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pecked very slowly, and frequently raised her head

Fact in Sociology. and stretched ber wings as if partially narcotised.

I ADDRESSED a letter to the editor of NATURE replying. This experiment was repeated on the cock, but I

to what I allege to be misrepresentations and misstatecould not detect any indications of narcosis. The saucer

ments in a review of three of my books by “F. W. H." was filled with hot dilute sulphuric acid, into which

(December 29, 1904, p. 193). After a delay of some weeks. an ounce of powdered cyanide of potassium was thrown.

due to the absence of " F. W. H." abroad, the editor The evolution of prussic acid was so violent that I con

of Nature has written to ask me to modify and shorten sidered the neighbourhood unsafe. My gardener, who

my protest. was working thirty yards away, spoke to me of the

“F. W. H.” told the readers of NATURE that my of almonds." For some minutes the cock turkey fed with

Food of the Gods " claimed to forecast the future.' his usual eagerness; then, suddenly, he began to stagger | This was untrue, and I said so. round the enclosure, crossing his legs and holding his beak

“F. W. H.” mixed up my discussion of probabilities strnight up in the air. He made his way back into the

in “ Anticipations" with my general review of educational. pen, where he stood with head down and wings out

influences in “ Mankind in the Making," and presented stretched. After ten minutes he returned to the enclosure, but did not eat any more grain. His comb and wattles sound method of criticism.

this as my ideals. I pointed out that this was an unwere deeply suffused with blood.

“F. W. H." presented the following as my opinions :In all observations on the sense of smell of animals we

Germany will be cowed by the combined English and have an obvious difficulty to face. There is no reason for supposing that an animal enjoys an odour which pleases triumph. There remain the Yellow Races. Their star,

American Navies, and Anglo-Saxonism will eventually us or dislikes one which we find disagreeable. My dog

too, will pale before that of the Anglo-Saxons." appeared to be almost indifferent to bisulphide of carbon.

pudiated this balderdash with some asperity. It is violently He showed, however, great repugnance to chloroform and

unlike my views. prussic acid. It is difficult to think that an animal which He wrote of me,

"he seems

unaware of the part is unable to protect itself from the injurious effects of such

in the national life that is played by the lower stratum drugs as these can possess the sense of smell.

of society, the 'stagnant' masses as he would call them." I shall be very grateful to any of your readers who will

I denied that I should, and pointed out that no one does give me information on this subject. Especially should I be

know what part is played by any stratum of society in glad to learn something about the habits of wingless birds,

national reproduction. It is a field of unrecorded facts. the mode of life of which, more or less, resembles that of a

I commented on “ F. W. H.'s" assumption that he was. ierrestrial mammal. In them, if in any birds, it would

in possession of special knowledge. seem likely that the sense of smell would be efficient. In

He wrote of “the fact that this stratum is an absolute fris memoir on the Apteryx, Owen stated that “the relative

necessity." This is not a fact. It may or may not be extent and complexity of the turbinated bones and the

true. I commented on this use of the word “ fact" in capacity of the posterior part of the nasal cavity exceed

view of “F. W. H.'s” professorial

my those of any other bird ; and the sense of smell must be proportionately acute and important in its economy.'

“ imagination unclogged by knowledge.

He declared that I want to “get rid of the reckless Downing College Lodge, January 26. ALEX. HILL.

classes, and depend solely on the careful classes, a statement which has not an atom of justification. He not only

guys my suggestions, but foists an absolutely unconThe Origin of Radium.

genial phraseology upon me.

Finally, he wrote, we are to introduce careful parentIs the issue of NATURE for January 26, Mr. Soddy age, that is, put a stop to natural selection. I quoted describes the present position of his experiments on the this in view of his statement that I had “no very thorough production of radium from compounds of uranium, and grasp of the principles of evolution.' I discussed what announces a positive result.

appeared to be his ideas about evolution. They appeared Since I wrote on May 5, 1904, pointing out that, on the to me to be crude and dull, and I regret I cannot condense theory of Rutherford and Soddy, the quantity of radium my criticisms to my present limits. developed by a few hundred grams of uranium should I expressed some irritation at his method of misbe measurable in a few months, a quantity of about statement followed by reply, and hinted a doubt whether 400 grams of uranium nitrate has been preserved in my my own style of inquiry-in spite of the fact that romances laboratory.

blacken my reputation—was not really more scientific I am not yet prepared to give definite quantitative than his.

H. G. WELLS. results, but Mr. Soddy's announcement may perhaps excuse a preliminary statement that the quantity of radium emanation now evolved by my uranium salt is distinctly

The Fertilisation of Jasminum nudiflorum. and appreciably greater than at first.

This well known plant, in accordance with its usual. A rough calculation of the rate of growth of radium habit, has been flowering in my garden at Stonehaven, indicates a rate of change far slower than that suggested Kincardineshire, since the third week in December, 1904, by the simplest theory of the process, but somewhat and amidst frost and snow and cold winds. There are no quicker than that given by Mr. Soddy, who finds that leaves, but there are thousands of bright yellow flowers. about 2 x 10-12 of the uranium is transformed per annum. It is a puzzle to me how fertilisation is effected. The two As Mr. Soddy says, it is possible that the total amount of stamens are situated about half-way down the tube of emanation is not secured, and the fraction obtained may the corolla, and about four or five millimetres below the depend to some extent on the particular method used by style, which is, in many cases, two millimetres longer than each esperimenter. But another possibility should be borne the tube of the corolla. It seems to me to be a plant in mind. !í a non-radio-active product,' intermediate be- requiring the aid of insects in its fertilisation, but there tween uranium and radium, exists, the rate of appearance are no insects to be seen at this time of the year. On of radium would be slower at first, and quicker as the January 22, as there was some sunshine, I watched the experiment proceeds. My uranium salt was not purified so plant for about four hours, but no insect pa it a visit. successfully as that used by Mr. Soddy, and, when the At the same time I found the oblong anthers had split first measurement was made a month or so after prepara- and pollen grains were sticking to the stigma in many tion, the yield of radium emanation was appreciable. It flowers. The brilliantly coloured flowers, although destimay be that Mr. Soddy is tracing the process from its tute of scent, are fitted to attract insects, and the form inception, and that I have started at a later stage, where of the flower seems adapted for their visits. But there the rate of formation is somewhat greater. Further are no insects! Can anyone offer an explanation? The observation may be expected to elucidate these and other plant is beautifully figured in the Botscal Magazine, questions. W. C. D. WHETHAM. Ixxviii., tab. 4649.

ENDRICK. Cambridge, January 30.

University of Glasgow, Jant


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The Moon and the Barometer. It is an old popular belief that weather tends to be more settled about full moon.

Here are

some sayings from Inward's “ Weather Lore":

“ The three days of the change of the moon from the way to the wane we get no rain (United States).

"The weather is generally clearer at the full than at the other ages of the moon (Bacon).

“In Western Kansas it is said that when the moon is near full it never storms.

“The full moon brings fine weather.” “The full moon eats clouds." (This disappearance of cloud Mr. G. F. Chambers pronounces

a thoroughly well authenticated fact.'')

The following evidence in this connection seems to me instructive. It relates to Ben Nevis (1884–1892, nine years) and Greenwich (1889–1904, sixteen years), and to the summer half only (to be more exact, the six lunations commencing with that which had full moon in April).

The method was as follows:- In the case of Ben Nevis, fourteen columns were arranged for the fourteen days ending with full moon, and fourteen for those following full moon. Each day with barometer under 25.2 was re

It will be seen that the chief maximum is about double the chief minimum in one case, and more than double in the other.

a dot-diagram, where each day is represented separately according to its barometer (not merely grouped with others as below a certain limit), the contrast between the phases comes out still more clearly.

The view here given apparently finds support from various quarters. In the Meteorologische Zeitschrift for 1900, p. 421, Herr Börnstein gives a curve of pressure for Berlin (May to August in 1883-1900) which is of similar type to those in the diagram. Fr. Dechevrens informs me that the results above given agree with those of his own observations in China, Constantinople, and Jersey. M. Sainte Claire-Deville found the same variation at Cayenne, in French Guiana.

With regard to the winter half (October to March), the régime would appear to be somewhat different, but I cannot speak definitely of it at present.

Whether the facts presented be thought to indicate lunar influence or not, it may be of interest to watch future weather in the summer half) from the point of view suggested.


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Reversal in Influence Machines. The method suggested for producing reversal on a Voss or Wimshurst will not be found always trustworthy. Atmospheric conditions make a great difference. I have been experimenting for more than a year with the view of finding a solution of the reversal problem, and think I have succeeded in tracing the cause, which is primarily connected with dielectric strain. A Wimshurst with the dischargers beyond sparking distance, working at full speed, will often reverse if the discharge is made by suddenly connecting the terminals, but there is no certainty in producing this effect. I have recently constructed an influence machine akin to the Voss except that the replenishment is from the back of the disc. Reversal is still the stumbling block, and must occur with fixed inductors, while no plan for controlling the reversal can be relied upon. I should be happy to give any of your correspon. dents fuller particulars of my experiments if they will communicate with me.

CHARLES E. BENHAM. Colchester, January 14.

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presented by a dot in those (graduated) columns; total 407. The dots in each column were then counted, and the sums obtained were added in groups of three (first to third, second to fourth, third to fifth, and so on). Thus we get the upper curve in the diagram.

In the case of Greenwich, the method was slightly different (see lower horizontal scale). The columns were for seven days about each of the four phases. For comparison with the Ben Nevis curve we commence with the first day after new moon. The days here considered were those with barometer under 29.6 inches; total, 476.

These two curves seem to tell much the same tale ; few days of low barometer about (just after) full and new moon, many such days about (just after) the quarters. Thus, so far as the summer half in those twenty-one years is concerned, the popular belief would appear to be vindicated.

To give a fuller idea of the relations, I add a table of the maximum and minimum values (each number is, of course, the sum of three) :--

Dates of Publication of Scientific Books. May I through your columns suggest to publishers especially of scientific and mathematical books-to give in their catalogues the dates of publication of their books? As a book often gets out of date very soon, such an addition would greatly help those who have no access to good libraries in selecting books to be purchased. I may say that this is done almost invariably in the catalogues of French and German publishers. To take an instance, the Clarendon Press still includes Price's “ Infinitesimal Calculus" in its catalogue. Now, although to one who wants to study the subject in an exhaustive manner the book is very valuable, still, to one who wishes to know the principles only, the book is, to say the least, not worth the big price asked for ; and if the date of publication were mentioned in the catalogue, the purchaser would at any rate know that he was not buying an up to date book.

R. P. PARAIYPYE. Fergusson College, Poona, India, January 1.

Super-cooled Raia Drops. The letter which appeared in your last issue (p. 295) from Mr. Robinson with reference to this interesting phenomenon reminds me of a similar case which I observed in Bournemouth during the winter of 1888, and I described in NATURE at the time under the title." Is Hail thus Formed?" (vol. xxxvii., p. 295).

Cecil CARUS-Winsox.



Ben Nevis








compare favourably with the rubber given by the IN

These consist in N recent years the cultivation of rubber-yielding older methods of separation.

trees has attracted an increasing amount of coagulating the latex, either by simple exposure to notice. About 12,000 acres in Ceylon, and in the the air or by the addition of an acid or a salt; the Malay Peninsula a still larger area, have been stocked resulting coagulum is washed and rolled to free it with the Para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, and from moisture and nitrogenous matters, and then other species of Hevea. The cultivation has also dried by gently heating. The particular process been successful in India and South America, and ex- suggested by the author is that of spontaneous perimental plots are being tested in Uganda and coagulation of the latex in shallow saucers, followed, the Gold Coast Colony.

after washing and rolling, by exposure to the smoke In tropical Africa there are thousands of square / of a wood fire as an antiseptic treatment. The price miles of land suitable for growing the Para tree. But whilst the demand for rubber has been increasing with the development of the electrical and motor industries, the number of forest trees yielding the substance has been diminishing, year by year, as a consequence of the faulty methods of “ tapping employed by the natives.

Hence a stimulus has been given to the production of rubber by cultivation; and with a view of fostering the industry in West Africa, Mr. Johnson was commissioned by Government in 1902 to visit Ceylon and study the methods employed there in the management of the plantations and the preparation of the rubber. He now gives, for the benefit of persons taking up the cultivation, some of the results of the visit in the form of such practical advice as would be likely to assist them in their undertaking.

The rubber trees are raised from the seeds, which may be obtained from Ceylon or the Straits Settlements at a cost of about 6s. 8d. per thousand. When the tree has attained a girth of twenty to twenty-four inches, the latex can safely be tapped; this may be in about five to seven years from the date of planting. The yield varies greatly, depending on the soil, the age of the tree, and the method of tapping. At present no really satisfactory data available; but from such statistics as are given it would seem that about i lb. to 3 lb. of dry rubber per annum may be the average product of each tree. In addition, the seeds yield a drying oil somewhat resembling that obtained from linseed. As regards the latex-bearing

“ life” of the trees, it is stated, on the authority of the director of the Botanic Gardens, Straits Settlements, that trees are known to have been tapped, off and on, during fifty

Fig. 1.- One of the Parent Trees of the Para Rubber Industry in the East, growing in the Botanic years, and to be still yielding a Gardens, Henarargoda, Ceylon. (From “ The Cultivation and Preparation of Para Rubber.") plentiful supply of latex.

The rubber-substance is contained in the latex of obtained depends largely upon the care exercised in the plant in the form of minute globules, much as the preparation. For example, Congo rubbers, which butter-fat exists in cow's milk. These globules can some time ago realised only is. to is. od. a pound, be made to coalesce by centrifugal action, just as

· now often fetch 48. in consequence of being more cream is formed from milk in an ordinary separator; carefully prepared. As showing what can be done but the product thus obtained does not, apparently, in this direction, it is interesting to note that Ceylon ! "The Cultivation and Preparation of Para Rubber." By W. H.

Para rubber has recently commanded the “record" Johnson. Pp. xii +99. (London : Crosby Lockwood and Son, 1904; price of 5s. 6d. per pound. Price 71. 6d. Det.

The appurtenances required are of the simplest,



and no great demand is made upon the skill of the a true understanding of the conditions described withcultivator who desires to try his fortune in this out some fuller information on these points. It must direction. As regards the call upon his capital, some be confessed, however, that the subject bristles with idea of the cost of opening and maintaining a plant difficulties of all kinds and has tempting pitfalls for ation will be obtained from the estimates which the even the wary searcher, and, on the other hand, Dr. author supplies, showing the expenditure in Ceylon Windle has a right to set his own limits. Even and the Malay Peninsula. As an alternative to tea- within these limits he may be thought somewhat planting, orange-growing, and cattle-ranching, the hardy, for to give an adequate account of all the production of rubber would seem to be well worth material relics of man in Britain from the dawn of consideration by young Britons who go abroad in human life up to about 2000 years ago, within the search of a competency.

C. SIMMONDS. compass of little more than three hundred pages, is

not a thing to be undertaken with a light heart. One

of the principal difficulties to be overcome is to avoid PREHISTORIC ENGLAND.'

confusion in exposition and arrangement. In this S this volume contains a notice by the publishers

matter Dr. Windle might have had more success. In AS

that they “ will shortly begin the issue of the series of “ The Antiquary's Books,” to which this belongs, it may be assumed that it is the first. For the reason that it is an earnest of the quality to be expected in its successors, the book, both in manner and matter, must be treated in somewhat more critical and judicial fashion than if the series had been already fairly launched. The responsibility of a publisher in placing an antiquarian library before the public is never light, and at the present time it suffers from the inequality of modern knowledge in respect to the various prehistoric and archæological periods. The later stages of the former class have vast floods of light thrown upon them by the constantly recurring Fiber Ideal Section of Pit-dwelling a, Natural soil ; 0; Bank of same

up Roofd, discoveries in the Levant, and the comparative method and Branches. From "Remains of the Prehistoric Age in England." has enabled us to classify many of our native antiquities by their means. In regard to the earlier stages of man's existence we are in the main still advancing at implements are quoted without giving the very

more cases than one, instances of special types of a painfully slow rate, and can scarcely be held to have necessary information that they belong to widely more than a misty comprehension of the subject. different periods. For instance, in dealing with In historic times the same want of balance of knowledge exists equally, though it is a far easier task to a number of surface finds, and then goes on to say,

“pygmy flints," a puzzling subject, Dr. Windle quotes mask the difficulty, and to produce a nicely balanced“ in France they have been discovered at Bruniquel." tale from groups of facts of very different values.

This can only mislead the inquirer or the student, for The present volume deals only with the relics of man in Britain anterior to the coming of the Roman undoubtedly of the mammoth period, has no relation

so far as we know, the Bruniquel station, which is invaders, and in a sense, therefore, may be called

at all to such surface finds as have been made in prehistoric, for nothing in the nature of a native record Lincolnshire, Lancashire, India, or Belgium. Nothing can be quoted in support of any part of it. The author is more certain than that mere type or form alone is by his title, moreover, limits his field to the remains the most unsafe criterion of age.

This elementary axiom may sound very like a platitude, but it is constantly neglected by men whose words carry weight, and cannot, therefore, be too much insisted upon. Such errors or vague statements affect the essentials of prehistoric science, and if persisted in

inevitably retard the advance of knowledge instead of 용

accelerating it, as Dr. Windle undoubtedly wishes to do. Again, it is very questionable wisdom to devote

a chapter to "bone implements,” the paragraphs dealFig. 1.-Section of Barrow with successive Interments. From “Remains ing indiscriminately with the remains from the French of the Prehistoric Age in England."

caves, the Swiss lakes, and from a station like Grime's

Graves. In the first place, there is again no relation of the dwellers in Britain, that is to say, to the monu- between the sites quoted, and, so far as the French ments they raised, the implements they made, and the caves are concerned, the “bone" implements are graves in which they deposited their dead. The racial mostly of horn. No doubt the information necessary characteristics, as shown by the physical characters, to a proper understanding of the relative ages of the are treated very briefly, and the burning questions of Dordogne caves, the Swiss lake dwellings, and the the priority of Brythons and Goidels in the land, of Norfolk flint pits is to be found elsewhere in the book ; the precise position of the Picts as an indigenous tribe, but for a popular work dealing with a difficult and of the succeeding immigrations from the Continent complicated subject the first essential is clearness of bringing with them new types of people, of weapons, exposition beyond all possibility of misunderstanding or of burial customs, are only incidentally mentioned. Further, Dr. Windle's authorities are occasionally

By the elimination of all these questions Dr. Windle antiquated. It is not treating the reader quite fairly has set himself an infinitely lighter task; but it is to to give him Dr. Thurnam's classification of barrows be questioned how far an intelligent reader can gain without qualification. Is it, for instance, quite certain "Remains of the Prehistoric Age in England." By Bertram C. A. barrows are of the Bronze age? It is also a trifle hard

in the light of recent knowledge that all round Windle, Sc.D., F.R.S. Pp. xv + 320 ; illustrated. (London: Methuen and Co.) Price 75. 6d. net.

to find the late Dr. Frazer quoted as an authority on



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gold in Ireland, while Salomon Reinach is not even Mr. Harold Wager, F.R.S.; L (Educational Science), mentioned. A little discrimination would have shown Sir Richard C. Jebb, M.P. that Mr. Romilly Allen was making a curious state- The vice-presidents, recorders, and secretaries of the ment (p. 293) when he said : “ The bowls . . . seem to eleven sections have also now. been appointed. belong to the end of the Late Celtic period and the In view of the numerous towns. to be visited by beginning of the Saxon.” What becomes of the four the association, and in which lectures or addresses hundred and odd years intervening between the two, will be given, the number of lecturers appointed is when the Roman power was dominant in Britain ? much larger than usual. The list of these, as at Such statements betray a carelessness that is not easily present arranged, is as follows :excused in a man of Dr. Windle's standing.

Cape Town: Prof. Poulton, on Burchell's work in same want of precision is shown in “ Hallstadt” for South Africa; and Mr. C. V. Boys, on a subject in Halstatt,“ Collie March ” on one page and Colley physics. Durban : Mr. F. Soddy, on radio-activity. March " on another, the “ forging " of bronze instead Maritzburg : Prof. Arnold, on compounds of steel. of " casting," and others of the same kind. In the Johannesburg : Prof. Ayrton, distribution of circumstances it is a hard thing to say, but the illus- power; Prot. Porter, on mining; and Mr. G. W. trations leave much to be desired. . The two figures we Lamplugh, on the geology of the Victoria Falls. reproduce show diagrammatically a barrow with Pretoria (or possibly Bulawayo): Mr. Shipley, on a successive interments, and a restoration of a pit dwell- subject in zoology. Bloemfontein : Mr. Hinks, on a ing, from Mr. George Clinch's Kentish discoveries. subject in astronomy. Kimberley : Sir William

The book might easily have been so much better, Crookes, on diamonds. for it has many good and useful points, that there is As the wish has been conveyed to the council from something exasperating in finding much to quarrel South Africa that a few competent investigators with. The index is a good and useful one, the lists should be selected to deliver addresses dealing with of ancient remains an excellent departure, compiled local problems of which they possessed special with all modesty, and there is a great deal of clear knowledge, a geologist, a bacteriologist, and an treatment of some knotty questions, such as the so archæologist have been invited to undertake this called “ Eolithic” period. As a series, the size of the work, involving in two cases special missions in volume is convenient and the print good, and in spite advance of the main party. Whilst Colonel Bruce, of the strictures we have felt bound to make, there is F.R.S., will deal with some bacteriological questions little doubt that the publishers will find a ready sale. of practical importance to South Africa, Mr. G. W.

Lamplugh (by the courtesy of the Board of Educa

tion) will be enabled to investigate certain features MEETING OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION IN in the geology of the Victoria Falls-particularly as SOUTH AFRICA.

regards the origin and structure of the cañon--and THE British Association will hold its meeting this Mr. D. R. Maclver, who is at present exploring in

year in South Africa. In these exceptional Nubia, will proceed in March to Rhodesia in order circumstances, the general officers of the association to examine and report on the ancient ruins at requested the council to appoint a strong committee Zimbabwe and also at Inyanga. to cooperate with them in carrying out the necessary Most of the officials, and other members of the arrangements. This “ South African Committee" association, will leave Southampton on July 29 by has held frequent sittings, and its work is so far the Union Castle Mail SS. Saxon, and arrive at Cape advanced that it is now possible to make the following Town on August 15, the opening day of the meeting; announcements.

but a considerable number will start from SouthampAlthough the annual circular and programme have ton on the previous Saturday, either by the ordinary not yet been issued, pending the receipt of informa- mail-boat or by the intermediate steamer sailing on tion from South Africa, many members have already that date. intimated their intention of being present at the The sectional meetings will be held at Cape Town meeting. The “official party " of guests invited by (three days) and Johannesburg (three days). the central executive committee at Cape Town, and Between the inaugural meeting at the former and nominated in the first instance by the council of the the concluding meeting at the latter town, oppor, association, numbers upwards of 150 persons, com- tunities will be offered to members to visit the Natal prising members of the council, past and present battlefields and other places of interest. Subsegeneral ofticers and sectional presidents, the present quently a party will be made up to proceed to the rectional officers, and a certain proportion of the Victoria Falls (Zambesi); and, should a sufficient leading members of each section. To this list has number of members register their names, a special vpt to be added, on the nomination of the organising steamer will be chartered for the voyage home, viâ committees, the names of representative foreign and Beira, by the east coast route, as an alternative to colonial men

of science, the total number of the the return through Cape Town by the west coast official party being restricted to 200, including the route. Thus all the colonies and Rhodesia will be local officials. It is hoped, however, that many other visited by the association. The tour will last 70 days members of the association will also attend the vid Cape Town, or a week longer via Beira (all-sea), merting

leaving Southampton on July 29 and returning The presidents-elect of the various sections are as thither on October 7 or 14. follows:

A central executive committee has been constituted A (Mathematical and Physical Science), Prof. A. R. at Cape Town, with Sir David Gill as chairman and Forsyth, F.R.S.; B (Chemistry), Mr. G. T. Beilby; Dr. Gilchrist as secretary; while local committees C(Geology), Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S. ; D (Zoology), have been formed at Johannesburg and other important Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S.; E (Geography), centres. Admiral Sir W. J. L. Wharton, K.C.B., F.R.S.; Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S., is the president-elect, F (Economic Science and Statistics), Rev. W. and among the vice-presidents-elect are the followCunningham; G (Engineering), Colonel Sir Colin ing :-the Rt. Hon. Lord Milner, the Hon. Sir Walter Scott-Moncrief, G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E.;

H Hely-Hutchinson, Sir Henry McCallum, the Hon. Sir (Anthropology), Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S.; 1 Arthur Lawley, Sir H. J. Goold-Adams, Sir David (Physiology), Colonel D. Bruce, F.R.S.; K (Botany), Gill, and Sir Charles Metcalfe.

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