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SCIENCE YEAR BOOK
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THE EVOLUTION THEORY.
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characteristics of the various formations as they occur. This map, and the accompanying key thereto, are the result of observations extending over a period of five years during which the Compiler was stationed in the Island.
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the delicate axial filaments, each passing to the surface of the body to be continued into one of the slender
pseudopodia, which usually exceed the diameter of the A MONOGRAPH OF THE HELIOZOA.
body in length. The central granule and nucleus are Les Heliozoaires d'Eau Douce. By E. Penard. Pp. both contained in the endoplasm ordinarily so called,
341; illustrated. (Geneva : Henry Kundig, 1904.) which itself is eccentric, in position, so that the surTHE CHE Heliozoa or “sun-animalcules” have always rounding zone of ectoplasm becomes thin on one side
been favourite objects with microscopists on of the body and is thickest at the pole opposite to account of their abundance, especially in fresh water, this. The large nucleus is placed eccentrically in the their relatively large size, and their beauty as objects endoplasm, being always near the region where the for the microscope. From the scientific aspect, how- ectoplasmic zone is at its thinnest, and is therefore still ever, they have not attracted so much attention as more markedly eccentric in relation to the body as a many other groups of Protozoa, on account, perhaps, whole. The author inclines to the opinion that the of their somewhat isolated position from the systematic ordinary use of the terms ectoplasm and endoplasm or phylogenetic point of view, no less than from their is incorrect in the case of the Acanthocystis-type of perfect innocuousness, so far as mankind is concerned. Heliozoön. He thinks that the true ectoplasm is here The work before us is a monograph of the fresh-water limited to a narro
row peripheral zone of the body, and Heliozoa, based upon investigations upon those found that the remainder of what is commonly called ectoin the environs of Geneva. It was the author's plasm should really be considered as endoplasm, of original intention, he tells us, to have confined himself which that part to which the term endoplasm is usually to a description of the forms occurring in that terri- applied is only a special region, containing nucleus tory, but since he obtained there nearly all the species and central granule, and perhaps homologous with the hitherto known from fresh water, he has added to his clear zone round the nucleus in Actinophrys. catalogue descriptions of the species which appear not In the classification the author keeps to the division to occur in the sphere of his personal investigations into the four well known orders founded by Bütschli, in order to give his monograph a wider basis.
and since repeated in every text-book, although he is The monograph is divided into four chapters. The decidedly of opinion that this classification “is artifirst contains general considerations on the structure, ficial and does not always correspond to the real affinireproduction, and affinities of the group; the second ties of the species.” If this is the case, it is a matter gives a systematic account of those fresh-water forms, for regret that the author did not attempt to embody the position of which among the Heliozoa is above his ideas of the natural relationships of the Heliozoa suspicion; the third deals with the “Pseudo- in a scheme of classification more suited to express Heliozoa," that is to say, with organisms commonly them. He contents himself, however, by making only referred to this group, but of which the affinities and minor improvements, such as transferring the genus systematic position are dubious; and the fourth dis- Heterophrys from the Chlamydophora to the Chalarocusses synonymic species, namely, those which are of thoraca. He also separates from Bütschli's list certain doubtful nature, or which have not been described in forms which are placed by him under the heading a manner adequate for identification. The work “Pseudo-Heliozoa." This category, he is at pains to further commences with a short introduction and ends explain, is not intended to have any systematic value, with a full bibliography, and is illustrated by numerous but merely to serve as a mode of uniting “certain text figures.
organisms which exhibit points of resemblance to In his general chapter the author gives first an Heliozoa sufficiently striking to tempt one to unite account of the methods employed by him for collecting them with the latter, and which nevertheless do not these organisms, and then proceeds to consider their belong to the group." Under the Pseudo-Heliozoa body-structure. Under the latter heading he dis- are placed various aberrant types the descriptions of tinguishes two principal types of Heliozoa. The first, which constitute one of the most valuable portions of or Actinophrys-type, has a large spherical nucleus the book to the student of Protozoa. occupying the centre of the body, and lying, surrounded For the many interesting details of structure or by a clear zone of protoplasm, in the granular and mode of life of these animalcules described by the vacuolated endoplasm, which in its turn is enveloped author the reader must be referred to the book itself. by the very vacuolated ectoplasm containing a large | The following sentences, however, from the section contractile vacuole. The pseudopodia, seldom longer headed “ Psychology” merit quotation :than the diameter of the body, are supported by relatively strong axial filaments, centred round the
"If we wish to adopt the chemico-physical theory, nucleus and radiating thence to the periphery of the everything in the lower beings is but mechanical re
so much in favour now-a-days, according to which spherical body. To this first type, which might be action, it is necessary to apply the theory consistently, called the text-book Heliozoon, may be referred, to examine the higher animals as well as the others, besides Actinophrys, the genera Clathrulina and and we shall then be forced to recognise that between Hedriocystis, while Actinosphærium is derived from it the top and the bottom of the psychical scale there is by multiplication of the originally single nucleus. The only a descending gradation. Hence, according to second or Acanthocystis-type is much commoner; here
this theory, the savant solving a problem should only
differ from the Protist in the greater complexity of the the centre of the spherical body is occupied, not by the physico-chemical reactions. If on the contrary one is nucleus, but by a central granule, apparently some- led to see something more than matter in the highest what of the nature of a centrosome, from which radiate manifestations of human thought, this something must
likewise be admitted for the beings lowest in the scale. the author treats the subject is sure to inspire many But then, we may add, on the supposition that the with interest and enthusiasm for the study of forest scale rests on pure matter, it is not on the lowest grade that we find the infinitely minute creatures, but already
botany. some way up, so much so that the gap separating
The study of the minute structure of plants in the them from the bottom is infinitely greater than that laboratory has in many cases received the lion's share which they would have to traverse to arrive at the of attention, with the result that students have been summit."
taught to know the internal structure of plants before In conclusion, it may be said that everyone they were able to recognise these plants in the field. interested in the study of microscopic forms of life will | The author clearly recognises this fact, and plainly welcome this work from the hand of an enthusiastic states that his object is to bring the student more into observer, who has a most intimate knowledge at first touch with the plant in its natural surroundings, where hand with the creatures about which he is writing, he may form a personal acquaintance with it and learn and who has achieved a wide reputation as an investi- to observe and note facts for himself, and thereby lay gator of the fresh-water Protozoa. The work is a solid foundation for the further study of the biology weakest on the side which deals with the minuter of the living plant of whatever kind or nature. The phenomena of the cell and nucleus, especially in re- opening chapter gives a short but clear account of the lation to reproduction, the study of which during the general segmentation of the plant. The next eight last decade has developed with such rapidity and has chapters are devoted to a consideration of buds. The brought forth results of such fundamental importance different kinds, structure, position, arrangement, and in biology. The author is evidently more of a function are described in a most masterly and interestnaturalist than of a cytologist, but it is perhaps too ing fashion. The next seven chapters deal with the much to expect detailed cytological work in a system- different kinds of shoots—their tegumentary systems, atic monograph even of a group of Protozoa. As a leaf-casting and the formation of leaf scars, lenticels, general survey of the peculiar forms dealt with it will twigs and other accessory characters. be found most useful, not only as an exposition of the The second portion of the book contains a very compresent state of knowledge, but even as in- prehensive classification of trees and shrubs according dicating how much still remains to be worked out to characters afforded by their buds and twigs. The with regard to the affinities of the Heliozoa and allied classification is accompanied by a complete set of illusforms of life. By directing attention to the many | trations, showing very clearly in pictorial form all interesting problems these lowly creatures present for those features by which the species may be determined solution, it may be hoped that this monograph will in their winter condition. Most of those drawings act as a guide and stimulus to investigators in all have been done by Miss Dawson, of the County School, countries.
E. A. M. Cambridge, to whose artistic skill they do great credit.
The other illustrations with which the volume teems
have been obtained from various sources, and are all TREES.
duly acknowledged by the author.
The work will be found indispensable to those Trees. By Prof. H. Marshall Ward. Vol. i. Buds
students who wish to make an expert study of forest and Twigs. Pp. xiv + 271.
Vol. ii. Leaves.
botany. At the same time it is expressed in language Pp: x+348. (Cambridge: University Press, 1904.) so clear and devoid of technicalities that the amateur Price 4s. 6d. net each.
who wishes to know something about our trees and AS
S one might naturally expect from the scant atten- shrubs will find this one of the most useful guides to
tion which has hitherto been given to the study which he can turn. of forestry in this country, our literature on the subject Succeeding volumes will deal with leaves, inis by no means what it ought to be. True, we have florescences and flowers, fruits and seeds, seedlings, several standard works, excellent of their kind, which, and the habit and conformation of the tree as a whole, however, deal with trees more from a sylvicultural and each of those volumes, like the present one, will than from a botanical aspect. Students of forestry, contain diagnostic tables at the end, devised for use and especially students of forest botany, and all those in the field. interested in the growth and cultivation of trees, have From the foregoing it will be seen that the work is long felt the great want of a suitable text-book or a many-sided one, acting not only as a guide to the guide to their studies, but happily now, with the naturalist in the field, but also as a laboratory handappearance of the above handbook from the facile pen book, where the use of the lens and microscope may of Prof. Marshall Ward, this want has become a thing be employed to amplify the study of objects already of the past.
observed in their natural habitats. The work will consist of several parts-each part Botanists generally, and especially forest botanists, forming a volume—the first of which is already to will welcome the appearance of this book as supplying hand, and treats of buds and twigs. The mere men- a decided want, and filling a distinct gap in our tion of buds and twigs might suggest to some a dry, literature of forest botany. uninteresting study of minute details; but never was Since the above was written the second volume has a greater mistake made than to imagine such is the appeared. As already stated, it deals with leaves, and. case. The study of our trees and shrubs in their like vol. i., consists of a general and a special part. winter condition has a fascination all its own, and, in The general part contains an admirable and exaddition to this, the clear and simple way in which I haustive treatment of the external features of leaves.
their form, composition and arrangement, together series of alloys are given. The most fascinating part with the general characters of their venation, surface of the chapter, however, is that which deals with Mr. and texture; nor has the author omitted to go into the Beilby's recent investigations of the surface structure more detailed but equally important consideration of of solids. These investigations have shown that the anatomical structure and physiological functions even a brittle metal like antimony can be made at of leaves. This part also contains many lists com- ordinary temperatures to flow like a liquid, so that prising those leaves which show the same common when it is rubbed with fine emery paper the surface features as regards arrangement on the twig, form of produced is not jagged or crystalline, but under the venation, character of base, apex and margin of highest magnification appears rather like a freshly lamina, &c.
painted surface on which the rounded streaks left by Part ii. of this volume, like that of vol. i., gives the
the brush are still visible. classification of trees and shrubs, but, in this case, In the chapter on the problems of solution, the according to the character of their leaves. A useful mechanism of electrolysis is discussed from the point glossary is given at the end of the volume, so that the of view of Arrhenius's theory of electrolytic dissocibeginner need have no difficulty in understanding the ation, but the arguments in favour of this theory few but necessary technical terms which are used in are stated with a moderation that is in marked conthe book.
trast to the one-sided statements that have sometimes been put forward by ardent supporters of the theory. In considering the nature of colloidal solutions, a
purely physical explanation is given of the coagulation ADVANCES IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE.
of the proteids; the observation that “the direction The Recent Development of Physical Science. By of movement of certain proteids” under the influence
W. C. D. Whetham, F.R.S. Pp. xii + 344. of an electric current“ could be changed by changing (London : John Murray, 1904.) Price 7s. 6d. net. the solvent from a very dilute acid to a very dilute IT is now nearly thirty years since Prof. Tait pub alkali ” would be interpreted by the chemist as evidence
lished his lectures “ Recent Advances in Physical Science.” The period that has since elapsed acid or as base, whilst the fact that “if the solvent has been one of remarkable fruitfulness, and it is was very carefully neutralised an isoelectric point was a suggestive fact that the fundamental problems of reached at which the solution became very unstable physical science which were dealt with by Prof. Tait and coagulation seemed to occur spontaneously have to so large an extent supplied the motive for would be ascribed to the tendency of the free aminothe investigations now described by Mr. Whetham. acid to condense and form a more complex molecule Foremost amongst these perennial problems must in the manner characteristic of this group of combe placed the structure of matter, the mutation of pounds. energy, and the nature of comets and nebulæ. Lord The chapters on the conduction of electricity through Kelvin's vortex-ring theory of the atom, so lucidly gases and on radio-activity contain a concise account expounded by Prof. Tait, finds in the later volume its o the series of investigations that have been coanalogue in the electrical or corpuscular atom of Prof. ordinated in the recently published works of Prof. J. J. Thomson, and the doctrine of the conservation J. J. Thomson and Prof. Rutherford. The chapter of energy, which occupies the foremost position in the on atoms and æther derives its chief interest from the earlier volume, is again brought into prominence by inclusion in it of the results of Prof. Thomson's recent the recent suggestions that the internal motion of the investigations of the stability of a system of negatively atom, be it that of a vortex ring or of a moving charged corpuscles revolving in orbits within a posielectron, may perhaps be drawn upon to supply the tively charged sphere. The atomic model suggested energy that is liberated from some hidden storehouse by such a system gives, probably for the first time, a by the radio-active elements.
clear representation of the periodic properties of the After an introductory chapter on the philosophical elements, including the variation in valency, which is basis of the science, Mr. Whetham devotes two the most characteristic of these properties. chapters to the liquefaction of gases and the pheno- The final chapter, on astrophysics, contains an mena of fusion and solidification. These two chapters account of the more recent results of spectroscopic afford striking examples of the way in which recent investigations of the sun and stars, and includes reyears have added to the equipment of the experimental productions of three of the most striking of Prof. sciences, not only by increasing the range of tempera- Hale's solar photographs. In the later part of the tures within which investigations may now be con- chapter the pressure due to radiation is considered and ducted, but also by providing the means of accurately applied to the explanation of the curious phenomena measuring these temperatures. Under the heading of of comets' tails, whilst the mutual repulsion of radi. " Fusion and Solidification ” Mr. Whetham has given ating particles is suggested as a possible explanation a concise and readable account of the knowledge of the permanence of Saturn's rings. recently acquired with reference to the structure of The author has sought to express the results of metals and alloys. The examples, already classical, recent physical investigations in a form which "might of the copper-tin alloys studied by Roberts-Austen and prove useful to students of science in general," and by Heycock and Neville, and the iron-carbon alloys * also appeal to those who, with little definite scientific studied by Osmond, le Chatelier, Roberts-Austen, and training, are interested in the more important conothers are described. Photomicrographs of the former 'clusions of scientific thought." In the former part of his task he has been eminently successful. In his mine the method of applying the process to any parappeal to a wider public, it is to be hoped that the
ticular ore. In the useful discussion on sampling, the difficulties of “ treating the wider and deeper general- omission of any reference to recent work is noticeable, isations of natural science as fit subject matter for and the account of automatic machines is hardly current thought and literature” will not deprive him adequate. of a further measure of well merited success.
The most serious omission in this section, however, T. M. L. is in regard to laboratory work in connection with a
mill in operation. The examination of mill solutions for gold and other metals, for available cyanide, for
oxygen, or for dissolving power is not touched on. THE CYANIDE PROCESS.
The only reference to the matter is in the sentences :Cyaniding Gold and Silver Ores. A Practical Treatise
“ It must however be understood that there is no on the Cyanide Process; embracing Technical and relation between the total cyanide) found present and Commercial Investigations, the Chemistry in the dissolving action of the solution on gold and silver. Theory and in Practice, Methods of Working and For this reason two different solutions containing by the Costs, Design and Construction of the Plant the test the same quantity of cyanide may have very and the Costs. By H. Forbes Julian and Edgar different dissolving effects." Smart. Pp. XX+ 405; illustrated. (London: C. This would be cold comfort to anyone who wished Griffin and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 21s, net.
to learn what he could of the methods adopted to deterTHE "HE cyanide process is still in its teens, but it is a
mine the condition of a mill solution. The gap should lusty stripling. Much of the enormous increase be filled in a future edition. in the production of gold during the last few years is The later chapters, dealing with the methods and due to it, either directly or indirectly. There are few machinery used in practice, form by far the most gold mines of any importance in the world at which interesting and useful part of the book. The authors the process is not installed, and it has been stated on seem to be quite at home in describing the design high authority that the majority of these mines could and construction of leaching vats, precipitation boxes, not earn profits and pay dividends without its aid. pumps, launders, sizing plant, and all the accessories Owing to the shortness of the time since the industry of a modern cyanide mill. The methods of treating of cyaniding gold and silver ores began to spring up, different classes of material are also handled with skill there is a lack of data on the subject readily available and judgment, and are fairly up to date. It is not the to men at work far from centres of civilisation. There fault of the authors that progress in the industry conare many books on the cyanide process, but new ones
tinues to be rapid, and that any description is behind are still welcome, particularly a work like that of the times almost as soon as it is printed. The book Messrs. Julian and Smart, in which some degree of ends with a couple of excellent chapters on the cost completeness is attained.
of constructing plants and of treating ores, and the The authors were well equipped for their task, both index has been carefully prepared. having been engaged in the industry for a number of The volume is handsomely got up, and enough has years. They have not, however, merely written down probably been said to show that the merits of the work the results of their own practical experience, a course so far outweigh its faults that those interested in the which usually leads to dogmatic assertion on doubtful cyaniding industry cannot do without it. points, but, the contrary, have studied the
T. K. R. voluminous literature of the subject with evident care, and displayed some judgment in their extractions. If they had added a bibliography, one shudders to think
OUR BOOK SHELF. of the portentous length it would have attained. Not content with this, they have made a number of
Fireside Astronomy. By D. W. Horner,
(London : Witherby and Co., 1904.) Price is. 6d. laboratory experiments on the dissolution and pre
net. cipitation of gold, and advance views based on these which are in part novel and somewhat unsatisfactory.
“ The articles which go to make up this little book
originally appeared in the · English Mechanic and Exception may fairly be taken to this portion of the originally appeared in the
World of Science,' and caused some discussion book, for whether these views are right or wrong, they therein." This we read in the preface of the book are out of place in a text-book until they have been before us, and we are further told there that this discussed adequately. To the practical worker, for “simple worded treatise" is intended for the "man whom this book is intended, theories are useful only
in the street." if they explain and elucidate phenomena with which
A perusal of these pages will, however, tend to
bewilder the mind of this very practical personage conhe is confronted in the mill, or enable him to decide
siderably, for the text is not a specimen of clearness, on a course of action in unusual cases. Much of the and the illustrations are very far from being selfauthors' theorising does not appear to answer this explanatory; in fact, the latter are as bad as it seems test very well.
possible for illustrations to be. The book begins with an interesting, if not an
In justification of these statements it may be re impartial, chapter on the early history of the cyanide
marked that the zodiac is mentioned on p. 3 and
defined on p. 14. On p. 4 we have a very ambiguous process. The authors next proceed to describe the
statement about the various altitudes of the sun at laboratory experiments which are necessary to deter- different seasons of the year, no reference being made