Page images




[ocr errors]




types of architecture have some personal fascination Acanthocephala “itch-worms," or Cirripedia " creepe for us, but they must be caviare to the general. ing-crabs ' crawling crabs," or Arion "our To illustrate more concretely the general tenor of

garden snail," or Holothurians “seathe “Wonders of Life,” we may refer, for a moment, gherkins," and we could add to this list considerably. to the first two chapters, on truth and on life. In There seems something wrong, too, in calling reprothe chapter on truth are introduced to the duction " transgressive growth," and we wonder what phronema,” the organ of knowledge, a definite and “wonder-snails” can be, or the actinia among the limited part of the cerebral cortex, consisting of tunicates." In regard to the articulation of the lower association-centres, the innumerable cells of which are jaw in mammals, we learn that “this joint is temporal the elementary organs of the cognitive process, the and so distinguished from the square joint of other possibility of knowledge depending on their normal vertebrates." Square" is a quaint way of referring physical texture and chemical composition. How this to the quadrate bone ! The translator has not the august possibility depends on the organisation of the vaguest idea what he is translating. Defective proof“phronetal cells” remains entirely obscure, and no reading introduces us to a number of strangers, such amount of “ bluffing ” will lessen this obscurity. As as an early microscopist “Crew" in England and a to life in general, its phenomena are determined by prominent modern biologist who is always referred to the physicochemical organisation of the living matter;

as “ De Bries." We are interested also in a renowned metabolism has its analogue in inorganic catalysis; physiologist called Felix Bernard, and in what Wilhelm reproduction is analogous to the “elective multipli- Preyer did “ for the plant.” Such is fame! Beside cation ” of crystals; and sensation is a general form these, misprints like Cecidomyca, Ichtyosauri, and of the energy of substance, not specifically different in diatomes are trivial. It is a very unusual proceeding sensitive organisms and irritable inorganic objects to print every technical name of class, genus, or species (such as dynamite). It is unfortunate, however, for in italics without capitals. this view of things that we cannot at present interpret In conclusion, while we entirely disagree with even the simplest vital phenomenon in terms of physical Haeckel's treatment of philosophy, and believe that and chemical formulæ. But we must remember that he has not justly realised what its office is, while we while “ there is no such thing as an immaterial soul,” also disagree with some of Haeckel's science, eg.

“ soul” in the atom“ must necessarily be assumed the transmission of acquired characters, we desire to to explain the simplest physical and chemical pro- point out that this book expresses the sincere concesses.” It seems to us six of one and half a dozen victions of a veteran who has done much for biology, of the other whether we recognise the soul at the top and that its aim is to help towards including "all the or at the bottom. In Aristotelian language, there is exuberant phenomena of organic life in one general nothing in the end which was not also in the scheme, and explaining all the wonders of life from beginning; in plain English, we put into the beginning the monistic point of view, as forms of one great what we know to be in the end. In fact, when we harmoniously working universe-where you call this pass from the descriptive, formulative, interpretative Nature or Cosmos, World or God.” As Browning task of science to philosophical explanation-whether said, our reach should exceed our grasp, “ else what's monistic or dualistic—we load our intellectual dice.

Heaven for?" The only alternative is positivism, which is not amusing, and refuses to play. Haeckel's monism, we are bound to confess, appears to us to be dualism in

A USEFUL BOOK FOR FRUIT GROWERS. disguise. He predicates for his substance "_which

The Culture of Fruit Trees in Pots. By Josh Brace. is from everlasting to everlasting-a trinity of funda


X+IIO. (London: John Murray, 1904.) mental attributes, matter, energy, and sensation.

Price 5s. net. It is one of Haeckel's pastimes to coin new words,

IT T is nearly half a century since the late Thomas and now and again he has hit on a term which has Rivers built glass structures for the protection of been really useful, and has come to stay. In his his fruit trees in pots. He was led to do this because in “Wonders ” his verbose inventiveness is still manifest. several successive seasons the hardy fruit crops were For the sciences which deal with inanimate nature a almost destroyed by severe frosts, which occurred when term is needed, and we are invited to choose between the trees were in flower-a very critical stage in the abiology, anorganology, abiotik, and anorgik, each growth of the trees. Mr. Rivers was convinced that of which seems worse than its neighbour. Erg- in order to be certain of obtaining crops of first-rate ology” we might digest, but when it comes fruit of peaches, nectarines, apricots, plums, cherries, perilogy, metasitism, trophonomy, tocogony, gonima- and even apples and pears, it was necessary to have tology, plasmodomism, and metaplasmosisms, the large glass structures to protect the trees at that suggestion of an emetic is so obvious that we cannot period. These early houses were not provided with swallow them.

means of heating them artificially, because it was then We wish to make a remark in regard to the trans- thought that the extra expense this would have enlation. Haeckel's preface is dated June 17, 1904, and tailed was unnecessary; but subsequent experience this means that the translation has been accomplished proved that a flow and return hot water pipe in each with quite remarkable rapidity. It is on the whole house not only provided additional security against clear and vigorous, but it betrays inexpertness. Thus frost, but the slight heat thus obtainable, if employed we would point out the undesirability of calling in bad weather while the trees are in flower, has a



good effect upon the pollen, and therefore assists in to contain sufficient fruitful wood to produce satissecuring the fertilisation of the flowers.

factory crops. Since that time the pot fruit trees cultivated in the The best varieties of the different kinds of fruits Sawbridgeworth nurseries of Messrs. T. Rivers and for pot culture are described in chapters iv. and vii., Son have provided a unique object lesson to British and in chapter v. the subject of insect pests is dealt fruit growers, and the system has been imitated in with, and the measures to adopt against these and the other commercial establishments and in many private peach mildew are explained. Chapter vi, consists of gardens, a notable instance being the gardens belong- a brief calendar of operations in the unheated orchard ing to Mr. Leopold de Rothschild at Gunnersbury house for each month of the year, which is sufficient House, Acton, where excellent results are obtained to remind the practitioner of the correct time to carry notwithstanding the fact that the gardens are in out the operations which are more fully described in London. The author of the book under review has the previous pages. been charged with the care of the orchard houses at In addition to other illustrations, the work is adorned Sawbridgeworth for more than twenty years, and the with full-page plates representing pot fruit trees in details of cultivation he explains are those which bearing, being reproductions from photographs have been practised with such conspicuous success in

obtained in Messrs. Rivers' nursery.

These are rethat establishment. It may be admitted that the produced in the very best manner, and the printing orchard house is more necessary in the colder districts throughout the book is clear, and the type large and of midland and northern counties than in the south, distinct. but even in the south the season of ripe fruits can be The book has little claim from a literary point of prolonged by orchard house culture, and more perfectly view, but the author has described in plain words a developed apples and pears obtained for particular system of cultivating fruit trees in pots which, if faithpurposes. Who that has seen the exquisite specimens fully followed, will be attended with absolute success. exhibited at the autumn fruit shows has not wished

R. H. P. to cultivate fruits of similar excellence ? It is the mission of Mr. Brace's book to assist the reader to accomplish this purpose.

A TRAVELLER'S COMPANION. In the first chapter the author has described very minutely the construction of the best type of houses,

Stanford's Geological Atlas of Great Britain (based and the importance of commencing with suitable

on Reynolds's Geological Atlas). By Horace B. structures is so great that we are not disposed to com

Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S. Pp. x + 140; with 34

coloured maps and 16 plates of fossils. (London : plain that the subject occupies one-fifth of the book, as well as several diagrams. From every point

E. Stanford, 1904.) Price 12s. 6d. net. of view houses with span-shaped roofs are best, and if 'HIS work is a re-written and revised edition of Mr. Brace's instructions are studied, the cultivator, by the well known atlas, which was long a familiar moving his trees out of doors at suitable periods, will object to the students of shop-windows near Temple be able to make the most of the space afforded in the

Bar, associated as it was with geological diagrams houses.

of a highly venerable aspect. It was always attractive In chapter ii., in which the furnishing of the houses by its very neatness and compactness, and has gained with trees is considered, the best methods of arranging further in these respects under Mr. Stanford's care. them are described, so that as many trees may be The maps are printed in colours, and the concluding grown as possible, and yet none be obscured by the plates of fossils, reproducing for the most part Mr. others. If only one house is built, and this is of an Lowry's refined workmanship, are almost as delicate appreciable size, it should be divided into sections, as the engraved originals, which were published in because peaches and nectarines can be treated more 1853. These plates, by the by, are not now arranged successfully when grouped by themselves, as the trees so consecutively as could be desired. Mr. H. B. need to be syringed daily until the fruits begin to ripen, Woodward has brought the text up to a modern standwhich would not be possible if cherries or plums, point, and we note references to the Pendleside series, which ripen much earlier in the season, were associated to the Mesozoic rocks in a volcanic vent in Arran, and with them in the same division.

to the occurrence of Pliocene mammalian remains in Chapter iii. must be read very carefully, and should a fissure in Derbyshire—all matters of very recent be frequently referred to by the inexperienced culti- history. The Upper Greensand and Gault are devator. It contains details of cultivation, explains the scribed and mapped together as Selbornian, a combest forms of training for the different kinds of trees, bination of great stratigraphical convenience, however the process of potting, methods of forcing, pruning, much it departs from the petrological and geognostic summer pinching, value of surface dressings to the mapping of early days. Here we see at once how the roots, cost of trees, &c. In the cultivation of fruit philosophic view of “organised fossils,” introduced trees in pots, whether half standards, or bush trees of by William Smith, has made two types of geological peaches, nectarines, and plums, or pyramids of apples maps necessary, one for the students of the earth's and pears, the work of pruning and pinching is of history, and one for the engineers, landowners, and the greatest importance, and if it be done unskilfully agriculturists, to whom Smith made his first appeal. not only will the trees be unshapely and the fruit spurs Luckily, in our British Isles, our “ drift " maps, on become longer than is desirable, but the trees will fail a reasonable scale, go far to satisfy both requirements.




Mr. Woodward's descriptions of the various counties and men of science had still to convince reigning schoolcontain rather too much matter that could be discovered masters that no education was complete which ignored from the maps themselves. Though dealing with the growth of natural knowledge and failed to rea land of most fascinating variety, they do not always cognise that an acquaintance with the phenomena of rise to the demands made by the salient scenic

necessary to intelligent living. Speaking features. Yet these are the features that strike the broadly, it may be said that most classicists even common traveller, to whom this work must always admit now that there are faculties of the human mind be a boon. From his point of view we have read which are best developed by practice in observation the account of Gloucestershire a second time, and, and experiment. One consequence of the success of course, discover nothing to add, while we are which has followed the persistent efforts of Huxley grateful for a good deal of graphic description, tersely and his followers--to secure in the school an adequate worded. The matter probably only needs a recognition of the educative power of science-has been arrangement, so that the reader who descends in that modern books on science teaching are concerned imagination or in memory from the steep side of the almost entirely with inquiries into the best methods Forest of Dean, and wonders at the great scarp of the of instructing young people, by means of practical Cotteswolds, facing him ten miles off across the exercises, how to observe accurately and to reason Severn, is not dragged aside to learn that Coal- intelligently. measures were discovered in the Severn Tunnel, and Mrs. Boole deals with the earliest education of the the irritating fact that “sulphate of strontium is child, and gives a great deal of attention to the years worked at Wickwar in the Keuper Marl.” The which precede school life. Her book may be warmly traveller wants to move forward; the open landscape recommended to parents anxious to adopt sane methods lies before him; when he has gained his first broad of educating their children and to teachers responsible physiographic view, he will condescend to search for

for the training of the lowest classes of schools. Mrs. fossils, and to rejoice in geodes of celestine.

Boole rightly insists that the development in the child The exceptional knowledge of the country possessed of the right attitude towards knowledge is of more by the author is apparent in all these careful pages. importance during early years than the actual teachHe has added, moreover, exceedingly practical de ing. We agree with her, too, that “the best science scriptions of the geology that is to be learned along teacher is usually a thorough-going enthusiast in the the main lines of British railways. His views on the science itself, who in the intervals of regular teachnomenclature of fossils are known from his published ing, gets his pupils to assist him in his own investiwritings; but, while most of us are sadly inconsistent, gations or pursuits.” But, unfortunately, the teachhe yields perhaps too little to the purists. If Mr. ing profession is at present hardly attractive enough Woodward goes so far as Doryderma and Cælo

to secure the services of a sufficient number of nautilus, where none will blame him, why does he ordinarily well educated men, and we shall have to retain Ammonites and Goniatites as unrestricted

wait a long time before we can expect to find many generic names? Why Echinocorys scutatus, which men of science engaged upon original research also seems to surpass the historical acuteness of Mr. C. D. teaching science to children in schools. Mrs. Boole's Sherborn (see “ Index to Zones of the White Chalk,” little book deserves to be read widely. Proc. Geol. Association, June, 1904), and, side by side

Like many other American educationists, Dr. with it, Galerites albo galerus?

We doubt also McMurry attempts to do too much for the teacher. Protocardium for Protocardia ; but these matters are The larger part of his book is devoted to “illustrative outside the main intention of the atlas. As a com

lessons ” and “the course of study," minute instrucpanion in Great Britain, this handy book is to be re

tions being given as to what science subjects should commended to every traveller. The complete revision

be taught in each of the terms of each of the years of the Scotch map, which is now so admirable, despite spent by children in the elementary school. The its comparatively small scale, makes us hope that

teacher will deal most satisfactorily with those subjects Ireland, as a country of equal interest and variety, may

of science he knows best, and in which he is most be included in the next edition.

G. A. J. C.

interested. From the point of view of the British teacher at least, it is inadvisable to attempt to impose

a detailed scheme of work drawn up by somebody in THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE.

another district and unfamiliar with the precise conThe Preparation of the Child for Science. By M. E.

ditions and environment of the school in which the Boole. Pp. 157. (Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1904.) science teaching is to be done. Even if this were not Price 2s. 6d.

the case, Dr. McMurry's scheme of work expects the Special Method in Elementary Science for the Common

class to accomplish far more in a term than can be

studied satisfactorily in that period. Moreover, subSchool. By Charles A. McMurry, Ph.D. Pp. ix + 275. (New York : The Macmillan Company, 1904.) jects too diverse, and hardly at all related one to the Price 3s. 6d. net.

But Dr. other, are prescribed for a single term.

McMurry's ideal is better than his practice; he says :A

GREAT change in the character of the books “it is easy for us to expect too much from formal

concerned with the teaching of science has taken method. The atmosphere which the teacher diffuses place during the last twenty years or so. A quarter about him by his own interest and ab-orption in nature of a century ago the claims of science to a place in the

studies is more potent than any of the devices of school curriculum were being advocated vigorously, method.”

A, T. S.




same subdivisions are preserved as in the first volume.

It is just a question whether the last subdivisionThe Basic Law of Vocal Utterance. By Emil Sutro. academic dissertations—which fills nearly half the

Pp: 124. (London : Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd., book, is worth the trouble it has entailed. It consists n.d.)

almost entirely of the titles of dissertations for the Duality of Voice and Speech. An Outline of Original | German doctorate, which in Germany often find their Research. Pp. vi+224. (London: Kegan Paul and

way into booksellers' hands, but are merely reprints Co., Ltd., n.d.)

of memoirs that have appeared in the scientific Duality of Thought and Language. An Outline of journals. The list is necessarily incomplete, and the Original Research. Pp. viij +277. (London : trouble of indexing it must have been enormous. Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd., n.d.)

The proof-reading, as well as the preparation of the The first of these volumes, which was originally index, have been done by Mr. Axel Moth, of the New published in America in 1894, contains the starting York Public Library.

J. B. C. point and main beliefs of the author; the second and Third volumes form the amplification and illustration. Hints on Collecting and Preserving Plants. By Beginning with the practical problem of finding how S. Guiton. Pp. ii + 55. (London : West, Newman a foreigner, especially a German, can learn to speak and Co., 1905.) Price is. English correctly, Mr. Sutro has gone on until he has become convinced that he has discovered several most suing a hobby or whether his object is to acquire

The collector of plants, whether he is merely purimportant scientific truths, and that he has a great specimens for reference which will enable him to mission to carry out in proclaiming them. Among the discoveries stated in these volumes the

get a better knowledge of systematic botany, ought following may be mentioned. There are two streams

to be acquainted with the best methods of preparing in the air which is breathed, which keep separate, one

and arranging a herbarium. For information he

will find this small book useful. Some of the being for respiration, the other for sound. A who breathed correctly might use the air supplied by suggested details are not absolutely necessary, but a the sound current in such a way as to speak for ever

little experience will soon show which are essential. without taking breath, were it not for fatigue. For

In some respects Mr. Guiton tends to what one may English speech we inspire through trachea and expire call the collector's views, as, for instance, when he through @sophagus; for German the direction is

recommends gumming the specimens on cardboard; reversed. The author has discovered a new vocal cord the more usual practice of fixing them by means of in the lower jaw. Air passages are diffused through gummed slips on drawing paper is cheaper, and the body; it is through these that the emotional allows the specimens to be taken off for examination. nature of sound is produced. The original source of The preference of iron grids in place of wooden tone production has its location in the lungs, the ventilators, the advantages of cotton mattresses, and kidneys, and the bladder for the most part. For the other such details which might be suggested utterance of a word representing a flower there is an

rather matters of individual taste; so long as

collector takes as much care impression made on the right side of the thigh, while

as Mr. Guiton, his the expression is on the left side just opposite, the herbarium will be a pleasure, not only to himself, order being reversed for the corresponding German but also to kindred botanists. word. Just how we breathe into and out of the pelvis the author expects to explain satisfactorily in a future Practical Retouching. By Drinkwater Butt. volume. Statements such as these, together with XV + 78. (London : Iliffe and Sons, Ltd., 1904.) philosophical reflections and practical discussions as to

Price Is. net the way in which the production of different sounds This book forms No. 10 of the Photography Bookshelf should be managed, fill the three volumes.

Series, and will be found a useful addition. The The volumes are not without a certain kind of

matter contained in it originally appeared in the pages interest-that of observing the process by which who is evidently in earnest,

of Photography in 1901, but the author has brought

comes elaborate and believe such nonsense.

the information up to date and presented it in the

It is at the same time possible that there may be in the remarks regard

present form, which will be found convenient for ing the way in which sounds should be produced some

beginners. The chapters are eight in all, and after thing which would be suggestive to one engaged in

the preliminary ones dealing with things to be done the practical work of teaching in this subject. Accord

and to be avoided, and the apparatus and material ing to Mr. Sutro, America has left his works almost required for the work, we have those on general unnoticed, while Germany has given a more favour- manipulations, manipulations in detail of portrait able reception to them. It appears that an Inter

work and inanimate objects, concluding with the use national Physio-Psychic Society has been founded for

of the back of the negative for further hand-work. the propagation of the views put forward in these volumes.

Stories from Natural History. By Richard Wagner.

Translated from the German by G. S. Pp. viii + A Select Bibliography of Chemistry, 1492–1902.

By 177. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1904.) H. C. Bolton. Second supplement. Pp. 462.

Price is. 6d. (Washington : Smithsonian Institution, 1904.) These interesting stories dealing with subjects of The present volume of the “ Select Bibliography ” is natural history are presented in excellent English. the second supplement which has been published since The translator's style is graceful, and the language the first issue in 1893, and carries the work down to chosen is of a kind which will appeal to children; 1402.

while the scientific information is sound as well as One can only admire the patient labour of the instructive. A young reader should learn incidentally author, now unfortunately removed by death, who has a great deal about animal life, and at the same time placed in the hands of chemists all over the world a be given sympathetic interest in it. The little volume book of reference of such permanent value.

is suitable for a reading book in the higher standards The supplement contains the titles of books pub- of the elementary school and for the love lished between 1898 and 1902 inclusive, in which the of a secondary school.


[ocr errors]



[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]



A study of the habits of flesh-eating birds shows thar if

they possess the sense of smell at all, it is not sufficiently {The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions

to enable them to use it in finding food. All expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake observers are agreed that when a carcase is hidden, by to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected never so slight a screen, it is safe from the attacks of manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. vultures and other carrion-seekers; but the most remarkNo notice is taken of anonymous communications.)

able proof of the ineffectiveness of the sense (if it exist

at all) is afforded by experiences which Dr. Guillemard Compulsory Greek at Cambridge.

was good enough to relate to me. Many times it has

happened, he tells me, that, having shot a wildebeest or My own experiences are somewhat different from those

other game which was too heavy to carry home, he has dis. of your correspondents, but the result is the same.

embowelled it, and has hidden the carcase in the hole of an commenced Greek when about thirteen; I passed the “ ant-bear." On returning with natives to carry it to London matriculation, the entrance examination at Trinity, camp, he has found a circle of vultures standing round the and the Little-go without any difficulty ; and I have read spot where the offal had been thrown, completely unaware the three synoptic gospels in the original, several Greek of the carcase within a few yards of their beaks. Of obplays, and a certain amount of Homer, Xenophon, and servations proving the possession of the sense I know none Thucydides. Now, if all the knowledge ! thus acquired unless we are willing to accept as evidence the belief, had been of any practical value to me in after life, I which is very general among fanciers, that birds arr should, as a matter of ordinary common sense and worldly | attached to the smell of anise, and the similar brlief of wisdom, have kept it up; but, finding Greek absolutely gamekeepers in some parts of the country that thet are useless, my acquaintance with the language has so com- attracted by valerian. It is said that pigeons may be pletely faded away that I can scarcely make out the sense of prevented from deserting the dove-cote by smearing their a Greek quotation in a historical or theological work. boxes with oil of anise. Poachers are supposed to lure

It has often been a matter of profound regret to me that hen-pheasants from a wood by anointing gate-post, with the time spent on Greek was not devoted to German, for tincture of valerian. if it had I should have been able to speak the language With the view of testing the smelling powers of graminisufficiently well to enjoy during my whole life German vorous birds, I placed a pair of turkeys in a pen which society, German literature, and German places of amuse- communicated with a large wired-in run. The pen w24 closed ment.

by means of a trap-door. In the run I placed, each day, I have never been able to discover any educational value

two heaps of grain, right and left of the trap-door, but so in a training which condemns boys to grind up pages of far in front of it that they made with it an angle of about Greek declensions and irregular verbs. In my experience 50°. Various substances which give out a powerful odour of life a youth who, after acquiring some knowledge of were placed under one of the heaps, alternately the right the grammar of a modern language, is made to read

and the left. The birds were lightly fed in the morning easy books on the manners, customs, and history of the

in their pen. At two o'clock the trap-door was raised, and country where the language is spoken (and nothing is they were admitted to the enclosure. It was curious to better than a well-written novel) is far better equipped for note that after the first few days the hen almost alwa's the battle of life, and is a far more agreeable companion came out first (in the last ten experiments this rule wan both intellectually and socially, than a man whose boyhood broken but once), and invariably went to the heap on her has been spent in studying musty old mythologies, which right; the cock following went to the heap on the left nobody troubles about nowadays except the select few who The cock usually tried the hen's heap after feeding for a have made such subjects the hobby of their lives.

short time from his own, but the hen never trespassed By all means let the bishops continue to require a know- upon the preserve of the cock. In the earlier observations ledge of Greek (and also of Hebrew) on the part of I placed beneath one of the heaps a slice of bread soaked candidates for orders, on the ground that these subjects with tincture of asafætida, essence of anise, oil of lavender, ought to be considered part of the professional stock-in

or sprinkled with valerianate of zinc or powdered camphor. trade of a clergyman; but special studies of this kind, like

When the birds, plunging their beaks into the bread, cuk law in the case of barristers and solicitors, need not be some of the tincture or essential oil into the mouth, the commenced until a youth has decided upon the profession head was lifted up and shaken, but they immediately recomhe intends to follow.

A. B. BASSET. menced to peck at the grain. They were completely inJanuary 27

different to the presence of camphor or valerianate of zinu In several cases in which these substances were used, they

consumed the bread. As a turkey does not steady the Can Birds Smell ?

thing at which it is pecking, with its foot, but, seizing Examination of the Bird's brain shows that the sense of it in the beak, shakes it violently until a piece is detached, smell can be but little developed. The olfactory bulbs are it is probable that most of the powder was shaken from the small. No medullated nerve-fibres unite them with the rest bread. As these experiments gave absolutely negative results, of the brain. Yet in no birds are the bulbs entirely absent, the birds showing neither preference for nor repugnanie to so far as I am aware. The olfactory membrane of birds any of the odorous substances used, I proceeded to stronger presents certain structural peculiarities which are difficult measures. The grain was placed upon a seven-inch cook's to interpret. The nasal chambers which it lines are not sieve, inverted. The odorous substance was placed beneath large in any bird, but in some they are sufficiently exten- the sieve. Each of the following experiments was repeated sive to suggest that olfaction is not completely in abey- three times, first with a small quantity of " smell," then

The fact that they are better developed in birds with a great deal, and lastly with as much as possible. which seek their food in the sea (petrels, the tropic bird, It is only necessary to describe the final tests. Four ounces &c.), in which pursuit smell can, one would suppose, be of carbide was thrown into a saucer of water and placed of little service, than they are in most other birds beneath one of the sieves. There was no reason to think

to indicate that they have some function other that the birds were aware of the existence of the acetylene than olfaction. Perhaps they serve to warm the inspired which was evolved. The saucer was filled with bisulphide air; although here again we are confronted with the of carbon. The hen turkey finished her meal. When the difficulty that, in the frigate bird (Fregata), in which grain was exhausted she knocked the sieve over with her the nasal chambers are relatively large, the nostrils are foot. Both birds then lowered their beaks to within obliterated. Air may, of course, enter the nasal chambers half an inch of the colourless liquid, which they appeared through the cleft palate, but such a mechanism cannot to examine. It is, perhaps, unfortunate that they had provide for the warming of the air on its passage to the already satisfied their thirst at the water-trough. A bath lungs. The teachings of anatomy being so obscure, it sponge soaked in chloroform was placed under the sieve, seemed to me desirable that direct observations should be the wire of which rested upon it. The hen finished her made.

meal without leaving the sieve. Towards the end she



« PreviousContinue »