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small horizontal paddle wheel almost exactly like HgCro,.Hgo. In presence of these two salts the conCrookes's radiometer. If the sound waves converge to one centration of free chromic acid in the solution is mainside of the wheel it will spin rapidly in the corresponding tained constant at 0.706 mol. per litre at 50° and 0.456 direction.

mol. at 25°, and any excess of chromic acid must be From the Volta Bureau of Washington we have received

combined either as chromate or as dichromate. It is calcutwo reprints, one dealing with the so-called

" visible

lated that in the case of potassium dichromate complete speech" alphabet introduced into England by Dr.

dissociation occurs at a dilution of 1000 litres, whilst at Alexander Melville Bell in 1863-7, and the other being an

100 litres 99 per cent. of the salt is dissociated, at 10 litres essar. by Dr. William Thornton, on teaching the deaf

91 per cent., and at a dilution of 1 litre 62 per cent. Even and dumb to speak, published in 1793. The reprints are

in the strongest solutions, therefore, the greater part of illustrated by portraits of Drs. Bell and Thornton, and

the dichromate is dissociated into chromic acid and normal

chromate. a biographical notice also accompanies Dr. Thornton's paper.

Messrs. WHITTAKER AND Co. will shortly publish a new We have received the report for 1903-4 of the Scientic

book entitled “The Insulation of Electric Machines,” by Society of St. Paul (Brazil), and have been able to

Mr. H. W. Turner and Mr. H. M. Hobart. gather from it that the society was founded in June, Messrs. GEORGE BELL AND Sons have published parts i. 1903, the city already having a historical and geographical,

and ii. of Elementary Algebra,” by Messrs. W. M. a medical and an agricultural society. It numbered in Baker and A. A. Bourne, in one volume at 45. 6d. The April last fifty-six effective, four contributing, one corre- book may be had with or without answers. sponding member, and two “ socios ouvintes," a total of The twenty-fourth volume of the Geographical Journal sixty-three members, of whom twenty-eight were found- has now been published. It contains the monthly numbers ation members. The membership list now, however, shows from July to December, 1904. As usual, the volume is thirteen corresponding members. There have been held richly illustrated by means of blocks and a profusion of two preliminary, one inaugural, fourteen ordinary, and well executed maps. The volume should be added to the four * economic " meetings, and from the account of these library of every geographer and teacher of geography. meetings the papers seem to have been interesting and MESSRS. NEWTON AND Co.'s new supplementary list of varied. A desirable improvement would be the publication lantern slides includes several sets which should prove of the reports in one of the international languages. very valuable to science teachers and lecturers. Among

The question as to whether the trioxide of nitrogen, these instructive slides we notice photographs by Mr. N.Og, is capable of existence has frequently been dis- W. M. Martin illustrating the embryology of a chicken; cussed, but until recently has remained unanswered owing British birds and nests photographed by Mr. R. B. Lodge; to the lack of experimental data. When the brown gas photographs of insects and other small forms of animal produced by the action of starch or of arsenious anhydride life; photomicrographs of rock sections; and photographs on nitric acid is passed through a freezing mixture, it of diseases of the bone, by Dr. C. T. Holland. condenses to a blue liquid, which does not solidify at A REVISED and enlarged edition of Dr. Arthur Keith's -90°. But the determination of its vapour-density shows “ Human Embryology and Morphology has been pubthat the gas is completely dissociated, and Ramsay and lished by Mr. Edward Arnold. This edition differs from Cundall showed in 1885 that no contraction takes place the last in several particulars. The chapters dealing with when the monoxide and dioxide are mixed. The blue

the early development of the human embryo and the formsolution might therefore be regarded merely as a solution ation of the placenta and membranes have been re-written. of NO in N, O,. The actual existence of the trioxide has Much of the chapter dealing with the urogenital system recently been demonstrated by Wittorff (Zeit. anorg. has been amended, and numerous additions have been Chem., vii., 209), who has investigated the freezing point made in other sections of the book. of mixtures of different composition. A liquid having the empirical composition N, O, solidifies to a blue crystalline

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. solid, which melts at - 103° C., and is undoubtedly the pure trioxide. As the proportion of N,O, is increased


1904 e.--The

results of several observations of comets 1904 d and the freezing point at first falls to a eutectic temperature 1904 e, respectively, are published in a supplement to the al - 112° C., and then rises to the freezing point of the Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3987. peroxide. In this way, by accurate work at low tempera- The latter object was observed at Bamberg by Prof. tures, it has been possible to solve one of the long-debated Hartwig on January 1 and 2, and was seen as a circular problems of inorganic chemistry.

patch about 2' in diameter, having a nucleus which was

not symmetrical. The magnitude of this comet has been It has long been suspected that in solution the di- variously estiinated. In the above observation Prof. Hartchromates might perhaps be dissociated into neutral wig recorded it as 11.o, but Prof. Nijland, observing at chromates and free chromic acid, thus,

Utrecht on January 1, estimated it as 9:5, whilst Prof.

| Ambronn, observing at Göttingen on January 2, found it K,Cr,0,=K,CrO, +Cro,

to be 10. The brightness at the time of discovery, as Purely chemical methods have given but little inform- given by M. Borrelly, was equal to the tenth magnitude. ation as to the nature of the dissolved salt. As the result

The following is an extract from the daily ephemeris of of an ingenious application of physicochemical methods,

comet 1904 d published by Herr M. Ebell :the problem has recently been solved by Abegg and Cox,

12h. (M.T. Berlin). a (true)

8 (true) log r log a Brighe. and these authors have been able actually to determine the proportion of free chromic acid in dichromate solutions of Jan. 20 ... 17 57 38

+ 44 57 0*3253 0-3437 0 98 different concentrations. The method, which is described

+47 5 0°3299

O‘3446 0.95

28 18 29 II +49 10 ... 0*3346 . 0'3465 ... 0'93 in the Zeitschrif! fur physikalische Chemie (vol. xlviii. p.

Feb. 1 18 46 10 +51 9 0*3394

0*3495 . 0.89 7251, depends on saturating a solution of a dichromate with

5. 19 358 + 53 3 0'3443 0 3535 - 0.86 neutral and basic mercuric chromates, HgCro. and

Brightness at time of discovery = 1.

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18 13



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EPHEMERIS FOR COMET TEMPEL, 1904. c.-In No. 3986 of inclusive, before


institution of the Government the Astronomische Nachrichten M. J. Coniel gives a daily observatory. ephemeris for Tempel's second comet extending from

The JESUIT OBSERVATORY January 3 to March 2, which is a continuation of the

BELEX, HITA.-An ephemeris published by him in No. 3971 of the same

interesting illustrated account of the observatory attached journal. Although the southern declination of the comet

to the Jesuit College at Belen, Havana, has been written, is decreasing, its R.A. is so near to that of the sun, and

in Spanish, by Father Mariano Gutiérrez, S.J., the subthe object itself is so faint, that observations will be

director, and contains a history of the installation of the difficult, and only possible immediately after sunset.

institution in 1857, and its proceedings since that date. The comet's position on January 21 will be

The meteorological section was first founded under the

direction of Father Antonio Cabré, S.J., in the year R.A. = 22h. 37m. 479., dec. = -16° 19'.

named, but its position was not secured until the inSEASONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MARTIAN CANALS.-A further stallation of Father Vines as director, in 1870, to the contribution of observed phenomena, in support of his

memory of whom the author of the history pays a high theory concerning the causes which produce the seasonal

tribute, and laments his death in 1893 as an irreparable development of the canals on Mars, is published by Mr.

loss. Lowell in the January number of Popular Astronomy.

The equipment of the observatory is fairly complete, The particular canal therein discussed is Brontes, which

and includes meteorological, seismological, magnetic, and is 2440 miles in length and connects along a great circle,

astronomical instruments, most of which, including the in nearly a north and south direction, the two important

6-inch Cooke equatorial, are illustrated in the present points Linus Titanum and the Propontis.

volume. From a study of ninety drawings made during the period January-July, 1903, six of which are reproduced on the plate accompanying the paper, it was seen that

THE DISCOVERY OF JUPITER'S SIXTH the visibility of the canal increased after the summer

SATELLITE solstice in the northern hemisphere, and, further, on dividing the canal into five nearly equal sections from The addition of a sixth satellite to the system of north to south, the section nearest the north polar cap Jupiter marks another triumph in Prof. Perrine's became strengthened first, and the others followed in order employment of the modified Crossley reflector. As of their north polar distance. This is plainly shown on mentioned in a note published in “ Our Astronomical the visibility cartouches given by Mr. Lowell, who Column" last week, Prof. Perrine first suspected the considers the phenomena as a further proof of his theory existence of the newly discovered body from observations that the visibility of a canal is due to vegetation, quickened made during December, 1904, but it was not until by the water loosened at the melting of the polar snows January 4 that further observation confirmed his and flowing towards the equator. The extension south of suspicion, and enabled him to open the new year with the equator is considered as a probable proof of intelligent the announcement of this important discovery. artificial interference in the propulsion of the water.

The new satellite, so far as one may gather from the VARIABLE STARS AND NEBULOUS AREAS IN SCORPIO.-An

meagre news yet to hand, is situated at a much greater

distance from its primary than any of the five previously examination of thirty-three plates exposed on the large

known. The telegram announcing the discovery gave this nebulous regions mentioned in previous Circulars has led Miss H. S. Leavitt to the discovery of 105 new variable

distance, on January 4, as 45', whilst that of the outerstars in the constellation Scorpio.

most of the four satellites discovered by Galileo never The positions of these, for 1900, their greatest and least

exceeds 10':5, and the fifth, the innermost of all, is not observed magnitudes, and their magnitude ranges are

quite half the distance from Jupiter that the moon is

from the earth. given in No. 90 of the Harvard College Observatory Circulars.

Assuming, for the moment, that the above distance is

the outward limit of the satellite's orbit, it should make The most striking result of this research has been the revelation of vast areas of diffused nebulous matter, so

one revolution about its primary in about half a year, faint as to be beyond visual observation. One of these

whereas the time occupied by the fourth satellite is only areas estends over a number of square degrees in the

16.7 days; thus we see there is an immense gap between constellations Ophiuchus and Scorpio, and, like the Orion

the two bodies which, according to precedent, may contain nebula, it attaches itself to individual stars, the principal

other satellites as yet undiscovered. condensation being about the quadruple star p Ophiuchi.

The recent discovery raises the number of satellites in The region is marked by an absence of faint stars, and

the solar system, discovered during the past thirty years, dark lines may be traced beyond the confines of the

to five, and it is worthy of note that the discovery of

a satellite has usually occurred at times when a nebulosity as yet seen on the plates.

instrument has been installed or old instruments or methods REPORT OF THE NATAL OBSERVATORY.--The report of Mr. have been improved. This fact calls to mind, although E. Nevill, Government astronomer of Natal, for the year beyond our thirty years' limit but still dealing with the 1903, gives a brief résumé of the work accomplished at Jovian system, that Jupiter's four moons, lo, Europa, the Durban Observatory during the period with which Ganymede, and Callisto, or i., ii., iii., and iv. as they the report deals, and contains a mass of information are usually designated, were the first members of the respecting the meteorology of the colony.

solar system to be discovered, resulting, as they did, from The time signals have been sent out as in former years, Galileo's first use of the telescope in January, 1610. and Borrelly's comet was observed regularly during its After these, and within the past thirty years, came appearance, the orbit deduced from the observations agree- Deimos and Phobos, the lilliputian attendants to Mars, ing with those obtained at other observatories.

which were discovered by Prof. Asaph Hall at WashingIt is proposed to utilise the tide observations made ton in August, 1877, and were the first fruits of the then during the years 1884-8 in order to provide the port recently mounted 26-inch refractor of the U.S. Naral authorities with tide-tables, but, owing to the construc- Observatory. tional changes in the harbour during the last few years, The fifth satellite of Jupiter was discovered by Prof. it will be necessary to reduce the more recent observations Barnard on September 9, 1892, with the nearly new and this will require additional computing assistance. giant refractor of the Lick Observatory. It is com

In former years it has been customary to issue the paratively, a minute object and can only be seen with meteorological data compiled from the returns of the sub- the largest telescopes under the most favourable considiary stations once each month, but in future the returns ditions. Its diameter can scarcely be greater than 100 will be published daily. Among the numerous tables miles, whilst the diameters of the other four, in order given in the report there occurs, for the first time, a of their distance from the planet, are 2400, between summary of the meteorological observations made at the 2000 and 2200 (about the size of our own moon). 3000, Botanical Gardens, Durban, during the period 1873-1883 and 3600 miles respectively. This object revolves between

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10-the first satellite--and Jupiter in period of of the apparatus of Haldane or Petterson and Sonden for uh. 57m. 12.05.

the estimation of small quantities of carbon dioxide. As Following this discovery came the addition, to an already the result of a careful study of the behaviour of sea-water numcrous family, of the ninth satellite of Saturn, which in this respect, it appears that a comparatively large amount was found by Prof. W. H. Pickering. The search was of carbon dioxide may be absorbed, whilst the correspondcommenced in 1888 with the 13-inch Boyden telescope of ing pressure only undergoes a very small absolute change, the Harvard College Observatory, but was not successful provided that the alkalinity remains constant. A water, in bringing to light any previously unknown attendant on for example, which has the alkalinity 23, and contains Saturn. On the installation of the new 24-inch Bruce 36.7 c.c. of carbon dioxide per litre, is capable of absorbing telescope in the clear atmosphere of Arequipa the search, 4.3 c.c. of the gas per litre, whilst the pressure, measured which was photographic throughout, was renewed, and as described above, only rises from 0.015 per cent. to 0.0295 on tsamining the plates taken on August 16, 17, and 18, per cent. of an atmosphere. This means that the air shaken I NON Prof. Pickering was rewarded by the appearance up with the original water would be found to contain 1.5 of a short trail which apparently partook of the planet's parts of carbon dioxide per 10,000, whilst after the further motion among the stars, and was, therefore, to be con- absorption the air similarly treated would contain 2.95 parts sidered as part of its system. The story of the subse- per 10,000. quent doubes and difficulties has been too recently told Owing to this pressure of carbon dioxide constant interHarvard College Annals, No. 3, vol. liii.) to need re-telling change takes place between every surface, whether here, but it may be recalled to mind that the subsequent of sea-water or of fresh-water, and the air above it, resultobservations showed that the satellite revolves in an orbit ing in evolution from the water or absorption by it accordwhich is far more eccentric than that of any other satellite, ing as the pressure of carbon dioxide in the water or the or of any major planet, in the solar system, and that its air is the greater. The effect of this is that the ocean acts motion in that orbit is opposite in direction to the orbital as a regulator on the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, motions of the remaining eight of Saturn's moons. Like

tending to compensate for any deviation from the normal the fifth satellite of Jupiter, this object can only be proportion. The pressure of carbon dioxide in the air is at observed visually with the largest telescopes and under present about 0.03 per cent. of an atmosphere (3 volumes the best conditions. As a matter of fact, it was not seen per 10,000), the absolute amount in the whole atmosphere until its position was accurately known, and even then being calculated as 2.4 X 10'2 tons, whilst the quantity conProfs. Barnard and H. H. Turner, using the 40-inch tained in the entire mass of the sea may be taken as twentyrefractor at Yerkes Observatory, in August last, could not seven times as great as this. frel certain that they had really observed the object which In order to increase the proportion of the atmospheric had up to that time remained invisible to human eyes. carbon dioxide to 0.04 per cent. it would be necessary, of

Whilst our knowledge of the most recently discovered course, in the first place to add one-third of the amount satellite is as yet very scanty, Prof. Perrine's message already present. The pressure thus attained would, howtells us that on January 4 its position angle was 269°, and ever, be gradually decreased by absorption by the sea, and the daily rate of its apparent approach towards Jupiter it follows from the author's experiments that in order to was 45', i.e. about 100,000 miles.

bring the ocean into equilibrium with the altered atmoThe magnitude, 14, ascribed to it is one magnitude sphere a further addition of twice the amount originally fainter than that of Barnard's fifth satellite, and this

present would be required, a total change involving the primarily suggests that the diameter may be less than production of 5.6 x 1012 tons of carbon dioxide ! A calculathat of the fifth, although a smaller reflecting power, or tion of this kind goes far to explain the constancy of com" albedo," may account for the relative faintness. Its

position of the atmosphere, which at first sight appears so distance from Jupiter on January 4 would probably be about remarkable, and to indicate the enormous changes required o million miles. The statement that the motion was to produce any considerable variation in it. trograde" refers, of course, to the apparent motion in the The interchange of carbon dioxide between sea and air, aks, and must not be confounded with a retrograde orbital moreover, is by no means a slow process, but takes place motion similar to that followed by Phæbe, Saturn's ninth with remarkable rapidity. Thus a pressure difference Satellite.

W. E. R. between sea and air of only 0.001 of an atmosphere, i.e. the

presence in the air of an additional or part of carbon

dioxide per 10,000, leads to the absorption of 0.525 c.c. of ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC CARBON this gas per square centimetre of ocean surface per year, DIOXIDE.

or a total annual absorption of 3.85 X 10' tons.

The author considers from this point of view the effect The carbonic acid of sea-water is usually supposed to on the composition of the atmosphere of the combustion of be present in combination with certain bases, which

coal, which annually throws into the air about oneconstitute the alkalinity of the water, partly in the form

thousandth of the carbon dioxide already present in it, so to normal carbonate and partly in the form of bicarbonate,

that, apart from any regulating action of the sea, in a the total amount present being insufficient to convert the

thousand years—if the coal lasted--the percentage proporwhole of the base into the bicarbonate. Thug the water

tion would be doubled, rising from 3 to 6 volumes per of the North Atlantic has been found to contain 49 c.c. of

10,000, and rendering the air almost unfit for continued carbonic acid gas per litre, whilst 54 c.c. would be required respiration. Before the proportion rose to 3.1 volumes per to convert the base completely into bicarbonate. That this

10,000, however, the sea would be able to absorb the gas view is not quite correct has been shown by Dr. A. Krogh,

as fast as it was produced, and, owing to the large volume of Copenhagen, in a series of investigations on the carbon

required to bring the ocean water into equilibrium with the dioxide of the air and ocean.'

air, it is probable that at the expiration of the thousand The reaction between carbonic acid and normal

years the proportion of carbon dioxide in the air would not carbonate to form a bicarbonate is, like so many chemical

be more than 3.5 volumes per 10,000. reactions, reversible, and equilibrium is established while a

Many other interesting questions of great importance in certain amount of the carbonic acid is still free. This free

the economy of nature are capable of being attacked from carbonic acid exerts a definite gaseous pressure, which varies

this point of view and subjected to experimental investi. with the total amount of carbon dioxide present and with

gation. Such are the

of deposition of calcium the alkalinity of the water. This pressure can very readily

carbonate from hard waters, the rate of solution of limestone be drcermined by simply shaking the water with a small and chalk in natural waters, the absorption of carbon volume of air and then ascertaining by direct analysis the dioxide by rocks and soils, &c. pressure of the carbon dioxide in this air, which is, of

On the great question as to whether the production of course, equal to the pressure of that in the water, since

carbon dioxide is on the whole greater or less than its de. the two have been brought into equilibrium by the shaking; composition nothing certain is known. Indications are not This process gives excellent results both with fresh- and

wanting, however, that this constituent of the atmosphere spa-water, and can be carried out very rapidly by the aid

is increasing in quantity. The chief evidence to this effect 1 "Meddelelser oun Gronland," vol. xxvi, pp 333, 409.

is derived from the fact that over the sea the pressure of





not so



this gas is distinctly lower than over the land. This would remarks, in which he had characterised the words as appear to be most easily accounted for on the assumption typical and exceptional genera and species, and parsing that the pressure of carbon dioxide in the sea is constantly as scientific classification. lower than that in the air, and that, therefore, the air must The paper dealing with recent proposals for school be steadily deriving supplies of the gas from some source,

leaving certificates, by Mr. C. I. Gardiner, of Cheltenby means of which this difference of pressure is maintained.

ham, dealt with what has been done on the Continent, and A. HARDEN. afterwards with the regulations at present suggested to

the Board of Education by its consultative committee. The paper welcomed, as did many of the speakers after

wards, what is not very happily expressed as State interCONFERENCE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL SCIENCE

ference. Many of the Board of Education's proposals were MASTERS.

characterised by Mr. Gardiner as too vague, upon very

good grounds. In the discussion, surprise was expressed THE annual meeting of the Public School Science that Mr. Gardiner had not mentioned what has been done

Masters' Association was held for the second time at recently in Ireland. It was recommended, also, that the Westminster School on January 14, by kind permission Board of Education should get to know the schools before of Dr. Gow, who had undertaken the duties of president it suggested too much, and that its interference should and occupied the chair. A letter was read by the honorary be taken in small doses. Mr. W. A. Shenstone fancied he secretary, Mr. W. A. Shenstone, from Sir Michael Foster saw the edge of red tape in some of the proposals, while explaining why he had not been able to act as president. Father Cortie thought there was a danger that education The meeting then occupied itself with business matters, might become stereotyped, so that special traits of certain and Sir Oliver Lodge was unanimously elected president schools would not be given free play. He hoped that for the ensuing year.

inspectors with fads or insufficient knowledge would In the short address with which Dr. Gow opened the not interfere as they had done in elementary schools, and conference, he expressed the opinion that every boy should would not say, for instance, your

labs are be taught natural science, and this pronouncement, coming good as those in the primary schools (which are built as it does from a classical headmaster, is of very great with the ratepayers' money), you must erect new ones." importance at the present moment, as Prof. Armstrong The third paper dealt with the use and misuse of was not slow to point out. It was no doubt elicited by terms in science teaching. It was contributed by Mr. the subject of the first paper, namely, the importance of T. L. Humberstone, of Toynbee Hall, who took exceptinn including both Latin and science in a scheme of general to the loose way in which words, law, theory, hypothesis

, education. This was read by Mr. Douglas Berridge, of

and so

were used. He pointed out what the real Malvern College. In the paper the necessity of meanings of the words were, and objected strongly to general education was discussed, and the report of the the idea that the experiments in practical mathematics committee upon the education of army officers was taken “ proved the laws that they were intended to illustratr. as a guide. In this it is laid down that English, mathe- Prof. Tilden agreed with Mr. Humberstone in regard to matics, one modern language, Latin, and science are the misuse of terms, and said that professional scientific essential to a sound general education ; but what is very men were just as much to blame as schoolmasters. He strange, the framers of the report proceed to propose thought that if boys were taught a little logic before they that all future officers of our Army should be debarred left school many mistakes would be prevented. He was from obtaining what was considered necessary by the amazed at the statement incidentally made by Mr. proposal that Latin and science should be optional and Humberstone as to there being too much laboratory work alternative subjects. In addition to the injury which a done in schools, and he pointed out that every discovers one-sided education inflicts upon the individual, Mr. of the organic chemists additional evidence in Berridge pointed out a greater and more far-reaching favour of the atomic theory which Mr. Humbersione danger to our nation as a whole. He urged that the thought was tottering. Mr. Fletcher, of the Board of present trend of education, as represented by London Uni- Education, said that there was a widespread misapprp versity (in its matriculation and school leaving examin- hension as to the place of practical work in geometry ation), by Oxford and Cambridge in their school leaving It was not possible to prove anything by the experiments examinations), and by the Civil Service Commissioners used, but it was most important to get approximations and the Army entrance examinations, is sharply to divide which could be idealised into conceptions. They were Englishmen into two classes, the one trained on literary necessary to create state of mind and to conimend lines, leavened only by a modicum of mathematics, the postulates to common sense. Mr. Sanderson thought that other on scientific lines, leavened only by a smattering of some of the practical work set to boys was superfluous. French. Could it be, Mr. Berridge asked, to the advantage and might well be replaced by good experiments shown of any nation that its future rulers and organisers should by the master. Mr. Humberstone, in answer to a que thus be grouped into two opposing camps, of which, while tion from Mr. Shenstone, said that he thought ten they mutually despise one another, neither is able to under- twelve hours a week was longer than was required for stand the very method of reasoning adopted by the other? | laboratory work, and he further said, with regard 1 Mr. Berridge was able to support his contention by figures, superfluous work, that when a boy had learned how to for on application to all our public schools he had found obtain one gas properly it was not necessary for him to that for the Army and matriculation examinations 45.6 per produce all the others. cent. of the boys now learn Latin and 54:4 per cent. The last paper was by Mr. F. B. Stead, of Clifton, and learn science.

on the possibility of teaching scientific method to The discussion showed that while the need of a literary boys whose education is almost entirely literary, and who as well as a scientific training was thoroughly recog- have no time for a regular course in chemistry and nised, many speakers did not agree with Mr. Berridge physics. It was suggested that older boys in the Ith that Latin was the best means of acquiring the former. form should be given some definite piece of work to be It is true that Father Cortie (Stonyhurst) found that the carried out in detail, in order that they might underbest classical boys were most successful in science, but stand (1) the method of experiment and observation by Prof. Armstrong said that no honest attempt had ever which facts are ascertained ; (2) the process of reasoning been made in this country to afford a literary training from particular instances to general laws; and (3) the us through any other language, and though Latin had proved of explanatory theories and their verification. very efficient in a few instances, in the vast majority of Prof. Armstrong considered the paper to be one of verv cases it was not. He maintained, also, that Latin trans- great value, and suggested that the term "experimental lation did not give style. Finally, Prof. Armstrong should be used instead of a scientific," bearing in mind characterised the making of science alternative to Latin what Dr. Gow had said in connection with Latin e in Army examinations as illogical and preposterous. Dr. scientific training. He also asked what place there would Gow said that he never regarded Latin as a literary train- be in the near future for boys who only had had a literar ing, but as a scientific one, and referred to his opening education.







In his memoir Mr. Dougall makes a new departure, and EDINBU'RGH,

develops a method that has important applications in other

branches of applied mathematics. By an exceedingly AT a meeting of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on skilful use of Cauchy's theory of contour integration,

January 9 the prizes awarded by the council were certain integrals, which in Lamé's solution are not conpresented by the chairman, Prof. J. Geikie. We have vergent, are transformed into highly convergent series, meived the following particulars of the awards :

and the modifications which are necessary to secure conThe Gunning Victoria Jubilee prize for 1900-4 vergence lead at once to the most significant terms of awarded to Sir James Dewar, LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S., &c., the solution. The theorem of Betti is applied to develop for his researches on the liquefaction of gases, extending a method, analogous to the method of Green's function orer the last quarter of a century, and on the chemical and in the theory of the potential, by which the properties of physical properties of substances at low temperatures, the solution for a finite plate can be deduced from that his earliest papers being published in the Transactions for an infinite plate, and here, as elsewhere throughout and Proceedings of the society.

the memoir, numerous results are obtained which have In 1867 Mr. James Dewar read a paper to this society great value both for pure and for applied mathematics. on the oxidation of phenol to oxalic acid. This, his The memoir confirms the ordinary approximate theory, first contribution to the aromatic compounds, was followed but extends it in various directions ; for example, the by a more important one on the oxidation of picoline, edge conditions given by Kirchhoff in correction of Poisson which he gave to the British Association in 1868, and in are found directly from the mathematical investigation, a fuller form to this society in 1870. In this he proposed without the aid of any special physical hypothesis, and are a graphic formula of pyridine, which expresses the relation

carried to a higher degree of approximation than by between the constitution of benzene and that of pyridine, Kirchhoff himself. The memoir contains much acute now universally recognised.

analysis, and strikes out a new method of treating the Dewar's experiments on the liquefaction of gases extend problems of mathematical physics that seems likely to be over the last quarter of a century, and have culminated of great value in future investigations. in the production of liquid and solid hydrogen in large quantities, so that as thirty-five years ago he studied the The Neill prize for the period 1901-4 was awarded to chemical and physical properties of hydrogenium solidified Prof. John Graham Kerr, M.A., for his researches on in palladium, he has now given us the properties of the Lepidosiren paradoxa, published in the Philosophical solid element, hydrogen itself. Having thus in his hands Transactions of the Royal Society, London. the means of preparing large quantities of liquefied gases, This work includes an account of the embryological and having devised most ingenious arrangements for keep- material collected during an pedition specially organised ing these very volatile liquids for a long time with only for the purpose to the Grand Chaco of South America in a small loss from evaporation, he made good use of the the years 1896–7. The general biology and habits of opportunity for examining the chemical and physical Lepidosiren are described, the external features of developproperties of substances at extremely low temperatures. ment are fully dealt with, and in a discussion of the The results of these inquiries are of the highest interest general bearings of the phenomena considered reference and importance. For this long series of investigations in is made to, amongst other things, the relations of the chemistry and physics, characterised by ingenuity, skill, protosoma to the body of the vertebrate, to the origin and perseverance, and crowned with success, the council of the spiral valve, and to the morphological significance has awarded to Sir James Dewar the Gunning Victoria of the external gills which it is suggested are the persistJubilee prize.

ing representatives of the organs from which the limbs

of vertebrates have been evolved. The Keith prize for 1901-3 was awarded to Sir William Turner, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., &c., for his memoir After the presentation of

the prizes, Sir James entitled A Contribution to the Craniology of the People

Dewar gave

lecture the properties of liquid of Scotland," published in the Transactions of the society, air, with special reference to charcoal vacua, being a and for his “ Contribution to the Craniology of the People sequel to a paper communicated to the society by Prof. of the Empire of India, parts i., ii., likewise published Tait and himself in 1875 (see Nature, vol. xii. p. 217). in the Transactions of the society.

Many of the familiar properties of liquid air were demonThese memoirs, important as they are, form a strated by a series of experiments. Of particular interest paratively small part of the work which Sir William were its use as a calorimeter and its employment in coolTurner has done in the field of physical anthropology. ing charcoal in a vacuum tube so as greatly to diminish More especially should notice be taken of the two elaborate the density of the rarefied gas. By this means the tube reports which he published on the crania and other bones gradually passed through all the well known stages from of the human skeleton which were collected by the the ordinary bright discharge to the condition of evident Challenger Expedition. These reports

not only striation and so to the Röntgen ray stage, and finally to valuable on account of the information which they convey the non-conducting state. When the liquid air was regarding the physical characters of many races of man- moved the charcoal gradually heated up to the ordinary kind, but also because they establish methods of cranio- temperature, and the tube passed back again through logical and anthropometrical research which have very the stages in the reverse order. The phosphorescence at generally been accepted in this country by workers in the very low temperatures of certain substances not phosphorsame field.

escent at ordinary temperatures was also demonstrated ; Four great leaders have been chiefly instrumental in also the production of luminous effects due to the electrifideveloping that branch of science which has received the cation of a certain crystal on being cooled down to the name of physical anthropology : Broca in France, Huxley temperature of liquid air. and Flower in England, Turner in Scotland. The Makdougall-Brisbane prize for 1902-4 was awarded

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL to Mr. John Dougall, M.A., for his paper on an analytical

INTELLIGENCE. theory of the equilibrium of an isotropic elastic plate, published in the Transactions of the society.

CAMBRIDGE.-Mr. R. H. Lock has been appointed The problem of the deformation of an isotropic elastic assistant curator of the herbarium for four years from plate under given forces has occupied the attention of January 1. He succeeds Mr. Yapp, who was some time mathematicians from the time of Lamé. The solution ago elected professor of botany at Aberystwyth. given by Lamé himself is merely formal; the integrals Prof. Sorley has been appointed chairman of the exby which that solution is expressed are not only very aminers for the moral sciences tripos. complicated, but are not convergent, and they do not The Sedgwick Museum Building Syndicate has issued lead to the approximate theory.

a final report, from which it appears that the total cost






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