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W. WILSON. STUDENT'S SPECTROMETER.

I

Apparatus for the
HURTER & DRIFFIELD

Method of
Telescope and prism
table reading to

Speed Determination, min.; clamp and fine

Exposing apparatus for im. adjustment to both.

pressing a series of exposures Rack-motion to tele.

upon a plate, consisting of mascope; prism table

hogany case fitted with sliding

shutter in front and special form adjustable vertically

of single dark slide on door at and horizontally. Ad

back; accurately cut sector in justable slit to colli.

accordance with Messrs. Hurter

& Driffield's specification, 12-in. mator. Protected

diameter, impressing nine ex: circle. In case.

posures on the plate, mounted Price £6 0 0

on steel axle running in long gun metal

bearings, driving A very large number of these instruments have been sold,

pulley, complete, dull black and have given exceptiona satisfaction.

celluloid rinish, inside and out, 1 BELMONT STREET, LONDON, N.W.

complete as shown, £5.

The CHAPMAN JONES Patent Plate Tester. See illustrated article, "Invar and its Applications," “ Nature," December 8, 1904.

(SANGER-SHEPHERD & CO., Sole Makers.)
A simple instrument for
testing photographic plates

10
20 21

RED
and films; examination of

plate shows: (1) Sensitive. The Alloy of Nickel Steel which has an extremely

2

12 19 ness or Speed ; (2) Range

22 Tur
small Coefficient of Expansion.

of Gradation ; (3) Possible
range of Exposure ; (4)

13 18
Colour Sensitiveness : (5)

23 BASE-LINE MEASURING APPARATUS, PENDULUMS, BALANCES FOR WATCHES AND CHRONOMETERS.

Grain ; (6) Halation ; (7)

BLUE BLUE

Most suitable Dark-room N.B.-Invar Pendulums are not made by old-fashioned methods, rule

14 17 24

Light, &c. of thumb, or trial and error. Instead of looking up the coefficient of ex- Instrument

complete,

Crap magones pansion in a book, the actual coefficient of expansion of every melting of

PLATE TESTER

comprising 41 x 34 Screen Invar is specially measured at the National Physical Laboratory, also that

6 15 16 25

Some Shepherdaco of the Alloy used for the bobs. The calculations are made by one of the

plate, special dark slide, nost distinguished mathematicians in England (D.Sc., London, &c., &c.).

exposure board, folding

candle shade, adjustable The result is that each pendulum will give accurate results from the first. I be First Grade Pendulums are made from material, individually tested

candle holder, and standard candle, in neat case with book of working and calculated throughout.

instructions, 37/6.

ir Send for New Booklets, post free to readers of Nature.' J. H. AGAR BAUGH, 92 Hatton Garden, London, E.C. SANGER-SHEPHERD CO., Telegraphic Address : "Voider, LONDON."

5, 6 7 GRAY'S INN PASSAGE, RED LION STREET, Telephone : No. 4722 Holborn.

HOLBORN, LONDON,

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IN V A R

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ON SALE. Astronomical Telescope, by DOLLOND, 4" Object Glass, on Altazimuth Stand, 4 Eyepieces, £21'; 31" ditto for £10.-Petrological Micro scope, by WATSON, cost £13, offered £6 6s.-Portable Microscope, by. Beck, in pigskin case, cost 610, offered £4 10s.- WATSON'S

Fram," in spotless condition, with Substage Abbe Condenser, 2 Eye. pieces, and 3 Objectives, all by WATSON, 1", ", & "Oil Immersion offered at £11.-Student's Microscope, by BAKER, with 1" and " Objectives. £4 10s.-Another, standard size, by Ward, of Manchester, with, and t", for £2 5s. - Prismatic Binocular, ox, by VOIGTLANDER, for £5.-21" Telescope, in sling case, by Watson, for £3.-Second-hand Cabinets, for Entomological and Petrological Specimens and Birds' Eggs, at very low prices. First-class Optical Lantern, fitted for ordinary work and for Science Demonstrations, £3 10s.- Particulars on application.-Cheap Microscope Slides. Rev. H. MILLS, Greenside, Kendal.

ELECTRICAL and EXPERIMENTAL

GLASS BLOWING.

TO SCIENCE LECTURERS.
HUGHES' PHOTO • ROTOSCOPE CINEMATOGRAPHS.

THE MOST PERFECT. No Flickering. Superb Mechanism.
Price £7 7 0. The Moto-Photo Camera for taking the Pictures.

Illustrated Lists, 2d.
See Mr. HUGHES' PATENT COMBINATION OPTICAL LANTERN,
&c. Miniature Triple Lantern constructed for B. J. MALDEN, Esq. ; great
success. New Oxybydrogen Microscope. Science Lanterns for Class De-
monstration. Magnificent Results. Docwra Triple, Prize Medals, Highest
Award. Supplied

to the Royal Polytechnic Institution, Dr. H. GRATTAN GUINNESS, &c. Patent Pamphengo Science Lanterns. The Universal Lantern 4-inch Condensers, 4-wick Lamp, Portrait Combination front Lenses, 18s. 6d. Marvellous value. Science Lecture Sets. Novelties. The Lantern Kaleidoscope. Cheapest Lantern Outfits in the World. Grandly Illustrated Catalogue, over 180 choice Engravings, 6d. ; Postage, 4d. Small Illustrated Catalogue, 100 pages, free, 5d. List of 60,000 Slides and 300 Lecture Sets, Science Subjects, Views, &c., 6d.; Postage, 2d. Pamphlets Free. w. C. HUGHES, SPECIALIST, Brewster House, 82 Mortimer Road, Kingsland, N.

H. HELM,
66 HATTON GARDEN, LONDON.
Glass Blower & ACTUAL MAKER of all kinds of X-Ray and
VACUUM TUBES, Glass Instruments, Mercury Pumps, &c.
Any kind of Glass Apparatus made from sketch, or

repaired, for Scientific Men and Laboratories. Lessons and Performances given here, or at Colleges, &c.

THE IRISH NATURALIST.
A Monthly Magazine of Irish Zoology, Botany, and

Geology. Price 6d.
Edited by GEO. H. CARPENTER, B.Sc., and R. LLOYD

PRAEGER, B.A.
Annual Subscription, 55. Post Free to any Address.
Dublin : EASON & SON, Ltd., 40 Lower Sackville Street

(to which Address Subscriptions should be sent).
i London : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, & CO., Led

NATURE SERIES.

75. 6d.

45. 60.

Crown 8vo.

Crown 8vo. POPULAR LECTURES and

LECTURES and AD. The CHEMISTRY of PHOTO DRESSES.

GRAPHY. By Lord KELVIN, F.R.S. In Three Vols.

By Prof. R. MELDOLA, F.R.S. Illustrated. 6s. Vol. I. THE CONSTITUTION OF MATTER.

TIMBER, and some of its DISEASES. Second Edition. 75. 6d.

By Prof. H. M. WARD, M.A. Illustrated. 65. Vol. II. GEOLOGY AND GENERAL PHYSICS.

DISEASE IN PLANTS. Vol. III. PAPERS ON NAVIGATION. 75. 6d.

By Professor H. M. WARD, M.A. 75. 6d. On LIGHT.

FLOWERS, FRUITS, and LEAVES. The Burnett Lectures. By Sir GEORGE GABRIEL

By Lord AVEBURY, F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D. Illustrated. STOKES, F.R.S. Three Courses. I. ON THE Nature OF LIGHT. II. ON LIGHT AS A MEANS OF INVESTIGA

ON BRITISH WILD FLOWERS, TION. III. ON BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF Light. 7s. 6d.

CONSIDERED in RELATION SOUND: a SERIES of SIMPLE,

to INSECTS. ENTERTAINING, and INEX

By Lord AVEBURY, F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D. Illustrated. PENSIVE EXPERIMENTS. THE ORIGIN and METAMOR By A. M. MAYER. 35. 6d.

PHOSES of INSECTS.

By Lord AVEBURY, F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D. With MODERN VIEWS of ELECTRICITY. Illustrations. 35. 6d. By Sir 0. J. LODGE, LL.D. Illustrated. 6s. 6d. ARE THE EFFECTS OF USE AND

DISUSE INHERITED? A CENTURY of ELECTRICITY.

An Examination of the View held by Spencer and Darwin. By T. C. MENDENHALL. 45. 6d.

By W. PLATT BALL. 35. 6d.
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED, LONDON.

45. 6d.

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WE HAVE RECEIVED THE FOLLOWING

RADIUM "CLOCKS." | CALCI

METAL

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(In bars averaging 4, 8, and 16 oz. each),

1/6 per oz.

Post Free within U.K.
Titanium metal.

Caesium oxide,
Lithium

Cerium Selenium

Glycinum
Tellurium

Didymium
Silicium

Lanthanum
Thallium

Ytterbium Zirconium

Yttrium Uranium

Rubidium Vanadium

Erbium
Rhodium

Neodymium
Indium

Samarium
Tantalium

Praseodymium » Platin-Magnes. cyan.

Platin.-Thorium cyan.
Lith.-Rubid.

Potass.
Cobalt

Gadolin: oxalat:
Ammon.

Lithium fluor silicate,
PRICES ON APPLICATION.
We are prepared to quote special rates for SODIUM

and POTASSIUM in quantities.

[graphic]

RADIUM BROMIDE

of highest power manufactured.

Goods may be returned if not approved of, when money will be refunded. Professional Men, Universities, Schools, &c., allowed special terms.

ARMBRECHT, NELSON & CO., 71 & 73 DUKE ST., GROSVENOR SQUARE,

W. COX'S LARCE INDUCTION COILS

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Up to 6o ins.

spark. (20 ins. from

Practically Everlasting.

Descriptive

To be obtained of all Opticians, or Pamphlet

the SOLE MAKERS, Post Free.

F. DARTON & CO.,

CLERKENWELL OPTICAL WORKS, 142 ST. JOHN STREET, LONDON, E.C.

FOR SALE. 30 moving coil ammeters and voltmeters.

6 moving coil reflecting and pointer galvanometers.

8 hot wire ammeters and voltmeters. 50 electromagnetic ammeters and voltmeters. 60 dynamos and motors, direct and alternating current, 40 ironclad regulating rheostats. 20 transformers and choking coils. 10 induction coils, 10-inch spark. 3 mercury jet breaks. Standard condensers, Wheatstone bridges, static machines,

switches, cables, &c., by various makers, at low prices. G. BOWRON, 57 EDGWARE RO., LONDON, W.

For SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

WORK & RADIOGRAPHY. With adjustable condenser and primary, and (if desired) wound on the multisectional principle.

JUST OUT. NEW PORTABLE HIGH FREQUENCY

APPARATUS.
Registered design-giving genuine High

Frequency Currents.
Price with Accumulator, £10 10 O.

HARRY W. COX, Ltd.,

ACTUAL MANUFACTURERS, 1a ROSEBERY AVENUE, & 15-21 LAYSTALL ST., LONDON, E.C.

REYNOLDS & BRANSON, LTD.,

THE NEW “STUDENT'S” STANDARD BAROMETER.

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(Rd. No. 20,297.) This Instrument has been designed to meet the re. quirements of Students and others who find the need of a Barometer which will give exact readings, and cost but a moderate sum.

It appeals especially to Colleges and Schools for Demonstration purposes.

The construction is on that of the well-known "Fortin" principle. The level of the cistern mercury is reducible to zero, in exactly the same manner as in the more expensive forms.

The diameter of the mercurial column is .25 inch, and affords a bold, well-defined reading. The scales, by means of the double vernier, are capable of being read to 'or inch and 1 millimetre. It is mounted on a wellpolished, solid mahogany board, with plates for attachment to wall, opal glass reflectors for reading off, and screws for vertical adjustment.

The metal portions are all well bronzed and lacquered, and the scales are silvered brass.

We confidently recommend this Instrument for use as 2 "Standard'' in Colleges and Schools, private observa tories, and by Gas and other Engineers. Price, complete, mounted as illustrated,

£3 7 6 each, or may be had with one scale (either inches or milli. metres), and with thermometer on other scale, at same price.

IF NATURE says:-"Provides an accurate instru. ment at a moderate cost."

FULL SIZE STANDARD BAROMETER OM same design, bore o's" diameter, inches and millimetre scales, verniers reading to o'oo2 inch and ot m/m, on polished mahogany board with brackets and opal glass reflectors, £7 10 0 Sole Manufacturers and Proprietors of the

Registered Design. PASTORELLI & RAPKIN, LTO,

. 46 HATTON GARDEN, LONDON, E.C. WHOLESALE MAKERS OF ALL KINDS OF METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS. Contractors to H.M. Government.

Estd. 1750. Telegrams," kapkin, London." Telephone, 1981 Holborn

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ONLY.

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W.H. SMITH & SON'S

LIBRARY

MANUFACTURERS OF

SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS.

COMPLETE EQUIPMENTS IN APPARATUS & CHEMICALS

186 STRAND, LONDON, W.C.,

and at the RAILWAY BOOKSTALLS,

to which the books are forucarded

to subscribers' orders carriage free. IT EMBRACES ALL THE MOST IMPORTANT BOOKS,

BIOGRAPHIES AND MEMOIRS, TRAVEL AND SPORT, HISTORY, THEOLOGY, SCIENCE AND SOCIOLOGY, NATURAL HISTORY, LITERATURE AND ART, POETRY AND ESSAYS, TOPOGRAPHY, FICTION, REVIEWS,

AND MISCELLANEOUS WORKS.

FOR CHEMICAL,
BACTERIOLOGICAL,
ELECTRO-CHEMICAL,
METALLURGICAL
AND AGRICULTURAL

LABORATORIES.

NEWEST & BEST BOOKS ADDED AS PUBLISHED

SOLE DEPÔT FOR KAHLBAUM'S CHEMICALS.

Over 800 Branches to which Subscribers may be transferred.

Terms and Particulars on application. Many Thousands of SURPLUS LIBRARY BOOKS and VALUABLE NEW REMAINDERS OFFERED

AT GREATLY REDUCED PRICES.
Works of Standard Interest in all branches of General
Literature, suitable for Students, Institutions, Libraries,
Presents, &c., Carriage Free to any of the Railway

Bookstalls,
MONTHLY CATALOCUE (150 PACES) FREE ON APPLICATION.

SARDINIA ST., LONDON, W.C.

VAP: 186 STRAND, LONDON, W.C.

RSDAY, FEBRUARY 2, 1905.

late conception, immortality, and a belief in a personal God. A book with so large a purview is bound to be

sketchy-and the author calls it " a biological sketchTHE QUINTESSENCE OF HAECKELISMUS. book "_but sketchiness in dealing with subjects so The Wonders of Life. A Popular Study of Biological momentous is apt to be unsatisfactory, and, while

Philosophy. Supplementary volume to “ The Riddle Haeckel continually and quite fairly refers to what of the Universe." By Ernst Haeckel. Translated he has said elsewhere in his large family of books, the by Joseph McCabe, Pp. xiv + 501.

discriminating reader may justly complain that he (London:

has often to deal rather with an assertion of convicWatts and Co., 1904.) Price 6s. net.

tions than with a reasoned argument. What carries

is one on from page to page is the feeling that we have to supplementary to his “ Riddle of the Universe.

listen to a veteran who is telling us frankly and fearThat several hundred thousand copies of the “ Riddle"

lessly what he believes to be true in regard to the order were sold indicates the widespread interest taken in

of nature and our place in it. what the author calls “ the construction of a rational

From one point of view Haeckel's discussion of the and solid philosophy of life," or in what others would

“ Wonders of Life" is an apology for “ Monism" or call an extremely biological way of looking at things.

“ Hylozoism." In studies of “ unequal value and inBut the “ Riddle" and its solutions raised storms of criticisms and evoked hundreds of reviews—both complete workmanship,” as the illustrious author con

fesses, an attempt is made to show how we may attain friendly and hostile—besides many large pamphlets to the conception of one great harmoniously working and even a few books, not to speak of more than five

universe_" whether you call this Nature or Cosmos, thousand letters. To these collectively, friends and

World or God ' --without utilising any knowledge foes alike. Haeckel now replies in this “ biological which is not of empirical origin and a posteriori. We sketch-book," written uninterruptedly in the course of

must not allow metaphysical fictions to intrude on our four months when he was completing his seventieth philosophy—still less into our science; we may work year in a vacation at Rapallo, a tiny coast-town of the with the law of substance,” but there is to be no Italian Riviera. He had leisure there to think over hocus-pocusing with transcendental formulæ; science all the views on organic life which he had formed in

is sufficient unto herself, and is justified of her children; the course of a many-sided experience of life and learning since the beginning of his academic studies (1852) of time when there is so much to do; psychology is

criticism of her postulates and categories is a waste and his teaching at Jena (1861). The constant sight

a branch of physiology," and it is unprofitable to of the blue Mediterranean, the animal inhabitants of

think about thinking; a “theory of knowledge is which he knows so well, his solitary walks in the wild

a luxury for the leisured. Everything seems to begorges of the Ligurian Apennines, and the moving

come plain sailing if we embark on the craft spectacle of the “ forest-crowned mountain altars," in

Hylozoism," but we require faith to help us across spired him with "a feeling of the unity of living

the gangway. nature-a feeling that only too easily fades away in

From another point of view Haeckel's book may be the study of detail in the laboratory." He hopes that taken as an expression of the outlook on man and his readers may be moved by his book " to penetrate

nature which may be reached by a conscientious purdeeper and deeper into the glorious work of Nature,

suit of the scientific method. Those who remain and to reach the insight of our greatest German agnostic or positivist in regard to either monism or natural philosopher, Goethe :

dualism in any of their fornis will be interested in “What greater thing in life can man achieve hearing once more of the order, unity and proThan that God-Nature be revealed to him?"

gressiveness of nature's tactics, and in considering The work is described as “a popular study of the practical proposals which a thorough-going biological philosophy ''; it is divided into four sections Darwinian has to offer in regard to incapables and -methodological, morphological, physiological, and incurables, pauperism and crime. We cannot do more genealogical, which deal respectively with the know- than remark that these proposals preach elimination ledge of life, the nature of life, the functions of life, rather than eugenics; they are more akin to surgery and the history of life. It raises no end of perplexing than to preventive medicine. Much of the book is, problems-life and death, nutrition and reproduction, naturally enough, an echo of previous works—the heredity and variation, sensation and intelligence, “Monera,” the “ Gastræa Theory,” the “Natural morality and religion. It discusses protoplasm and History of Creation,” the “ Evolution of Man," and, the cell, spontaneous generation and evolution in what has always appeared to us the author's magnum general, the “pro-morphology” of organisms and the opus, the “ Generelle Morphologie" (1866); but all intricate architecture of the brain, the recapitulation has been modernised and orientated afresh to illustrate of phylogeny in ontogeny, the inheritance of acquired what Haeckel was so much impressed with at Rapallo, characters, the evolution of sensation, æsthesis, intelli- the unity of living nature. An interesting illustration gence, and morality. In short, it comprises practically of the author's artistic enthusiasm and indifference to everything, including miracles, the religious thoughts popularity will be found in the pages on proof Mr. Romanes, the university curriculum, the in- morphology, wherein he discusses the architectural crease of pauperism, the introduction of Spartan symmetries of organisms, as he did forty years ago. elimination-methods, the Apostles' Creed, the immacu- The centrostigmatic, centraxonial, and centroplane

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