. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.—The Structure of Animals : Prof. L. C.

Reversal of Charge in Induction Machines.-R. Miall, F.R.S.

Langton Cole ...

249 ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, at 5.

Evil Spirits as a Cause of Sickness in Babylonia. INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.-The River Hooghly: L. F. Vernon-Harcourt.

(Illustrated.)..

249 ZOOLOGICAL Society, at 8.30.-On a Collection of Sipunculids made at Speech Curves. (Illustrated.) By Prof. John G.

Singapore and Malacca: W. F. Lanchester. - On a Collection of
Gephyrea from Zanzibar: W. F. Lanchester.-On the Sipunculids and

McKendrick, F.R.S.

250 Echiurids collected during the "Skeat Expedition" to the Malay Geology of Spiti. (Illustrated.)

251 Peninsula : W. F. Lanchester. On the Oral and Pharyngeal Denticles of Elasmobranchs : A. D. Imms.-A Contribution to the Anatomy of

Sir Lauder Brunton on the Need of Physical Chlamydosaurus and some other Agamidæ : F. E. Beddard, F.R.S.- Education

252 A Note on the Brain of Cynopithecus niger: F. E. Beddard, F.R.S.

Notes
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 18.

253 CHEMICAL Society, at 5:30.-(1) Nitrogen Halogen Derivatives of the

Our Astronomical Column:-
Sulphonamides. Part 1.: Sulphondichloroamides and Sulphonalkyl- Discovery of a Sixth Satellite to Jupiter
chloroamides. (2) Nitrogen Halogen Derivatives of the Sulphonamides.
Part ií. : Sulpbondibromoamides and Sulphonalkylbromoamides: F. D.

Comet 1904 d (Giacobini)
Chat taway.-Electrolytic Oxidation of Aliphatic Aldehydes : H. D. I aw.

Elements and Ephemeris for Comet 1904 e - The Diazo-derivatives of the Benzenesulphonylphenylenediamines : Colours of Stars in the Southern Hemisphere GT Morgan and F. M. G. Micklethwait. -The Molecular Condition in

6. The Heavens at a Glance", Solution of Ferrous Potassium Ixalate: S. E. Sheppard and C. E. K. Mees. - The Formation of Magnesia from Magnesium Carbonate by Heat,

Astronomical." Annuario" of the Turin Observatory. 256 and the Etfect of Temperature on the Properties of the Product : W. C. Origin of Lunar Formations Anderson, Transformations of Derivatives of s Tribromodiazobenzene: Plant Associations in Moorland Districts. (IllusK. I. P. Orion - The Addition of Sodium Bisulphite to Ketonic Compounds : A. W: Stewart.

trated.) By Francis J. Lewis ENTOMOLOGICAL Society, at 8.--Annual Meeting. Address by the Presilent, Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S.

The Abnormal Tides of January 7 .
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.- The Geology of Arenig Fawr and Moel The Electro-thermic Manufacture of Iron and Steel.

Llyfnant : W. G. Fearnsides.
SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.-Wireless Telegraphy and War Correspondence : By Prof. J, O. Arnold; .
Capt. Lionel James.

London Fog Inquiry, 1901-3'

259 ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY, at 8.- What were the Carboniserous Feras? the President's Annual Address.

University and Educational Intelligence
ROVAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, 41, 7.40.- Annual General Meeting Societies and Academies

Address on the Connection of Meteorology with other Sciences : the
President, Capt. D. Wilson-Barker.

Diary of Societies

248

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256

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