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THURSDAY, JANUARY 19, 1903.
interpret phylogenetic advances. He has ceased to believe in the homology of the germinal layers, in the gastræa theory, and in the colome theory; and he
thinks that the usual application of the so-called bioZOOLOGICAL BOOKS FROM GERMANY.
genetic law is for the most part fallacious. In all this (1) Anthropogenie oder Entwickelungsgeschichte des he is not so solitary a sceptic as some of his sentences Menschen; Keimes- und Stammes-geschichte. By
would lead one to suppose. Ernst Haeckel. Fifth revised and enlarged There is a branch of ætiological inquiry in which edition. 2 Vols. Pp. xxviii +992; with 30 plates,
the zoologist interprets the whole organism as a system 512 text figures, and 60 genetic tables. (Leipzig :
of adaptations, and seeks to show how the various Engelmann, 1903.) Price 255. net.
items in this system may have arisen in the course of (2) Morphologische Studien. Als Beitrag zur Method
variation, and may have persisted by enhancing the survival-value of their possessor.
There is another ologie zoologischer Probleme. By Tad. Garbowski. Pp. vii + 189; 6 chromolithographic plates. (Jena :
branch of ætiological inquiry which tackles the deeper Fischer, 1903.) Price 28 marks.
problems of morphogenesis, which inquires into the
formative conditions leading to various big steps in (3) Untersuchungen über den Phototropismus der Tiere.
organisation-progress-such as By Dr. Em. Rádi. Pp. viii + 188. (Leipzig :
the origin of an
enteron, the establishment of metamerism, the developEngelmann, 1903.) Price 4s.
ment of a cælom, or the institution of a vertebral axis. (4) Graber's Leitfaden der Zoologie für höhere
It is with these morphogenetic problems that Dr. Tad. Lehranstalten. Bearbeitet von Dr. Robert Latzel,
Garbowski is mainly concerned, and he wishes to find k.k. Gymnasial-Direktor. Fourth revised edition.
a via media between the use of what he believes to Pp. 232 ; illustrated. (Leipzig : G. Freytag, 1904.) be obsolete verbal formulæ and the extreme of bioPrice 3.80 marks.
mechanics. (1) THE first edition of Prof. Haeckel's book
appeared thirty years ago, and the fourth “Darwin and his school sought to discover the edition in 1891. With each reappearance the book has
nature of transformation without knowledge of the increased in size and in stateliness, and this is particu- iker' are trying to interpret the latter apart from the
internal processes, and the Entwickelungsmechanlarly true of the new edition. The sequence of editions immanent effects of the former." reads like a developmental process, say in crustaceans; there is some ecdysis, there is addition of new parts, It is easy enough to say that sponges are quaintly there is a growing beauty, but the essence remains the inverted primitive Metazoa, that annelids represent same. The veteran evolutionist has gone over the whole ancestral Chordates on their backs, that Trochophora work again; he has incorporated new discoveries, he have sprung from Ctenophora–the illustrations are the has added fresh arguments and illustrations, but the author's—but what we must get at is an observational gist of the book remains unaltered. Our familiar old or experimental knowledge of the actual way in which acquaintances—the Monera and the Gastræadæ, the architectural changes of moment are brought about. biogenetic law and its helpmate cænogenesis, dystele- In short, we must deepen our physiological-morphology and monism, and so on-are all as alive as ever, ology, getting beneath mere form-changes to the and with much to say for themselves. As Haeckel functional changes which condition them. This, so says, the book may have its faults; but has anyone far as we can see, is what Dr. Tad. Garbowski is given a better popular presentation of the concrete driving at. We are surprised, by the way, that he facts as to the position of the human organism in its does not include Rauber's “ Formbildung und Formplace in nature, or, for that matter, has anyone else störung" in his huge bibliography. ever tried? We may object to some of his embryology The first chapter is devoted to a study—full of interest and to some of his phylogeny and to all his philosophy, -of Trichoplax adhaerens, with subsections on Trepbut here is a vivid, picturesque account of man's de- toplax and Salinella; the second chapter discusses the velopment and of his plausible pedigree. It is a Mesozoa in general; the third chapter describes various historic document which will occupy an honourable processes of gastrulation, and ends with a rejection of place among the archives of biology. It is an achieve the gastræa theory; the fourth chapter deals with the ment on the author's part to have made this revision two primary germinal layers, the mesoderm and the now--adding about 100 pages, three score and ten colom, and ends with a rejection of the germ-layer figures, ten plates, and eight genetic tables; we could theory. In conclusion, the author expounds the scope not expect him to change his cherished convictions. of physiological morphogenetic studies. There are six Nor, as he says, has he seen any reason to do so. The
fine plates. parts we like least are where he brings in new or Dr. Garbowski is iconoclastic, and his recoil from relatively new discoveries somewhat casually, as we some familiar theses is thorough-going, but his may illustrate by referring to the centrosome which scepticism is neither unexpected nor unwelcome. The he calls a "nicht färbares Körperchen.” What is it, late Prof. Claus had promised to protect him if the then, that stains so intensely with iron--hæmatoxylin? | Thames caught fire, so to speak, but the author is
(2) Dr. Garbowski has ceased to find satisfaction in quite able to look after himself, and his theses will the conventional formulæ often used in seeking to find as much acceptance as opposition. We have all
been having our doubts about the homology of the Dr. Rádl is cautious in stating his own theory of germ-layers and the like; morphological concepts are phototropism; he restricts himself to the following every day becoming more kinetic, less static. The propositions :only question is how far we can go with the little that (1) Phototropic orientation means the capacity of we know of physiological morphology. In so far as assuming a definite position of the axis of the body in Garbowski has increased the data his memoir is very the field of light. welcome.
(2) A phototropically orientated organism is in a state (3) Dr. Em. Rádl has made many experiments on of physiological equilibrium in relation to the light. the phototropism of animals, that is to say, on the (3) The orientation can only be brought about by the manner in which they orientate themselves in relation operation of paired or coupled forces, which are partly to light stimuli. Phototropic phenomena have been external, partly internal. most studied in plants, but there is already much (4) In the orientations or tropisms of organisms there literature relating to their occurrence among animals, is always at least one internal force operative, and and the author begins with a historical survey. He this is usually muscular. goes on to the reactions of animals on a revolving turn- The conclusions strike one as disappointing, for they table, the compensatory head-movements of insects, seem to be practically summed up in the conception of nystagmus in insects, and phototropic orientation in “physiological equilibrium ”; those who are prepared insects with one eye blackened.
to advance other theories will find this book of great After showing that phototropic orientation or move
service. It summarises the subject, describes many ment occurs widely among animals, e.g. in Cælentera, new experiments, and criticises many untenable echinoderms, planarians, annelids, arthropods, and positions. molluscs, and that it may be exhibited in eyeless forms, (4) About twenty years ago we were familiar with a Rádl discusses various phenomena which cannot be
little book, “ Outlines of Zoology,” by Graber, which set down as simply phototropic. Thus it cannot be
had a wide use if not popularity in Gymnasien. Its safely said that the movement of pigment in the eye
features were brevity, accuracy, lucidity, and compreor in the skin is phototropic, and there are many de- hensiveness. We suppose, in the absence of any pretails in the behaviour of butterflies and dragon-flies in fatory note, that the volume before us is our old relation to light and shade which seem to be more acquaintance in a glorified edition, in which Dr. Latzet than phototropic. A simple reflex may become com
has preserved the characteristics of the original. The plicated by the association of accessory reflexes. In
book begins with a short introduction on metabolisin, unnatural conditions the established phototropic reflex the cell
, and protoplasm—which must be difficult may lead the animal astray, as when the moth, circling ceeds to the structure and functions of the human body
pabulum for even “ höhere Lehranstalten ”; it pronearer and nearer, finally finds its death in the candle and thence to a survey of the whole animal kingdom -an interesting and much discussed subject to which
from mammals to the Protozoa. As a systematic Rádl devotes some attention.
summary to be associated with more vital studies in Sedentary animals, like plants, orientate themselves natural history the book is admirable; it is clear, to the direction of the light; freely moving animals direct, accurate, and most copiously illustrated. It is move into the direction of the light. The author dis
so ambitiously all-inclusive that we are almost started cusses the question whether these two kinds of re- to find no mention of Balanoglossus, Peripatus, or the sponse are merely different aspects of phototropism, okapi; but these will doubtless find their place in the and comes to the conclusion that the two are not
next edition. A book of this sort, tightly packed with directly dependent on one another. He also regards information, without, in many cases, even the padding the difference between positive and negative photo- of verbs to the sentences, must be judged by its intentropism as a secondary matter; in both there is orientation. If that be, as we charitably suppose, to serve tion to the direction of light, but the locomotor muscles
as a terse index rerum or synopsis, associated with are differently stimulated.
practical work and open-air studies, it deserves to be In the more general part of his book, Rádi discusses encouraged. But if it is meant as a book to be “ gol the relations between phototropism and other tropisms up "--and there are unpleasant suggestions of the --or the more legitimate of these-geo-, stereo-, rheo-, cram-book about it, then it is emphatically not in the galvano-, chemo-, and thermo-tropisms. There is a line of progress. It stands in direct antithesis to the chapter, all too short, on the ethological importance natural history text-books for high schools which find of phototropism. The author is clear that organisms favour in America and are securing their place in this are systems of adaptations and that phototropism is a country. There is almost no suggestion of the evoluphysiological adaptation, but he looks askance at tion or affinities of the great types; there is almost no teleological phraseology, and does not follow up the hint of initiation into scientific methods of observation subject. The book closes with a discussion of the and reasoning; and there is very little open-air. It general theory of orientation; this must be based on seems to us more like a revisal-book for a student going study of tropisms; there is no “ Orientierung über- up for his first professional examination in medicine haupt,” but the organism seeks for a state of or natural science than a book for schools. At the same equilibrium in relation to various external stimuli-an time, it is a very effective book of its sort; the illusequilibrium which consists not merely in the position trations are admirable, and the coloured plates are as of the body, but in its functioning.
fascinating as the text is dry.
AN AMERICAN TEXT-BOOK OF GEOLOGY. | of underground water, of snow and ice, and of the Geology. By Thomas C. Chamberlin and Rollin D.
ocean. Their clear exposition of the mechanism of Salisbury. Vol. i. Geologic Processes and their rain- and river-erosion, with due regard to the conResults. Pp. xix +654; with 24 plates and 471
trolling conditions, is an admirable summary of a
fundamental part of geology which in most of our figures in the text. (New York : H. Holt and Co.,
text-books receives very inadequate treatment. It is 1904.)
written on modern lines, the fertile conception of the THE 'HE work of which this is the first volume, bear- | “base-level of erosion,” with its important conse
ing the names of two well known professors in quences, being introduced at an early stage. The subthe University of Chicago, is addressed to the mature ject is one which American geologists, with their unstudent, and is designed " to present an outline of the rivalled opportunities, have made peculiarly their own, salient features of geology, as now developed." The and it could scarcely have fallen into better hands. present instalment, dealing with the nature and results The other geological agents are discussed in the same of the processes now in operation upon the globe, will comprehensive but concise manner, and the chapter naturally prepare the way for the second volume, to dealing with glacial action is, as might be expected be devoted to tracing the history of past ages. Agree from the authors, of special interest
. ing with other writers in approaching the science from
The chapter on movements and deformations of the this side, the authors have been led by their own ex
earth's body contains much material which is not elseperience as teachers to depart somewhat from the
where accessible to the student in a connected shape, beaten track in their general plan of treatment, as well and some originality appears in matter as well as in as in the relative importance assigned to certain specific
treatment. Consideration of the possible causes of subjects. They tell us in their preface that they have the great crust-movements leads to an inquiry into the laid little stress on the generally recognised divisions original and present distributions of temperature in of geology, "dynamical," “ structural,"
the globe, and to a comparison of the nebular hypographical,” &c., but have tried rather to emphasise the thesis with that of " accretion.” The comparison is historical element even in the discussion of special presented in a judicial manner, and the enunciation of themes, thus bringing out the essential unity of the the accretion hypothesis is tantalisingly brief; but a science. Again, some subjects, such as the develop- fuller discussion is promised in the second volume. ment of drainage-systems, the ultimate cause of Geologists sometimes need to be reminded that cosmocrust-movements, and others, receive here fuller
gony is a legitimate part of their province, not to be treatment than has been customary in works of this surrendered without good reason shown. At least it scope.
is well that students should see just how much of Most of the original features of the book we heartily accepted physical principles and how much of arbitrary welcome. We think, too, that the authors have assumptions go to the building of dogmas which have generally been happy in their treatment of the more carried alarm into some quarters. dubious and debatable problems of physical geology. The treatment accorded to igneous action seems to us. Their design in this has been freely to introduce the in some respects unsatisfactory. Descriptive petrotheoretical element when necessary, and at the same graphy is, no doubt wisely, represented by a brief time "to avoid confusing the interpretations based on summary, an appendix to a generalised account of hypothesis with the statements of fact and established “the origin and descent of rocks.” But what follows doctrines." Where important differences of opinion seems to lack due proportion. “Vulcanism ” is useď exist, the alternative hypotheses are set forth and their to include intrusive as well as extrusive action, but consequences compared. In some instances this the chapter is occupied almost exclusively with the candour is pushed rather far, as when the cause of latter. The plutonic and other igneous intrusions, the vulcanism is discussed on seven distinct hypotheses. varied forms which they assume, and their intimate Having regard to the class of students for whom the relation to crust-movements and to geological history book is primarily intended, we think that the authors in general, are dismissed almost without notice. The have needlessly hampered themselves by trying to full and admirable discussion of volcanoes might thus make it intelligible to one who has had no previous give a student the impression that these, superficial acquaintance with the rudiments of geology. How far phenomena are the only important effects of igneous they have succeeded in this it is not easy to judge. activity. Thus the technical terms of the field-geologist,“ dip,” The volume concludes with a chapter on the geologic * anticline,” “ dyke " and the like, are not formally functions of life, and a good index is added. The book defined until we reach a late section of the volume, but is issued in handsome form; but the highly glazed the conceptions implied have necessarily been intro
paper, presumably adopted for the sake of the figures, duced much earlier. Such difficulties inevitably is irritating to the reader. The abundant figures, confront the writer of an elementary class-book, but selected from various sources, are well chosen to illusthey might safely be ignored in a work like the trate the text, and well reproduced. The subjects are present.
for the most part American. A useful feature is the After a preliminary outline of the general scope of illustration of various types of topography by actual geology, the authors proceed to discuss in turn the maps, taken from the beautifully contoured sheets of geological effects of the atmosphere, of running water, the United States Geological Survey.
THE TOPOGRAPHY OF BRITISH INDIA. most intimate personal knowledge, but largely, too, India. By Colonel Sir Thomas Holdich, K.C.M.G., because of the intrinsic interest attaching to it; for
K.C.I.E., C.B., R.E. Pp. 375; 8 maps in colours. across this region came not only the great prehistoric The Regions of the World. Edited by H. J. Dravidian and the semi-historic Aryan invasions of Mackinder. (London: Henry Frowde, Oxford India, but also the military invasions of Alexander the University Press, n.d.) Price 7s.6d, net.
Great, and of the successive Mohammedan conquerors ITH climates varying from the ice-bound deserts of India. Until the improvement of navigation brought forests of Tenasserim, to the desolation of Makran, which invasion and conquest were possible, and it is where at one time of the year fire is almost through this region alone that we need look for a unnecessary, even for cooking, and at another the serious attack on India, so long as we hold the comcold blasts almost defy human endurance; the in
mand of the sea. habitants of which number races unsurpassed as brave Of this long series of invasions all the historical and stubborn fighters, and races among whom physical ones, from Alexander onwards, have been purely cowardice is regarded as no disgrace; where in one
military; they have left their impress, more or less part music is produced by stamping on a piece of deeply marked, on the religion, the administration and wood, and in another has been carried to a refinement the political geography of India, in buildings and in which requires sixty-four tones to our octave—both public works, but they have hardly affected the great extremes, it may be added, equally unmusical to the bulk of the people, who derive their origin from the European ear; where there is found a system of laws earlier invasions. In these it was no mere conquering so elaborate that the cashier who has confessed to army that came, but nations, with their wives and embezzlement may yet succeed in escaping punish- families, their flocks and herds, their household goods ment, and a system of government so paternal that and gods, who absorbed or exterminated the init imprisons the husband, whose domestic happiness habitants of the land, and whose descendants are found has been ruined, to prevent his committing the crime over the length and breadth of India, constituting nineof murder; the territories known as British India tenths of the total population. may be a country for political purposes, but in no The other unit in the Indian Empire is Burma, which proper sense of the word do they constitute a nation, belongs, geographically, rather to Indo-China than to they are hardly even a “region of the world,” and India. Cut off from the latter by a band of forestthe name is nothing but a geographical expression clad mountains, which has rarely been traversed even for the area which is administered by the British by marauding expeditions, it received centuries ago Government through the agency of the Governor its religion and philosophy from India, but has reGeneral of India in Council. To write a descrip- mained unaffected in all other respects, and maintained tion which, in a book of moderate compass, will its ethnical distinction untouched. This isolation of convey a clear and fairly proportioned conception, re- Burma is now at an end; the establishment of steamer quires a master hand; not to have failed is in itself lines across the Bay of Bengal has rendered it easy high praise, but Sir Thomas Holdich has done more of access, the Hindu prejudice against crossing the than this, he has produced a topographical descrip- sea has given way to the stronger claims of pecuniary tion of the Indian Empire which, in spite of minor gain, and the gay, picturesque, pleasure-loving errors such as the reference to the Kasmur bund as Burman, who had evolved an epicurean philosophy intended for the storage of water, and a general in- and regarded life merely as something to be enjoyed, accuracy where he ventures into geology-is not only is being ousted by the plodding, but joyless and un. interesting to read, but accurate and well proportioned attractive native of Behar or Madras. on the whole.
Across the north of the Empire runs the great mounWith all its manifold diversity in detail, the Indian tain barrier of the Himalayas, the highest and greatest Empire is composed of two parts, each of which may mountain range of the world, which separates the be regarded as a geographical unit, and each geo- Mongolians of Thibet from the races of India, graphically distinct from the other. The larger and and has left its impress on their mythology and folkmore important of the two may be regarded as India lore. This naturally gets a chapter to itself, and it proper, and consists of the alluvial plains of the Indo- is satisfactory that the author recognises the futility Gangetic river system, and the triangular area known, of
an attempt to trace any limited number of though incorrectly, as the Peninsula. It is cut off continuous chains in a mountain range of so great from Burma by a tract of mountains, impassable by an extent, and wisely abstains from formulating any reason of the deep-cut network of valleys and the dense theory of the Himalayas. We cannot, however, vegetation with which their slopes are covered, and on accept the statement, repeated more than once, that the north it is bounded by the mighty range of the the eastern Himalayas are older than the western; it Himalayas. Both these barriers have proved effective is true that the rocks of which they are composed are against either ethnical or military invasion, but on the older, but the rise of the Himalayas, as a mountain west are the semi-desert hills and open plains of range, belongs to the great period of mountain formAfghanistan and Baluchistan, which have repeatedly ation which commenced at the close of the Secondary been traversed by invaders. It is in the description of era, and there is no reason for supposing that the two this region that Sir Thomas Holdich is at his best, halves of the range differ materially in the age of their partly, no doubt, because it is that of which he has the elevation.
The book is provided with a large number of blocks Sun, arc, and incandescent light baths are treated most in the text, nearly all maps, in which, with very few fully, together with their use in those diseases in which exceptions, but one method of representing relief is the author has found them respectively useful. The adopted—that of shaded areas bounded by contour indications are, in every instance, based on spectrolines. The method is valuable for some purposes, but scopic analysis, and full details of the proper technique as a means of representing the form of the ground is, are given for every variety of application. Several in most cases, inferior to the much abused cater- forms of bath cabinet are described, as well as arc and pillar" method of delineation, and frequently conveys
other lamps for local treatment with concentrated a misleading impression. The figure intended to re- light. present the lower Brahmaputra valley and Gangetic While the author is rather emphatic on the necessity delta is an instance of this, while that intended to for employing lamps of large amperage-quantity represent the orography of the Hindu Kush looks more being as essential as quality—yet she speaks highly like an ink-maker's advertisement. In the coloured of certain small lamps the efficiency of which was maps the complete absence of hill shading gives to such as to necessitate their replacement by lamps of the Thibetan plateau an air of flatness which it is greater power in the light department of the London far from possessing in reality, yet it would be unfair Hospital. The reason for this praise is seen, later on, to conclude this notice without a word in their praise. to be related to the comparative cost of the lamps--the Mr. Bartholomew has accustomed us to a high smaller being sold and maintained at a fraction of the standard of workmanship, but his map of India, re- cost of the Finsen, and their efficiency is at least in produced in this book, has seldom been equalled for proportion to this cost. According to the author, the intricacy and accuracy of colour printing, and for great advantage of a lamp of high amperage, like the success in showing the leading features of the relief Finsen, is that we get not only the short and high of the land.
frequencies of intense chemical activity, but also the frequencies of long wave-lengths having great ampli
tude and penetrability-a combination which is PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS essential to ensure the best success. In the smaller OF LIGHT.
lamps these long wave-lengths of great amplitude are Light Energy; its Physics, Physiological Action, and
not present in such abundance because of the lesser Therapeutics. By Margaret A. Cleaves, M.D. Pp. amperage and smaller carbons. The results which the xiv +827.
(London : Rebman, Ltd., 1904.) Price author has obtained in many diseases not generally 215. net.
subjected to light treatment will come as a surprise to WHIL
HILE this book is written primarily to further those who have not kept closely in touch with modern our knowledge of the properties and uses of
light therapeutics. that form of energy called light, in the treatment of
The applications of the various coloured lights, as
also those of the invisible spectrum rays, are fully disease, yet it will be found of great interest to those whose study is mainly confined to the purely physical discussed. A short chapter is given to the consideraaspects of light phenomena. The subject is treated
tion of n-Rays and one to the Alpha, Beta, and from the modern view of energy in the form of waves
Gamma rays of radio-active substances, their physical of a certain length and direction, but at the same time properties, actions, and therapeutic uses. An inthe emission theory is not entirely ignored on account teresting chapter is that on fluorescence, fluorescent of the peculiar behaviour of some of the recently dis- stimulation, and sensitisation of tissues, and the book covered radio-active substances, notably radium. closes with a chapter on the pernicious effect of sunAbout 130 pages are devoted to a description of the light and the pathological effects of electric lighting. various kinds of rays, their origin and physical The book can be confidently recommended. It will properties. The part dealing with the electric arc is be found of great interest to most students of natural very complete and clear, and embraces all one could science.
REGINALD MORTON. wish to know to ensure an intelligent application of the arc lamp in the treatment of disease.
A BOOK ON INK. Following this is a series of chapters dealing with the action of light on the various forms of life, from
Inks: their Composition and Manufacture. By the most elementary to the highly complex human
C. Ainsworth Mitchell, B.A. (Oxon.), F.I.C., and subject. In this section the action of light from both T. C. Hepworth. Pp. xiv +251; with 46 illustranatural and artificial sources is treated very thoroughly. tions, including 4 plates. (London : Chas. Griffin It is quite evident that the author has devoted her- and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 7s. 6d. net. self to a large amount of painstaking experiment, the LITERA scripta manet; but the permanence of the valuable results of which are recorded in the pre- writing depends upon the quality of the ink. sent volume. According to her, the mercury vapour Certain papyri of ancient Egypt, now deposited in the lamp has not justified the expectations regarding it British Museum, contain the earliest ink-written reas a therapeutic agent.
cords so far brought to light. A roll dating from The second half of the book is taken up with the 2500 B.C. still bears decipherable characters, and fragtherapeutic applications of the various forms of light. ments of papyri have been found by Prof. Flinders This part will be of special interest to medical men, Petrie in a tomb to which the date 3500 B.c. is ascribed. especially those who are engaged in this line of work. If the origin of the use of ink is "ost in antiquity, at