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WATKINS & DONCASTER,

PHENIX
ASSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED.

FIRE OFFICE.
19 LOMBARD ST., E.C., and 57 CHARING CROSS, S.W.

ESTABLISHED 1782.
Moderate Rates. Absolute Security. Bloctric
Lighting Rules Supplied. Liberal Loss Settlements.

Prompt Payment of Claims.
LOSSBS PAID OVER £86,000,000.

Naturalists and Manufacturers of
CABINETS AND APPARATUS
FOR ENTOMOLOGY, BIRDS' EGGS AND SKINS, AND ALL

BRANCHES OF NATURAL HISTORY.
SPECIAL SHOW-ROOM FOR CABINETS.
N. B.- For Excellence and Superiority of Cabinets and Apparatus, reser.
ences are permitted to distinguished patrons, Museums, Colleges, &c.
A LARGE STOCK OF INSECTS, BIRDS' EGGS AND SKINS.
SPECIALITY.-Objects for Nature Study, Drawing

Classes, &c.
Birds, Mammals, &c., Preserved and Mounted by First-class

Workmen true to Nature.
All Books and Publications on Natural History supplied.
36 STRAND, LONDON, W.C.

(Five Doors from Charing Cross.) Our Catalogue (96 pp.) Post free on application.

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Gentlemen interested in the above study are invited to send to

JAMES R. GREGORY & CO., 1 Kelso Place, Kensington Court, London, W.,

for a Prospectus of THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ATLAS OF

MICROSCOPICAL PETROGRAPHY, now being issued in Twelve Monthly Part“, each Part containing Four Fine

Half-Tone Plates, and also Four actual Rock Sections. Subscription in advance, either Monthly, 7/-; Quarterly, 21/-; or for the whole Series of 12 Monthly Parts & 48 Sections, £4 4s.

ROCKS, MINERALS, FOSSILS. For Collectors, Students, Technical Schools, Colleges, &c.

COLLECTIONS IN POLISHED DEAL BOXES. 25 Specimens, 5/6; 50 do., 10/6; 100 do., 21/- ; 200 do., 42/

20 Coal Measure Rocks and Fossils, 12/6; do., larger, 15/-. Adapted for the Board of Education Examinations in

Geology, Physiography, and Mineralogy.
A large stock of Minerals, Rocks, Fossils and Microscopic Objects for

selection. Specimens sent on approval.
Cabinets, Geologists' Hammers, Chisels, Card Trays, Glass-capped

Boxes, Models of Crystals, &c., &c.

NEW CATALOGUE POST FREE. THOMAS D. RUSSELL, 78 Newgate St., London, E.C.

ALBERT EDWARD JAMRACH

(Late CHARLES JAMRACH),

NATURALIST, 180 ST. GEORGE STREET EAST. Implements of Savage Warfare, Idols, Sacred Masks, Peruvian Pottery,

Netsukis China, Lacquers, Gongs, Shells, and other Curios.

TO SCIENCE LECTURERS.
HUGHES' PHOTO · ROTOSCOPE CINEMATOGRAPHS.

THE MOST PERFECT. No Flickering. Superb Mechanism.
Price £7 7 0. The Moto-Photo Camera for taking the Pictures.

Ilustrated Lists, 2d.
See Mr. HUGHES' PATENT COMBINATION OPTICAL LANTERN,
&c. Miniature Triple Lantern constructed for B. J. MALDEN, Esq. ; great
success. New Oxybydrogen Microscope. Science Lanterns for Class De.
monstration. Magniscent Results. Docwra Triple, Prize Medals, Highest
Award. Supplied to the Royal Polytechnic Institution, Dr. H. GRATTAN
GOINNESS, &c. Patent Pampbengo Science Lanterns. The Universal
Lantern 4-inch Condensers, 4-wick Lamp, Portrait Combination front
Lenses, 18s. 6d. Marvellous value. Science Lecture Sets. Novelties.
The Lantern Kaleidoscope. Cheapest Lantern Outfits in the World.
Grandly Illustrated Catalogue, over 180 cboice Engravings, 6d.;
Postage, 4d. Small Illustrated Catalogue, 100 pages, free, sd. List of
60,000 Slides and 300 Lecture Sets, Science Subjects, Views, &c., 60. ;
Postage, ad. Pamphlets Free. W. C. HUGHES, SPECIALIST,
Brewster House, 82 Mortimer Road, Kingsland, N.

LIVING SPECIMENS FOR

THE MICROSCOPE. Volvox, Spirogyra, Desmids, Diatoms, Amoeba, Arcella, Actinosphærium, Vorticella, Stentor, Hydra, Floscularia, Stephanoceros, Melicerta, and many other specimens of Pond' Life. Price is. per Tube, Post Free. Helix pomatia, Astacus, Ampbioxus, Rana, Anodon, &c., for Dissection purposes.

THOMAS BOLTON, 25 BALSALL HEATH ROAD, BIRMINGHAM.

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MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

THE LABORATORY, PLYMOUTH. The following animals can always be supplied, either living or preserved by the best methods :

Sycon; Clava, Obelia, Sertularia ; Actinia, Tealia, Caryophylila, Alcy.
onium; Hormipbora (preserved); Leptoplana; Lineus, Amphiporus,
Nereis, Apbrodite, Arenicola, Lanice, Terebella; Lepas, Balanus,
Gammarus, Ligia Mysis, Nebalia, Carcinus; Patella, Buccinum, Eledone,
Pectens Bugula, Crisia, Pedicellina, Holothuria, Asterias, Echinos.
Ascidia, Salpa (preserved), Scyllium, Raia, &c., &c.

For prices and more detailed lists apply to
Biological Laboratory, Plymouth.

THE DIRECTOR.

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8 o

NOTICE.-Advertisements and business letters for Nature should be addressed to the Publishers; Editorial
Communications to the Editor. The telegraphic address of Nature is “Phusis," LONDON.
SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE."

CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS.
6 s. d. TO ALL Places ABROAD:- £ s. d.

6 s. d. Yearly

Yearly

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Per Line after

a Column Half-yearly

0 14 6
Half-yearly

One Sixteenth Page,or Eighth Col. 10 Halra Page, or a Column 3 50 Quarterly

Quarterly

o One Eighth Page, or Quarter
1 Column
o 15 6 Whole Page

660
The first line being in heavy type is charged for as Two Lines.
Cheques and Money Orders payable to MACMILLAN & CO., L

OFFICE: ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, WC

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IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT.

D'Arsonval's Latest (1904) Apparatus,

DISPENSING WITH COILS & INTERRUPTERS.

For producing, perfectly regulating, and exactly measuring X-RAYS & HIGH-FREQUENCY CURRENTS.

(Protected by Numerous Patents.) SILENT IN WORKING.

SIMPLE IN MANIPULATION. This apparatus has been already installed by many of the chief workers in Electro-Therapeutics in France and England.

Descriptive Pamphlet gratis on application from the Sole Agents for Great Britain and its ColoniesTHE MEDICAL SUPPLY ASSOCIATION,

228 GRAY'S INN ROAD,

LONDON, W.C., where the apparatus may be seen working. COUNTRY HOUSE LIGHTING

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FAR

LARGER

INSTALLATIONS

THE MOST

GIVE STILL

ECONOMICAL

MORE REMARKABLE

SYSTEM KNOWN.

RESULTS

GAS PLANT. GAS ENGINE AND DYNAMO. Electric Current for 100 16-c.p. lamps can be obtained for, ONE PENNYWORTH of fuel per hour by using a CROSSLEY GAS ENGINE and Dynamo combined, running on a CROSSLEY SUCTION GAS PLANT.

Full particulars and testimonials on reference to CROSSLEY BROS., LTD., OPENSHAW, MANCHESTER.

WATSON'S MICROSCOPES & OBJECTS. Watson's New “Club" Microscope. An Instrument of full size of | New Slide of Radium for Microscope. Shows Scintillations most modern design. Especially arranged for the use of Amateurs. brilliantly, and easily managed-quire new

5 6 Monocular, £15; Binocular, £18.

Trypanosoma Brucei (Sleeping Sickness)
Human Spinal Cord-prepared by Golgi's method

4 0 Watson's well-known Van Heurck and Edinburgh Student's Micro

Beautiful Polyzoa-Cristatella mucedo, with Slatoblasts

30 scopes have been re-modelled in the Stage and Foot, and give even

Coelenterata-Campanularia, Obelia, Clytia, and many others, greater convenience for working than before.

each

26 The Watson-Conrady Condenser System is of new computation, and Exquisite arranged groups composed of Diatoms, Spicules, &c., is expressly designed for Photo-Micrography.

according to size, from

5/- to 21 0

Scales and Hairs of Insects arranged to represent Sprays, New Aplanatic Magnifiers. New Objectives. Everything Bouquets, and Vases of Flowers, always interesting, and for the Microscopist.

attractive ...

7/6, 15/-, 21/- and 42 0

Write for Catalogue No. 3 of Micro. Objects, together with newly For all the above see Watson'S 158-page Catalogue of Microscopes, sent published supplementary list of Slides, giving details of recently

added specimens, post free. SPINTHARISCOPE for observing the Scintillations of Radium. The very best. Price 21/SPECIALITIES:- STRUTT'S RADIUM CLOCK. Price according to quantity and quality of Radium included.

(RADIUM of MAXIMUM activity in stock, also of medium and moderate activities. Send for particulars, W. WATSON & SONS, 313 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C. ESTABLISHED 1837.

BRANCH-16 Forrest Road, Edinburgh.

post free.

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J. H. DALLMEYER, Ltd., 25 Newman St., LONDON, W. Printed by RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, at 7 & 8 Bread Street Hill, Queen Victoria Street, in the City of London, and published by MACMILAN

AND Co., L.MITED, at St. Marin's Street, London, W.C., and THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. - THURSDAY, Jan. 19. 1995.

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Library

A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye."—WORDSWORTH.

[PRICE 15 CENTS

No. 1839, VOL. 71) THURSDAY, JANUARY 26, 1905.
Registered as a Newspaper at the General Post Office.)

(All Rights are Reserveu.

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MOVING COIL

NEGRETTI & & ZAMBRA'S VOLTMETERS & AMMETERS. TRAVELLER'S SCIENTIFIC COMPANION.

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MOVING

DEAD

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PARTS

BEAT.

VISIBLE.

Prices from £2 2 0 to £2 7 6
I s. full description see our Electrical Ca!alogue, port free

on application 10
JOHN J. GRIFFIN & SONS, Ltd.,

SARDINIA ST., LONDON, W.C.

Aneroid Barometer, with altitude scale, Pocket Cumpas, with plent dial, anti a Thermometer having Fahrenheit and Centigrade Scais (ra Clinical Thermometer may be subs'ituted), from £4 105. to £; 1.5.

Can also be had mounted in Gold or Silver

VERY SUITABLE FOR PRESENTATION. "Special" Mustrated Price List of Instruments suitable for

Presents tree by post to all parts of the World. 38 HOLBORN VIADUCT, E.C. Bianclan 45 CORNIILL; 122 REGENT STREET.

UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM.

faculties. SCIENCE, ARTS, MEDICINE, COMMERCE.

SPECIAL SCHOOL OF MODERN LANGUAGES.
DEPARTMENT FOR TRAINING OF TEACHERS.

Scbools of -
ENGINEERING, METALLURGY, MINING, BREWING,

DENTISTRY,

Leading to Degrees and Diplomas. ALL COURSES AND DEGREES ARE OPEN TO BOTH MEN AND WOMEN STUDENTS.

In the Medical School there is a separate Dissecting Room for Women with a qualified Woman Demonstrator.

Graduates of other Universities may, after two years' study or research, take a Master's Degree.

Syllabuses with all information will be sent on application to the SECRETARY.

NORTHERN POLYTECHNIC

INSTITUTE,

HOLLOWAY, LONDON, N. (Close to Holloway Stn., G.N.R., and Highbury Stn., N.L.R.) LONDON UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

DEGREES.
Day and Evening Courses in the above under recognised teachers in-
MATHEMATICS,

PHYSICS,
CHEMISTRY,

ENGINEERING. Separate Laboratories for Elementary, Advanced and Honours students. exceptionally large and well equipped.

RESEARCH. Accommodation and apparatus provided for research in either Pure or Applied Chemistry and Physics, and Engineering, in rooms specially adapted for this purpose, Full particulars at the Institute or sent on receipt of postcard.

REG. S. CLAY, D.Sc., Principal

COACHING (THEORY. CAND

EAST LONDON TECHNICAL

COLLEGE,
MILE END ROAD, E.

New Term began JANUARY 9, 1905.
Mathematics

J. L. S. HATTON, M.A., and

W. F. S. CHURCHILL, M.A. Chemistry

is. T. HEWITT, D.Sc., and

C. SMITH, D.Sc. Mechanical Engineering ..

D. A. Low, M.I.M.E., and J. A.

DAVENPORT, B.Sc., Vict. Electrical Engineering

1. T MORRIS, A.M Í.E.E. Physics

R. A. LEHFELDT. D.Sc, and

W. H. WHITE, B.A., B.Sc. Botany

V. H. BLACKMAN, M. A. The DAY CLASSES for students over 16 years of age include full three years' technical courses in Chemistry and Engineering, and three years' courses for London University Degrees (Pass and Honours).

EVENING CLASSES are held in Advanced Technical and Scientific subjects, and for London University Degrees.

SCHOLARSHIPS of the value of £40 per annum will be awarded oy the Drapers' Company in June next. CALENDAR with full particulars post free, 4fd.

J. L. S. HATTON, Director of Studies.

PRACTICE) In BIOLOGY, BOTANY, CHEMISTRY and PHYSIOLOGY for MEDICAL EXAMS.

Especial Course of Instruction in THERAPEUTICS, PHARMACOLOGY and MICROSCOPY for INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY EXAM.

Mr. FREDERICK DAVIS, The Laboratories, (Registered in Column B (Advanced Education), Teachers Registration

Council, Board of Education, S.W.), 49 and 51 IMPERIAL BUILDINGS, LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.C.

EGYPTIAN GOVERNMENT.

MINISTRY OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. The post of PROFESSOR of PATHOLOGY and BACTERIOLOGY at the School of Medicine, Cairo, is vacant. Pay, £800 per annum, private practice not allowed. Applicants should forward copies of testimonial and such other documents as are mentioned in the printed particulars respecting The post, which may be obtained from the Secretary of the Conjoint Board of England, Examination Hall, Victoria Embankment, London. Tbe latest mail by which applications may be posted will leave Lyndon on Friday, February 17. Application to be addressed to the DI SECTOR. Government School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt.

3

THE SIR JOHN CASS TECHNICAL

INSTITUTE, JEWRY STREET, ALDGATE, E.C. Evening Classes in Chemistry, Metallurgy, Physics and Mathematics designed to meet the requirements of those engage in Chemical, Metallurgical and Electrical Industries and in trades associated there with.

Special Courses during the Lent Term :-
GAS ANALYSIS ... CHARLES A. KOHN, M.Sc., Ph.D., F.I.C.
METALLOGRAPHY C. O. BANNISTER, Assoc. R.S.M.

Full curriculum for B.Sc. Examination of London University in Experimental Science under recognised Teachers of the University.

GLASS Blowing. Two Courses of Instruction will be given during the Term by Mr. A. C. Cossor.

NEW TERM began MONDAY, JANUARY 9, 1905. The Institute is readily accessible and near to Fenchurch Street, Liver. pool Street, Broad Street and Metropolitan Railway Stations.

For details of the Classes apply at the Office of the Institute, or by letter to the PRINCIPAL.

W. H. DAVISON, M.A., Clerk to the Governing Body.

KING'S COLLEGE.

(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.) The Council invite applications for the following posts :

1. PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY.
2. PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY.
ASSISTANT PHYSICI AN or ASSISTANT SURGEON

for DISEASES of the THROAT Applications should be sent in by March 15, 1903. For conditions apply to the Secretary.

WALTER SMITH, Secretary TO SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICAL

MASTERS.-Required immediately (1) Master for Chemistry, Mathematics, and Botany. Salary, £140 to commence. County School (2) Tutor take Mathematics 10 Army S:a dard. Chemistry Geometrical Drawing. Coaching Establishment, close London 21 resident. Applications are also invited from Science and Mathematical Masters seeking appointments for after Easter. Early notice assured of all the best vacancies. Address GRIFFITHS, SMITH, POWELL & SMITH, Scholastic

Agents (Estd. 1833), 34 Bedford Street, Strand, London. MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. DIRECTOR wanted for the Marin. Biological Station at Milfpors Full particulars from John A. Todd, Hon. Secretary, 19o West George Street, Gla-zow.

* The

ROYAL INSTITUTION OF

GREAT BRITAIN. ALBEMARLE STREET, PICCADILLY, W. THURSDAY, next, February 2, at Five o'clock, Professor W. SCHLICH, Ph. D., C.I.E., F.R S First of Two Lectures of " Forestry in the British Empire." Halla-guinea the course.

SATURDAY, February 4, at Three o'clock, Sir ALEXANDER C. MACKENZIE, Mus. Doc., D.C.L., LL.D. First of Three Lectures on Bohemian School of Music," with Musical Illustrations. Half-a-guinea. Subscriprion to all Courses in the Sea on. Two Guinean. MUNICIPAL SCHOOL OF TECH

NOLOGY, MANCHESTER. Applications are invited for the post of JUNIOR MATHEMATICAL. LECTURER. Candidates must be qualitied to teach the subjects of 119 Final B.-c. of London l'niversity in Pure and Applied Mathematis. Salary; 6130 per annum. Applications to be forwarded not later than January 30 to

J. H. REYNOLDS, Principal.

Skilled Mechanic (preferably with electrical

experience), accustomed to the manufacture of High class Satert: Instruments App'y. Mating age, experience and salary requiree

REYNOLD. & BRAASTY, Ltd., 14 commercial Street, Lerds. For Sale.- Very extensive X-ray Installation,

Comprising Mercury Jet Interruptor, Operating Coach. Localire Screens, Resistances, Holders, &c. Suit Hospital Price Les

clusling Wimshurst Machine.-R. MAYER, 18 Ge Alarlborough : For Sale.-Volumes of Nature," roughly

bonnd, from November, 1369. to January, 105. Apply to Lieur C. C. R. Wo Ds, K.A.N.C., Royal Infirmary, Dublu

Private Museum for Sale. Includes Con

chology, Geology, Ornithology, Piscatology, Osteology, Arms, Weapons, Polished Stones, Eggs : all named and classified, with small library. Boxed in trayed Cabinets. 30 years' collection. Apply, RICKARDS, Seldown, Poole.

BROWNING'S SPECTROSCOPES.

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Unusual opportunity occurs for purchase of

Unique Valuable Conchological Collection, in Trays in Cabinets, classified and mostly named, belonging to scientific man. ReplyRICKARDS, Seldown, Poole.

For Sale.-What offers ? Journal Chemical

Society, 1891-1895- Chemical News, 1887-1898. Chem. Central Blatt, 1897-1903. Ber. deutsch. chem. Gesellschaft, 1897-1904. All well bound and in good condition. Address, “M. N.," c/o NATURE.

Chemist, with good academic qualifications,

seeks appointment. Experience : Electrolytic, Metallurgical, Organic and Mineral Analysis and Research. N. D. L., c/o NATURE.

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McCLEAN'S STAR SPECTROSCOPE,

GECW'S:
SCINTILLOSCOPE

PATEXT

GLEW'S SCINTILLOSCOPE

(PATENT).
Shows a magnificent display of scintillations,
showers of sparks, direct from the mineral Pitch-
blende, Radium, Polonium, Uranium, Thorium, or any
radio-active substance, even a Welsbach mantle con-
tains sufficient Thorium to excite ibe very sensitive
screen of the Scintilloscope, which is far more sensi.
tive than the Spinthariscope. The Scintilloscope

rivals the most delicate Electroscope as a detector SCREEN

of Alpha rays.

The eye sees an inexhaustible shower of stars of PITCHOLEND white light, giving a very realistic idea of the ceaseless

activity of these marvellous substances wbich are producing the terrific bombardment causing this beautiful display.

I See NATURE, September 29, page 535.
Glew's Scintilloscope Superior Lens, with Extra-sensitive Pitchblende and

Polonium Screens, giving brilliant effects, Complete, 75. 6d., Post free,

U.K. Foreign Postage extra, weight 2 ounces.
Pieces of Pitchblende mineral, ground flat and polished, with Sensitive

Screen attached, for use in Scintilloscope or with any strong pocket

magnifier, froin 75. 6d. each, according to size.
Radio active supplies of every description, on Sale or Hire. Radium

Bromide, 1,800,000 units on hire for lectures.
P. HARRISON GLEW, Radiographer (Silver Medallist, Paris, 1900),

156 Clapham Road, London, S.W.

For use with a 3-inch or larger Telescope.

For Astronomical Work, £2 : 10 : 0.
With Slit Adaptor for Chemical and Astronomica

Work, £3 :7: 6.
Double Nose-piece for carrying above Spectro.
scope, and an Eye-piece, or two Eye-pieces, of

different powers, £1 : 15 : O.

CATALOGUES POST FREE. JOHN BROWNING,

MANUFACTURING OPTICIAN, 78 STRAND, LONDON, W.C. ALUMINIUM RECTIFIERS.

For charging any class of Accumulators, direct from alternating mains. Works on any periodicity or voltage. Action abso. lutelyinfallible. No moving parts High efficiency. Requires no attention.

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Made in Four sizes, to charge

from } to 6 Amperes, 17s. 6d. to £8 8s.

FOR PARTICULARS WRITE

OR CALL. STEWART, LIVETT & CO., 62 Theobalds Road, London, W.C.

(FOUR MINUTES WALK FROM HOLBORN TOWN HALL )

COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY. SANGER-SHEPHERD QUICK CHANGE, ONE PLATE, LATEST PATTERN OUTFITS.

EXCELLENT Photographs in Colour are obtained with our smaller lens filter Outfits, complete from 25 - ; but for general work, Landscapes in changing light, Portraiture or Photomicrography, where rapid exposures in succession are necessary, the Repeating Back with Colour Filters is recommended as the best all round appliance.

It may be attached to any for whole-plate camera or glass plate Kodak, by means of a panel cut to correspond and interchangeable with the ordinary dark slide. This does not in any way interfere with the use of the camera for ordinary work. The three Colour Filters are held in a frame, clipped in front of the double dark slide which carries the two plates, each large enough to record the three negatives side by side, when ihe slide is pushed past the opening in the outer case. With this Outfit, even a beginner will secure three-colour negatives with the ease and certainty of an ordinary photograph.

Repeating Back Attachments, with Filters complete, from 90/16 Send for New Booklets, post free to readers of Nature," or

call and see results ontained by amateurs. SANGER-SHEPHERD & CO., 5, 6, 7 Gray's Inn Passage, Red Lion Street, Holborn, London.

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