« PreviousContinue »
Regarding both circles and alignments in the light In order to bring some measurements to test the of the orientation theory, we may consider simple orientation theory in Britain, I found that Stonehenge circles with a central stone as a collection of sight is the ancient monument in this country which lends lines from the central stone to one or more of the itself to accurate theodolite work better than any outer ones, or the interval between them, indicating other. Avebury and Stanton Drew are known to a the place of the rise or setting of either the sun or great many archæologists; there are also other very a star on some particular day of the year, which day wonderful stone circles near Keswick and in other will be a new year's day.
parts of England; but unfortunately it is very much
more difficult to get astronomical data from thes oo
ancient monuments than it is in the case of Stonehenge, one reason being that Stonehenge itself lies high, and the horizon round it in all directions is pretty nearly the same height, so that the important question of the heights of the hills along the sightline-a matter which is very important from an astronomical point of view, although it has been neglected so far as I can make out, by many who have made observations on these ancient monuments—is quite a simple one at Stonehenge. Hence it was much easier to determine a date there than by working at any of the other ancient remains to which I have referred.
In orientation generally, such orientation as has been dealt with by Mr. Penrose and myself in Egypt and in Greece, the question frequently was a change
in direction in the axis of a temple, or the lay; ! ing down of the axis of a temple, by means of
observations of stars. Unfortunately for us archæologists, not as astronomers, the changes of position of these stars, owing to certain causes, chiefly
the precessional movement, are very considerable; Fig. 1.-Plan of Stonehenge, standing stones shaded.
that if a temple pointed to a star in one year, ir in 1900 ; BB, Stones which fell in 1797.
two or three hundred years it would no longer poin' (Reproduced from “Man.")
to the same star, but to another one. Alignments, on the other hand, will play the same Acting on a very old tradition, the people from part as the sight-lines in the circles.
Salisbury and other surrounding places go to obserit Sometimes the sight-line may be indicated by a the sunrise on the longest day of the year at Stonemenhir outside, and even at a considerable distance henge. We therefore are perfectly justified in assumfrom, the circle.
ing that it was a solar temple used for observation The dolmens have, I am convinced. been in many in the height of midsummer. But at dawn in mid
A, Stone which fell
FIG. 2.- View of Stonehenge from the west. A, Stone which fell in 1900; BB, Stones which fell in 1797.
(Reproduced from an account of the fallen stones by Mr. Lewis in "Man.")
cases not graves originally, but darkened observing , summer in these latitudes the sky is so bright that places whence to observe along a sight-line; this it is not easy to see stars even if we get up in the would be best done by means of an allée couverte, morning to look for them; stars, therefore, were no the predecessor of the darkened naos at Stonehenge, in question, so that some other principle had to be shielded by its covered trilithons.
adopted, and that was to point the temple directly to
the position on the horizon at which the sun rose on further wanton destruction, and-a first step in the way that particular day of the year, and no other.
of restoration—with the skilled assistance of Prof. Now, if there were no change in the position of Gowland and Messrs. Carruthers, Detmar Blow, and the sun, that, of course, would go on for ever and Stallybrass, set upright the most important menhir, ever; but, fortunately for archæologists, there is a which threatened to fall or else break off at one of the slight change in the position of the sun, as there is cracks. This menhir, the so-called “ leaning stone,” in the case of a star, but for a different reason; the once formed one of the uprights of the trilithon the planes of the ecliptic and of the equator undergo a fall of the other member of which was said to have slight change in the angle included between them, been caused by the digging and researches of the So far as we know, that angle has been gradually Duke of Buckingham in 1620. The latter, broken in getting less for many thousands of years, so that, in two pieces, and the supported lintel, now lie prostrate the case of Stonehenge, if we wish to determine the across the altar stone. date, having no stars to help us, the only thing that we can hope to get any information from is the very slow change of this angle; that, therefore, the special point which Mr. Penrose and I were anxious to study at Stonehenge, for the reason that we seemed in a position to do it there more conveniently than anywhere else in Britain.
But while the astronomical conditions are better at Stonehenge than elsewhere, the ruined state of the monument makes accurate measures very difficult.
Great age and the action of weather are responsible for much havoc, so that very many of the stones are now recumbent, as will be gathered from the accompanying plan, for which I am indebted to Mr. Lewis, who described the condition of the monument in 1901 in
But the real destructive agent has been man himself; savages could not have played more havoc with the monument than the English who have visited it at different times for different purposes. It is said the fall of one great stone in
U 1620 was caused by some excavations of the then Duke of Buckingham; the fall of another in 1797 was caused by gipsies digging a hole in which to shelter, and boil their kettle; many of the stones have been used for building walls and bridges; masses weighing from 56 lb. downwards have been broken off by hammers or cracked off as a result of fires lighted by excursionists.
It appears that the temenos wall or vallum, which is shown complete
Sri in Hoare's plan of 1810, is now broken down in many places by vehicles indiscriminately driven over Fig. 3.-Copy of Hoare's plan o. 1810, showing unbroken Vallum and its relation with the Avenue. it. Indeed, its original importance has now become so obliterated that many do not notice it as part of the structure—that, This piece of work was carried out with consumin fact, it bears the same relation to the interior stone mate skill and care, and most important conclusions, circle as the nave of St. Paul's does to the Lady as we shall see in a subsequent “ Note," were derived Chapel.
from the minute inquiry into the conditions revealed It is within the knowledge of all interested in in the excavations which were necessary for the proper archæology that not long ago Sir Edmund Antrobus, conduct of the work. the owner of Stonehenge, advised by the famous Let us hope that we have heard the last of the Wiltshire local society, the Society for the Protection work of devastators, and even that, before long, some of Ancient Buildings and the Society of Antiquaries, of the other larger stones, now inclined or prostrate, enclosed the monument in order to preserve it from may be set upright.
Since Sir Edmund Antrobus, the present owner,
has municated by Dr. Penrose and myself to the Royal acted on the advice of the societies I have named to Society :enclose the monument, with a view to guard it from “ As to the first point, Diodorus Siculus (i., 47) destruction and desecration, he has been assailed on has preserved a statement of Hecatæus in which Stone all sides. It is not a little surprising that the “un- henge alone can by any probability be referred to. climbable wire fence " recommended by the societies “We think that no one will consider it foreign to in question, the Bishop of Bristol being the president our subject to say a word respecting the Hyperboreans. of the Wiltshire Society at the time, is by some “ Amongst the writers who have occupied them regarded as a suggestion that the property is not selves with the mythology of the ancients, Hecatæus national, the fact being that the nation has not bought and some others tell us that opposite the land of the the property, and that it has been private property for Celts [εν τους αντιπέραν της Κελτικής τόποιε] there centuries, and treated in the way we have seen. exists in the Ocean an island not smaller than Sicily,
Let us hope also that before long the gaps in the and which, situated under the constellation of The vallum may be filled up. These, as I have already Bear, is inhabited by the Hyperboreans; so called bestated, take away from the meaning of an important cause they live beyond the point from which the North part of one of the most imposing monuments of the i wind blows. . . . If one may believe the same mythworld. In the meantime, it is comforting to know ology, Latona was born in this island, and for that that, thanks to what Sir Edmund Antrobus has done, reason the inhabitants honour Apollo more than any no more stones will be stolen, or broken by sledge- other deity. A sacred enclosure (vñoov) is dedicated hammers; that fires; that excavations such as were to him in the island, as well as a magnificent circular apparently the prime cause of the disastrous fall of temple adorned with many rich offerings... ... The one of the majestic trilithons in 1797; that litter, Hyperboreans are in general very friendly to the broken bottles and the like, with which too many Greeks. British sightseers mark their progress, besides much “ The Hecatæus above referred to was probably indecent desecration, are things of the past.
Hecatæus of Abdera, in Thrace, fourth century B.C. If Stonehenge had been built in Italy, or France or a friend of Alexander the Great. This Hecatæus is Germany, it would have been in charge of the State said to have written a history of the Hyperboreans: long ago.
that it was Hecatæus of Miletus, an historian of the
sixth century B.C., is less likely. I now pass from the monument itself to a refer
"As to the second point, although we cannot go so ence to some of the traditions and historical state
far back in evidence of the power and civilisation of ments concerning it.
the Britons, there is an argument of some value to Those who are interested in these matters should
be drawn from the fine character of the coinage issued thank the Wiltshire Archæological and Natural
by British kings early in the second century B.c., and History Society, which is to be warmly congratulated Gallico," vi., c. 13) that in the schools of the Druids
from the statement of Julius Cæsar (De Bello on its persistent and admirable efforts to do all in its power to enable the whole nation to learn about the
the subjects taught included the movements of the venerable monuments of antiquity which it has
stars, the size of the earth and the nature of things practically taken under its scientific charge. It has (Multa præterea de sideribus et eorum motu, de mundi published two most important volumes dealing magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum immorspecially with Stonehenge, including both its traditions
talium vi ac potestate disputant et juventuti tradunt). and history.
“ Studies of such a character seem quite consistent With regard to Mr. Long's memoir, it may be
with, and to demand, a long antecedent period of
civilisation." stated that it includes important extracts from notices of Stonehenge from the time of Henry of Huntingdon refer to Stonehenge, which he calls Stanenges.
Henry of Huntingdon is the first English writer to (12th century) to Hoare (1812), and that all extant information is given touching on the questions by Geoffrey of Monmouth (1138) and Giraldus Camwhom the stones were erected, whence they came, and
brensis come next. what was the object of the structure. From Mr. Harrison's more recently published
In spite of Inigo Jones's (1600) dictum that Stonebibliography, no reference to Stonehenge by any
henge was of Roman origin, Stukeley came to the ancient author, or any letter to the Times for the
conclusion in 1723 that the Druids were responsible
for its building, and Halley, who visited it in 1720 last twenty years dealing with any question touching probably with Stukeley—concluded from the weather: It is very sad to read, both in Mr. Long's volume
ing of the stones that it was at least 3000 years old; and the bibliography, of the devastation which has
if he only had taken his theodolite with him, how been allowed to go on for so many years and of the
much his interest in the monument would have been various forms it has taken.
Davies (“ Celtic Researches," 804) endorses
Stukeley's view :As almost the whole of the notes which follow deal Amongst the pure descendants of the Celtae, the with the assumption of Stonehenge having been a
Druidism of Britain was in its highest repute. The solar temple, a short reference to the earliest state
principal seat of the order was found in Mona, an ments concerning this view is desirable; and, again,
interior recess of that ancient race, which was born as the approximate date arrived at by Mr. Penrose in the island. Into that sequestered scene, the and myself in 1901 is an early one, a few words may
Druids, who detested warfare, had gradually retired, be added indicating the presence in Britain at that after the irruption of the Belgae, and the further time of a race of men capable of designing and
encroachment of the Romans. They had retired from executing such work. · I quote from the paper com
their ancient magnificent seat at Abury, and from
their circular uncovered temple on Salisbury Plain, 1 "The Wiltshire Archæological and Natural History Magazine. Stone. benge and its Barrows." By William Long, M.A., F.S.A. (1876.)
in which the Hyperborean sages had once chaunted "The Wiltshire Archæological and Natural History Magazine. Stone
their hymns to Apollo and Plenyz.' henge Bibliography Number." By W. Jerome Harrison. (1902.)
THE VERY LATEST
"TYPE" OF EXTENSIMETER 18, THE "O'TOOLE.'
Accurate, and Reliable
Instrument, designed by the Rev. Father O'Toole,
Black Rock College, Dublin, for Students' use in determining the coeficients of
expansion of metal rods, at a
Price, with steamjacket, graduated
spirit level and micrometer gauge,
complete, £2 : 2:0
PHILIP HARRIS & CO., LTD.
144 EDMUND ST., BIRMINGHAM, 179 GT, BRUNSWICK ST., DUBLIN.
A N D
MACMILLAN & CO.'S LIST.
THIRD EDITION. Entirely Re-written and Enlarged. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND ANALYSIS OF OILS,
FATS, AND WAXES. By Dr. J. LEWKOWITSCH, M.A., F.I.C., &c. With 88 Illustrations and Numerous Tables. In 2 Vols.
Medium 8vo, gilt tops, 36s. net. NATURE—"The standard English book of reference on the subject." THE LABORATORY COMPANION TO FATS AND OILS INDUSTRIES. By Dr. J. LEWKOWITSCH, F.I.C., F.C.S. 8vo. 6s. net.
NEW EDITION REVISED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOURTH GERMAN EDITION THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY FROM THE STANDPOINT OF AVOGADRO'S
RULE AND THERMODYNAMICS. By Professor WALTER NERNST, Ph.D., of the University of Göttingen. 8vo. 155. net.
The revision of this standard treatise has been executed by Dr. R. A. LEHFELDT. SOCIOLOGICAL PAPERS. By FRANCIS GALTON, E. WESTERMARCK, P. Geddes,
E. DURKHEIM, HAROLD H. MANŃ and V. V. BRANFORD. With an Introductory Address by JAMES BRYCE.
Super Royal 8vo. ros. 6d. AN OUTLINE OF THE THEORY OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION, with a Descrip
tion of some of the Phenomena which it explains. By MAYNARD M. METCALF, Ph.D., Professor of Biology in the
Woman's College of Baltimore. Illustrated. 8vo. Ios. 6d, net. A LABORATARY GUIDE IN ELEMENTARY BACTERIOLOGY. By William
DODGE FROST, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin. Third Revised Edition.
8vo. 75. net. MODERN THEORY OF PHYSICAL PHENOMENA, RADIO-ACTIVITY, IONS,
ELECTRONS. By AUGUSTO RIGHI, Professor of Physics in the University of Bologna. Authorised translation
by AUGUSTUS TROWBRIDGE, Professor of Mathematical Physics in the University of Wisconsin. Crown 8vo. 55, net. NOTES AND QUESTIONS IN PHYSICS. By JOHN S. SHEARER, B.S., Ph.D.,
Assistant Professor of Physics, Cornell University. 8vo, 75. 6d. net.
By H. S. HALL, M.A., and F. H. STEVENS, M.A. LESSONS IN EXPERIMENTAL AND PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. By H. S. HALL, M.A., and F. H. STEVENS, M. A. Crown 8vo.
Is. 6d. AN ELEMENTARY COURSE OF
COURSE OF MATHEMATICS, comprising Arithmetic, ALGEBRA, AND GEOMETRY. Globe 8vo.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CALCULUS. Based on Graphical Methods. By
GEORGE A. GIBSON, M.A., F.R.S.E., Professor of Mathematics in the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical
College. Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. EDUCATION.—“Mr. G. A. Gibson has written a Treatise on Graphs and an Introduction to the Calculus. Both these are perfectly reliable, and are remarkable for their cheapness. They furnish admirable introductions to the study of graphs and the Calculus, and their various applications. GRAPHIC STATICS. By T. ALEXANDER, C.E., M.Inst.C.E.I., M.A.I. (hon. causa),
Professor of Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin ; and Professor A. W. THOMSON, D.Sc., C.E., Member Inst. Engineers, Scotland. A Graduated Series of Problems and Practical Examples, with numerous Diagrams all drawn to
Scale. 8vo. Limp Cloth. SCIENCE OF COMMON LIFE (Being a New Edition of “Experimental
HYGIENE”). By A. T. SIMMONS, B.Sc. (Lond.), Associate of the Royal College of Science, London, and E. STENHOUSE, B.Sc. (Lond.), Associate of the Royal College of Science, London. Globe 8vo.
25. 6d. GEOGRAPHY OF ASIA. By C. D. TENNEY, LL.D., President Imperial Tientsin
University. With Coloured Maps. Demy 4to, limp cloth, 4s. net. PHOTOGRAPHY FOR THE SPORTSMAN NATURALIST. By L. W. BROWNELL, Illustrated. Extra Crown 8vo. Gilt top. 8s. 6d, net.
[The American Sportsman's Library. MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED, LONDON.