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of the building and fittings is 49,3891. 25. 3d., of which sum 26,1251. has been furnished by the Sedgwick memorial trustees, besides 1050l. appropriated to the bronze statue sculptured by Mr. Onslow Ford.

In connection with the recently established diploma and final examination for the degree in geography, the Board of Geographical Studies has issued a list of eight lectures which amply cover the syllabus for these examinations. Besides the lectures on geography in general by Mr. Yule Oldham, Mr. Hinks is lecturing on geographical surveying, Dr. Marron geomorphology, and Dr. Haddon on anthropogeography.

The recently established board of anthropology announce some thirteen courses of lectures which seem to embrace the world, ancient and modern. Prof, Ridgeway deals with Greek and Roman numismatics, Mr. Green with Egyptology, Mr. Johns with Assyriology and the social customs of Babylonia, Mr. Chadwick with those of the Anglo-Saxons, whilst Dr. Haddon lectures on the ethnology of Southern Asia, Baron von Hügel on the Melanesians and Polynesians, and Mr. Minns on the ancient ethnology of eastern Europe. Special courses on the sacred character and magical functions of kings in early society, and on physical anthropology, are to be delivered by Mr. J. G. Frazer and Mr. Duckworth.

LONDON.—The Drapers' Company has voted to University College the sum of 400l. a year for the next five years towards assisting further the statistical work and higher teaching of the department of applied mathematics. The Mercers' Company has voted the sum of 1oool. for providing for the chair of physiology at the college. Dr. Atkinson has been appointed an honorary demonstrator in the department of organic chemistry.

EDINBURGH.-The Senate has submited a resolution to the University Court expressing the view that the time has come for the recognition of geography as a subject for graduation in arts and science, and requesting that the court should take steps as soon as possible to obtain such alteration of the ordinances as may be necessary to that end. It was agreed that when the framing of a new and amending ordinance in arts comes before the court, the question of giving an adequate position to geography shall be given due consideration.

Dublin.—The Provost and senior fellows of Trinity College have accepted an offer made by Sir John Nutting, of St. Helens, county Dublin, to endow for a period of five years ten annual entrance exhibitions each of the value of 100l. (50l. per annum for two years). The exhibitions are to be awarded without further examination, and at the discretion of the Board of Trinity College, to ten young men or women who have competed with success at the senior or middle grade examinations of the Board of Intermediate Education in Ireland. The exhibitions will be confined to pupils of Irish secondary schools (Protestant and Roman Catholic) which have no other endowment than the “ results feesof the Intermediate Board, any other endowment to act as

a disqualification.

The president of the Board of Education has appointed the Right Hon. R. B. Haldane, K.C., M.P., to be chairman of the departmental committee which is inquiring into the present and future working of the Royal College of Science and Royal School of Mines, South Kensington, in succession to Sir Francis Mowatt, G.C.B., who will, however, remain a member of the committee. It may be remembered that the terms of reference to the committee are as follows:-To inquire into the present working of the Royal College of Science, including the School of Mines; to consider in what manner the staff, together with the buildings and appliances now in occupation or in cours of construction, may be utilised to the fullest extent for the promotion of higher scientific studies in connection with the work of existing or projected institutions for instruction of the same character in the metropolis or elsewhere ; and to report on any changes which may be desirable in order to carry out such recommendations as they may make.

The annual meeting of the Incorporated Association of Headmasters was held at the Guildhall on January (1

In his presidential address, the Rev. James Went said that, speaking broadly, the difference between the English and the German educational ideal has been that the Germans have recognised the paramount importano of secondary education and the English have not. It is, however, being recognised gradually that the word

secondary connotes, not a social distinction, but one of attainment. The recognition of this fact is, Mr. Went believes, largely due to boys of ability and good character who, under the name of exhibitioners or county council scholars, have during the last thirty years been admitted freely into grammar schools, and of whom many have afterwards won the highest distinctions at the universities. It appears likely that the number of boys of this class will be increased as time goes on. The address also dealt with the education of pupil teachers at secondary schools and with the recent regulations for secondary schools issued by the Board of Education. The following resolution was adopted :-" That this association regards the new regulations for secondary schools with satisfaction in general, but regrets that the Board of Education does not provide (a) for the calculation of grants upori terminal attendance; (b) for the recognition of advanced courses to follow upon the existing four-years' course; (c) for ensuring comparative freedom of curricula to schools satisfying certain tests of a higher liberal education : (d) for an elastic percentage division of the whole school time when prescribing for groups of subjects, in place of the existing rigid minima of hours or periods in each week. A rider was adopted also declaring that the financial basis on which grants are calculated is not at all adequate, and protesting against any application of the new regulations to secondary schools hitherto earning grants from the board, which would result in such schools receiving grants on a lower basis than in the past

At the second day's meeting of the Incorporated Association of Headmasters the following resolutions were adopted after discussion :-(1) That in the opinion of this association it is desirable that the universities should institute a twofold entrance examination (a) for candidates proceeding to degrees in arts, in general as at present, but with a higher standard in literary subjects; (6) for candidates proceeding to degrees in mathematics and science, with a modern language, including translation at sight, composition, and an oral test, as an alternative for Greek. (2) That the provision for papers in English and history, and for the omission of Paley's " Evidences' from the Cambridge previous paper as laid down in the first report of the Cambridge Studies Syndicate, should be insisted upon in examinations under both (a) and (2) above: (3) That a new degree in mathematics and in science should be instituted, differing in title from the degree in arts, but of precisely the same university stand. ing. The Rev. R. D. Swallow, in moving the resolutions, said he would not add anything to the arguments on either side of the vexed question as to whether the study of Greek is to be compulsory for students who sought admission to the ancient universities. It is a

Mr. Stanley H. TURNER, assistant in political economy at Glasgow, has been appointed lecturer in political economy in the University of Aberdeen, and a full qualifying course of lectures will in future be given by him.

Dr. Karl BOEHM, of Heidelberg, and Dr. Hugo Kaufmann, of Stuttgart Technical College, have been appointed extraordinary professors for mathematics and chemistry respectively.

Mrs. MacLOGHLIN, of Southport, recently made an offer to the Royal College of Surgeons of England to found scholarships in memory of her husband, the late Mr. E. Percy P. Macloghlin. Mrs. Macloghlin proposes, in five years from the date of her husband's death, to give to the college a sum of 10,000l. for the purpose of endowing these scholarships, which are intended to assist young students in need of financial help to proceed with their professional studies. The council of the college has accepted Mrs. Macloghlin's munificent offer, and has agreed to administer the trust.

as

course

on

question which has often been debated by the association, post-mortem examination of the animal, are given.and now in later years, as the subject has assumed a Observations on the Borrelly comet (December 28, 1904) more prominent place in all questions about the curricula made with the large equatorial at the Observatory of of the universities and the secondary schools, the associ- Bordeaux : G. Rayet. Two sets of observations were made ation has gradually focussed its view of it in favour of on December 31, 1904, and one on January 2. On the relaxation for candidates for admission at the university latter evening the sky was clear, and the comet appeared who are able to prove themselves worthy of high honours a nearly round nebulosity of about 1' in diameter, in mathematics or natural science.

possessing a stellar nucleus of the thirteenth magnitude. MR. ARNOLD-FORSTER, Secretary of State for War,

-On a method of reading large surfaces of mercury : A. attended on Monday the first lecture of a

Berget. A collimator with a well illuminated very narrow military history and strategy at the University of London ;

slit is placed behind the column to be read, and an unand at the conclusion of the lecture spoke on army educa

graduated thermometer tube in front. A luminous line, tion. In the course of his remarks, he said :-If we have

the focal line of a cylindrical mirror, is formed, and ends had one thing more than another to admire in the great

with great sharpness at a fixed point, which can be read military example in the Far East, it is the way in which

off in a cathetometer with an accuracy of 0.01 mm.the officers' corps of a great and friendly nation have

The attraction observed between liquid drops suspended in succeeded in combining the maximum of devotion with

a liquid of the same density : V. Crémieu. Drops of the maximum of intelligence in the effective service of

olive oil, suspended in a mixture of alcohol and water of their country. In our Army we can find officers in every

as nearly as possible the same density as the oil, ascend rank and branch of the service who will challenge com

or descend in a vertical straight line, with extreme slowparison with the officers of any army in the world; but

ness, if precautions against changes of temperature and the diffusion of intelligence and education throughout the

shaking are taken. If two or more drops are present in officers of the Army is not so great as it ought to be.

the dilute alcohol at the same time, there is an attraction This is not peculiar to the Army; it is characteristic of

between the two drops which is manifested by their followevery profession in the country; and what this country

ing curved paths instead of vertically straight ones.-On is now feeling acutely is that we have so long subsisted

the photogenic radio-active properties of calcined coral on an educational basis inadequate to the needs of modern placed in a radiant vacuum and submitted to the influence life. The time has come for the public schools to render

of the kathode rays : Gaston Séguy. Amongst various to the Army greater service than they do now. Numbers

substances examined calcined coral (carbonate of lime and of young men come up for the Army from the public magnesia) gave the most intense phosphorescence as schools with a totally inadequate knowledge of the

measured by the action on a photographic plate. Phoslanguage of every country but their own, and with an phorescent coral excites the fluorescence of barium platinoinadequate knowledge of the history and literature of their cyanide screens, and is very rich in ultra-violet 'rays..own country, as well as of the history and literature of Concerning the action of very low temperatures on the every other country. That must all be changed. Young phosphorescence of certain sulphides : F. P. Le Roux. men ought to come up from the public schools instructed in

The maximum potential light energy which can be inthe great science of geography. Now they are practically duced in a given phosphorescent body by a given light is without any knowledge whatever of one of the sciences independent of the temperature. Variations of temperature which, more than any other, is the reasonable foundation

can only have an influence on the velocity of transformfor the studies of an officer in the Army. There is an

ation of the potential into the actual light energy.-On extraordinary lack in this country—which of all others

a supposed demonstration of the existence of the n-rays by cught to be well posted in this branch of science-of a

photographic methods : M. Chanoz and M. Perrigot. proper knowledge of geography. We might be compelled

The authors have repeated an experiment of M. Bordier's to establish in this country for the Army schools like

on the photographic detection of the n-rays emitted by those which have been already established for the Navy, tempered steel, with contrary results. They find that two or like the college at West Point in the United States.

equal masses of lead and tempered steel, placed identically The time has almost come when it would be wise to on screens comparable as to thickness and insolation, never establish a great college like West Point, where the equip- give different halos, whatever may be the duration of ment, staff, and method should be as complete as possible,

the exposure.—The special sensibility of the physiological and where candidates should be taken not only for the

ear for certain vowels : M. Marage.-On the fluorides Army, but for all the great departments of the State, and

of indium and rubidium : C. Chabrié and A. Bouchonnet. where even those who have no intention of entering the

The fluoride of indium was prepared by dissolving the Service of the State may be allowed to receive instruction.

hydroxide of the metal in hydrofluoric acid, and was found on analysis to possess the composition In Fr.18H,0.

It emits acid vapours, and is completely decomposed on SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

ignition to redness. On treating rubidium carbonate with

hydrofluoric acid and evaporating to dryness the acid Paris.

fluoride RbF.HF is obtained.--The limit of the reaction Academy of Sciences, January 9.-M. Troost in the between diazobenzene and aniline : Léo Vignon. Aminochair.-- The external or superficial conductivity represent azobenzene does not react with diazobenzene either in ing for a given body the cooling power of a Muid current : aqueous or alcoholic solution. Aniline reacts with diazoJ. Boussinesq.-The micrographical study of the meteorite aminoazobenzene chloride in presence of potassium carbonate of the Diablo Canyon: H. Moissan and F. Osmond. giving diazoamine.-Camphene, camphenylone, isoThe micrographical study of this meteorite has shown that borneol, and camphor : L. Bouveault and G. Blanc, the metallic parts, apparently homogeneous, frequently The tertiary alcohol, methylcamphenylol, was prepared inntain irregular microscopic nuclei formed of superposed from camphenylone by Grignard's reaction. The reaction layers of phosphide and carbide of iron. A detailed ex- of this alcohol with pyruvic acid at 1400-150° C. has been amination of nodules which have not been submitted to studied.—On the diastatic coagulation of starch : J. Wolff maternal oxidation made it clear that they are formed and A. Fernbach.—The estimation of carbon monoxide of sulphide of iron surrounded by successive layers of iron in confined atmospheres : Albert Lévy and A. Pécoul. phosphide and carbide. In certain cases the laminated The authors utilise the reaction first indicated by M. sructure of the nodules showed that they had been sub- Gautier between carbon monoxide and iodic anhydride at mitted to very considerable pressures. — Trypanosomiasis 80° C., modifying the method by receiving the vapours of and the tsetse-fly in French Guinea : A. Laveran. Speci- iodine in a small quantity of pure chloroform. The amount mens of Glossina, or the tsetse-fly, have been found in of iodine set free is ascertained calorimetrically by comall parts of French Guinea, and in places where the parison with a set of sealed tubes containing known quantiexistence of diseases due to trypanosomes has been already ties of iodine. It is possible in this way to measure in four demonstrated. These trypanosomes attack horses as well litres of air only down to 1/200,000 of carbon monoxide ** human beings, and a detailed account of the course by volume. A test analysis with an artificially prepared of the disease in a horse, together with the results of a atmosphere is given to show the accuracy of the method.

a

re

-On the rational estimation of gluten in wheaten flour :

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 25. E. Fleurent. It is shown that by taking certain pre- SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.-London Electric Railways : Hon. Robert P. cautions as to the temperature and lime contents of the

Porter.

THURSDAY, JANUARY 26. wash water, and fixing the time of washing, it is possible to obtain results by the mechanical method which agree

ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4:30 --Probable Papers : On the Boring of the

Simplon Tunnel, and the Distribution of Temperature that was En. well with the chemical method.-Physicochemical

countered : Francis Fox.--On the Comparison of the Platinum Scale of searches on hæmolysis : Victor Henri.—The comet e 1904,

Temperature with the Normal Scale at Temperatures between 444 and discovered December 28, 1904, at the Observatory of

- 190°C., with Notes on Constant Temperatures below the Melting

Point of Ice : Prof. M. W. Travers, F.R.S., and A. S. C. Gwyer.--On Marseilles : M. Borrelly.—The provisional elements of the the Modulus of Torsional Rigidity of Quartz Fibres, and its Tempera new Borrelly comet (1904 December 28): G. Fayet and ture Coefficient : Dr. F. Horion.-On a Metbod of Finding the ConE. Maubant. On the isochronism of the pendulum in

ductivity for Heat: Prof. C. Niven, F.R.S.- Exterior Ballistics. “Error

of the Day" and other Corrections to Naval Range Tables: Prof. the astronomical clock : Ch. Féry. For an amplitude G. Forbes, F.R.S. -The Theory of Symmetrical Optical Objectives between 2° 13' and 2° 29', that is, for a variation of Part ii.: S. D. Chalmers. On the Drift produced in lons by Electro amplitude of about mm., the variation of the rate was magnetic Disturbances, and a Theory of Radio-activity: G. W. Walker.

--Coloration of Glass by Natural' Solar and other Radiations: Six nil, or there was a minimum for the time of oscillation.

William Crookes, F.R.S.-On the “Blaze-Currents " of the Gall Bladder This result is probably due to a want of isochronism of of the Frog : Mrs. Waller. the escapement.-On the value of the magnetic elements INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Fuel Economy in Steam on January 1: Th. Moureaux.–Osmotic communication

Power Plants: W. H. Booth and J. B. C. Kershaw. (Conclusion of

discussion.) in fishes between the internal and external media : Jean

FRIDAY, JANUARY 27, Gautrelet. Referring to a recent paper by M. Quinton, ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.– The Life-History of the Emperor Penguin: the author directs attention to a paper of his bearing on Dr. Edward A. Wilson. the same subject published in 1902.--On the infection of

PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-Action of a Magnetic Field on the Discharge

through a Gas : Dr. R. S. Willows.-Action of Radium on the Electric Padda oryzivora by Trypanosoma paddae and by Halteri

Spark : Dr. R. S. Willows and J. Peck.- The Slow Stretch in India dium Danilewskyi : M. Thiroux.

rubber, Glass, and Metal Wires when subjected to a Constant Pull:

P. Phillips.- Determination of Young's Modulus for Glass : C. A. Bell INDIA.

-Some Methods for Studying the Viscosity of Solids: Dr. Boris

Weinberg Asiatic Society of Bengal, December 7, 1904.- The INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.-Concrete-Making on the lizards of the Andamans, with the description of a new Admiralty Harbour Works, Dover : T. L. Matthews. gecko and a note on the reproduced tail in Ptychocoon homocephalum : N. Annandale. Out of the nine geckos recorded from the Andamans, five or possibly six would

CONTENTS.

PAGE seem to have been carried thither by man. The remaining Zoological Books from Germany. By J. A. T, three are indigenous. One of the three is very nearly

265 related to forms on the nearest mainland, the second has

An American Text-Book of Geology. By A, H. 267

268 Malabar affinities, and the third Madagascan. The author

The Topography of British India

Physical and Physiological Aspects of Light. By describes Gonatodes Andersonii—a new species. The scales

Dr. Reginald Morton .

269 of the reproduced part of the tail, dorsal and ventral sur

A Book on lok. By C. Simmonds.

209 faces, of Ptychocoon homocephalum are slightly smaller

Our Book Shelf :than those of the uninjured part, and the dorsal tubercles are absent; also the loose membrane is narrower, asym

Driesch : "Naturbegriffe und Naturerteile"

270 metric, and not lobed. This last point is important, as

Stewart :. “Higher Text-book of Magnetism and Müller had thought the lobes of specific importance.—The

Electricity”

270

Hibbert : "Life and Energy-Four Addresses 271 occurrence of an aquatic glow-worm in India : N. Annandale. A glow-worm larva of aquatic habit has

Knox : “Glossary of Geographical and Topographical
Terms "

271 been found in a tank in the neighbourhood of Calcutta.

“Blackie's Handy Book of Logarithms"; "Vier- und The only other aquatic glow-worm recorded was found in Lower Siam.

fünfstellige Logarithmentafeln" :

271 Theobald : “Second Report on Economic Zoology: British Museum (Natural Ilistory)”.

272
Letters to the Editor :-
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

The Heterogenetic Origin of Fungus-germs.-Dr. H.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 19.
Charlton Bastian

272 ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.- The Dual Force of the Dividing Cell. Part i.: The Achromatic Spindle Figure illustrated by Magnetic Chains of

Compulsory Greek at Cambridge.--John C. Willis. – 273 Force : Prof. M. Hartog.-Note on the Effects produced on 'Rats by the

Polyhedral Soap-films.-W. Ë. Warth

273 Trypanosomata of Gambia Fever and Sleeping Sickness : H. G. Plim. Reversal of 'Charge from Electrical Induction mer.--- Further Histological Studies on the Localisation of Cerebral Function. The Brains of Felis, Canis, and Sus, compared with that of Machines. – V. Schaffers

274 Homo: Dr. A. W. Campbell.-Experiments on the Nature of the

The Construction of Simple Electroscopes for ExOpsonic Action of the Blood Serum : Dr. W. Bulloch and E. E. Atkin. periments on Radio-activity. (Illustrated.) By LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.--Botanical Collecting : Dr. A. Henry-On the Dr. O. W. Richardson . Cranial Osteology of the Families Osteoglossidæ, Pantodontidae, and

274 Phractolæmidæ: Dr. W. G. Ridewood.

Geological Survey of Canada

276 Society of Arts, at 4.30. – The Gates of Tibet : Douglas W. Freshfield. Recent Exploration in the Mentone Caves. (IllusFRIDAY, JANUARY 20.

trated.) Roval INSTITUTION, at 9.– New Low Temperature Phenomena : Sir The Scientific Exploration of Lake Tanganyika : 277

J. Dewar, F.R.S. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.

Notes

278 INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL Engineers, at 8.—Some Impressions of Our Astronomical Column :American Workshops : A. J. Gimson.-Waterworks Pumping Engines in Observations of Comets 1904 d and 1904 e

2$1 the United States and Canada : J. Barr.---Some Features in the Design Ephemeris for Comet Tempel, 1904 C

283 and Construction of American Planing Machines: A. Kenrick, Jun. : Engines at the Power Stations, and at the St. Louis Exhibition :

Seasonal Development of Martian Canals

282 A. Saxon.

Variable Stars and Nebulous Areas in Scorpio

282 MONDAY, JANUARY 23, Report of the Natal Observatory

282 SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.--Civics : as Applied Sociology, Part ii : Prof. Patrick Geddes.

The Jesuit Observatory at Belen, Havana

282 ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL Society, at 8.30.-- The Great Zimbabwe and

The Discovery of Jupiter's Sixth Satellite. By other Ancient Ruins in Rbodesia : R. N. Hall.

W. E. R..

282 SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.–Reservoir, Stylographic and Fountain Pens : Atmospheric and Oceanic Carbon Dioxide. By Dr. J. P. Maginnis. TUESDAY, JANUARY 24. A. Harden

233 ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 5.- The Structure and Life of Animals: Prof. Conference of Public School Science Masters. By

Wilfred Mark Webb
INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8: -- Notes on the Working of the Prize Awards of the Royal Society of Edinburgh

Shone System of Sewerage at Karachi : J. F. Brunton. - The Sewerage of University and Educational Intelligence
ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.30. – Annual General Meeting Societies and Academies
President's Address, &c.

Diary of Societies

276

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VOLUME VII. FISHES, &c. FISHES (exclusive of the Systematic Account of Teleostei). By T. W. BRIDGE, Sc.D., F.R.S. FISHES (Systematic Account of Teleostei). By G. A. BOULENGER, F.R.S. HEMICHORDATA, By S. F. HARMER, Sc.D., F.R.S.

ASCIDIANS AND AMPHIOXUS. By W. A. HERDMAN, D.Sc., F.R.S. KNOWLEDGE. — “We have the greatest satisfaction in welcoming the somewhat belated appearance of this long-expected volume, as a trustworthy and up-to-date work on fishes written on more or less popular lines was a desideratum. . . . As a whole, we cannot but express an opinion of the high scientific value of the latest volume of the excellent Cambridge Natural History."

MACMILLAN'S GUIDE BOOKS. GUIDE TO EGYPT AND THE SUDAN, including a Description of the

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By H. S. HALL, M.A., and F. H. STEVENS, M.A. LESSONS IN EXPERIMENTAL AND PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. By H. S. HALL, M.A., and F. H. STEVENS, M.A. Crown 8vo.

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Scientific School and Graduate School of Columbian University, Washington, D.C. Illustrated. Svo." 175, net. SCIENCE OF COMMON LIFE (Being a New Edition of “Experimental

Hygiene"). By A. T. SIMMONS, B.Sc. (Lond.), Associate of Royal College of Science, London, and E. STENHOUSE, B.Sc. (Lond.), Associate of the Royal College of Science, London. Globe 8vo.

25. 6d. PHOTOGRAPHY FOR THE SPORTSMAN NATURALIST. By L. W. BROWNELL. Illustrated. Extra Crown 8vo. Gilt top. Ss. 6d. net.

[The American Sportsman's Library. MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED, LONDON.

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