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lurgy, Mechanics and Applied Geology, to be held at Liége NOTES.

on June 26 to July 1, in connection with the International The Royal Meteorological Society has arranged for an Exhibition. The general secretary of the organising exhibition of meteorological apparatus to be held committee is M. Henri Dechamps, 16 Quai de l'UniMarch 14-17. The exhibition will be chiefly devoted to versité, Liége. recording instruments, but it will also include new meteorological apparatus invented or first constructed since the Dr. F. T. ROBERTS will deliver the Harveian Oration society's last exhibition, as well as photographs, draw- of the Royal College of Physicians of London on June 21. ings, and other objects possessing meteorological interest. Dr. W. H. Hamer has been appointed to deliver the Milroy

lectures on State medicine and public hygiene for 1906; Science announces that Prof. Ernest Rutherford, of the lectures for this year will be delivered by Dr. T. M. McGill University, has been appointed Silliman lecturer Legge on “ Industrial Anthrax," on March 7, 9, and 14; at Yale University for 1905. The previous Silliman lec

Dr. W. H. Allchin will deliver the Lumleian lectures, turers have been Prof. J. J. Thomson and Prof. C. S.

“Some Aspects of Malnutrition," on March 28, 30, and Sherrington

April 4; and the second Oliver-Sharpey lecture, The As Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., is unable to lecture at

Influence of Atmospheric Pressure on Man," will be dethe Royal Institution on Friday evening, March 24, Sir

livered by Dr. L. E. Hill on April 6. Other lectures to Oliver Lodge, F.R.S., will deliver a discourse on that

be delivered during the year are the Croonian, by Prof. date on " A Pertinacious Current."

E. H. Starling, F.R.S. ; the FitzPatrick, on “ The History

of Medicine, by Dr. Norman Moore ; and the Bradshaw A GRANT of gol, has been awarded by the Berlin Academy

lecture, by Dr. G. R. Murray. of Sciences to Prof. R. Hagenbach, of Aachen, and Dr. Konen, of Bonn, for the publication of a spectrographic On Sunday, January 22, M. Victor Serrin died, at atlas.

Neuilly-en-Tel, Department of Oise, aged seventy-five years. The de Candolle prize of 2ol. for the best monograph

M. Serrin was the inventor of the first automatic regulator on a genus or family of plants is offered by the Physical of the electric arc light used in the public service. The and Natural History Society of Geneva. Papers may be

action is so satisfactory that the apparatus is still in use, written in Latin, French, German, Italian, or English, and

after fifty years of scientific progress. M. Serrin produced should be sent before January 15, 1906, to M. le Président

other ingenious inventions, but no other has had the de la Société de Physique et d'Histoire naturelle de Genève, importance of his arc lamp. In 1852, M. Serrin was in l'Athénée, Genève (Suisse). Members of the society are not

charge of the rebuilding of the Pont St. Michel in Paris, admitted to this competition.

and, as the work was urgent, men were kept busy night

and day. At night an electric light, with hand-feed adjustWe are sorry to see in the Athenaeum the announcement

ment, was used, since no regulators existed. Provided of the death, on January 21, of Mr. E. Crossley, of

with blue spectacles, Serrin watched the lamp and adjusted Halifax, in his sixty-fourth year. Mr. Crossley published the carbons when necessary. He thus contracted ophthalin 1879, in conjunction with Messrs. Gledhill and Wilson,

mia, in consequence of which he nearly lost his sight. a valuable “ Handbook of Double Stars," which is com- The idea of the regulator then occurred to him, and he plete in its information up to the time of publication. The made all the parts with his own hands. At the funeral Crossley reflector, with which excellent work is being done

the principal scientific societies of Paris sent wreaths. at the Lick Observatory, was presented to that observatory by Mr. Crossley, and contains one of the best mirrors The Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin for January (xvi., made by the late Dr. Common.

No. 166) contains a number of papers of pathological and Prof. J. W. Mason, professor of mathematics at the

medical interest, together with an interesting account by

father College of the City of New York from 1879 to 1903, died

Dr. Platt of Fabricius Guilhelmus Hildanus, the on January 10 at the age of sixty-nine years. The death

of German surgery, who lived in the latter part of the is also announced of Dr. Guido Bodlaender, professor of

sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth centuries. physical chemistry and electrotechnics at the Brunswick

We have received the January number of Le Radium, a Technical College.

monthly journal devoted to radio-activity and now We regret to see the announcements of the deaths of mencing its second year of publication. It contains articles Dr. T. H. Behrens, professor of microchemistry at the

on Finsen's method of phototherapy, on the sensitisation Delft Polytechnic School, on January 14, at the age of

of living tissues by the injection of certain fluorescent dyes sixty-two; of Dr. Albert von Reinach, the eminent

whereby they become more susceptible to, and more penegeologist of Frankfurt, on January 12; of Prof. Benjamin trable by, the radium rays, and on the phenomena of inducW. Frazier, professor of mineralogy and metallurgy at

tion, together with a comprehensive review of recent work. Lehigh University since 1871; and of M. Joseph Chaudron,

The publication is excellently printed and illustrated. the Nestor of Belgian mining engineers, at the age of eighty-two. M. Chaudron's method of boring shafts was first

Messrs. WINSLOW AND BELCHER have carried out employed in 1848, and its most recent application is now

investigation on the variations in the number of bacteria in progress at the colliery at Dover.

in samples of sewage kept in the laboratory (Journal of

Infectious Diseases, i., No. 1). They find that the total The annual general meeting of the Iron and Steel number of bacteria rises rapidly during the first twenty-four Institute will be held on May 11 and 12. The annual hours of storage, increasing more than ten-fold, and then dinner will be held-under the presidency of Mr. R. A. decreases steadily for at least six months. The rise and Hadfield-in the Grand Hall of the Hotel Cecil on May 12. fall in the number of bacteria appear to affect the various The autumn meeting will be held in Sheffield on Sep- organisms in an almost equal degree, there being no

Members of the institute are invited to tendency towards the development of a pure culture of participate in an International Congress of Mining, Metal- any dominant form.



tember 25-29



A THIRD example, of variation--among gold and silver grow with great rapidity. As to the size of adult whales, pheasants-is discussed by Mr. F. Finn in the Avicultural Mr. Lucas remarks that, neglecting the wild statements Magazine for January., These variations, in the colour of sailors and others, the length of the sulphur-bottom, and markings of the plumage, would, in the author's Balaenoptera musculus, is given as being from Agit.

to 95ft. No whales opinion, be regarded as at least of subspecific value if

this so large as

taken the birds were wild instead of domesticated.

during the season of 1903. The largest four females

ranged from 74ft. 4in. 10 75ft. long, the largest In the Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of

three males 73ft. 4in. to 74ft. Sin., the measure being Edinburgh for December last (vol. i. part i.) Dr. Gerald

taken from the notch of the flukes, along the body, to Leighton discusses the variation in the matter of scaling opposite the tip of the nose. All these whales were not displayed by the common viper (Vipera berus), which he shows to be very extensive. His main thesis is apparently

merely adult, but, as shown by an examination of their to demonstrate that squamation is an unsound feature

vertebræ, were old, the largest male, taken for a skeleton, upon which to rely in the discrimination of reptilian

having the epiphysial sutures obliterated sase for a line

or two on the thoracic vertebra. Mr. Lucas consequently species, and consequently that the “ small red viper " of

considers that it seems fair to assume that the average the British Isles entitled to be regarded as a distinct form. As regards mammals and birds, at all events,

length of a fully grown sulphur-bottom is just under Soft. modern naturalists by no means accept it as “an axiom CONTINUING their notes on the Codiaceæ in the Journal in zoological classification that morphological characters of Botany (January), Mr. and Mrs. Gepp describe with alone are to be taken into consideration.'

figures a new species and a new variety of the incrusted

alga Penicillus, also a new form of Rhipocephalus Phoenix, VARIATION of another type forms the subject of a paper which were collected by Mr. M. A. Howe off the Bahamas. by Mr. O. C. Bradley in the above-mentioned issue of Mr. G. C. Druce publishes in the same journal a long the Proceedings of the Edinburgh Physical Society. The

list of flowering plants and ferns for which new localities trapezium of the carpus of the horse is the structure dis

in Berkshire have been recorded since the “ Flora of cussed in this communication, and it is shown that this

Berkshire " was issued, and Mr. C. E. Salmon discusses bone is present, either in one or both limbs, in about

Limonium vulgare and its varieties. 50 per cent. of the skeletons examined, while if each carpus be taken separately (that is, without reference to A list of the species of Compositæ from the Island of the condition in its fellow) the percentage is a little

Formosa which are represented in the herbarium of more than 40. This, in conjunction with its minute Tokio University forms the concluding part of vol. xviñ. size, leads to the conclusion that in the evolution of of the Journal of the College of Science, Tokio. The the monodactyle foot of the horse the bone in question author, Mr. B. Hayate, prefaces his list with an analysis is following in the steps of the lateral metacarpal with of the genera, thirty-nine in number. Among these which it was originally connected.

Blumea furnishes seven species, including, of course,

Blumea balsamifera, the source of Ngai-camphor. Two * The article on Dr. True's recent memoir on The new species, a Gynura and a Eupatorium, are described Whalebone Whales of the Western North Atlantic which and figured. appeared in Nature of November 14, 1904 (p. 84), has led Mr. F. A. Lucas, of the Brooklyn Institute Museum,

The limit of an Antarctic phytogeographical zone is to send us some results of measurements of whales made

discussed by Mr. C. Skottsberg, the botanist of the by him at Balena, Newfoundland. Mr. Lucas was one of

Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1901-3, in an article in the party sent to Newfoundland by the U.S. National

the Geographical Journal (December, 1904). It has been Museum in 1903 to secure the skeleton and mould of a

usual to include in the Antarctic flora the plants of Tierra large sulphur-bottom whale in order that the skeleton

del Fuego and the Falkland Islands, but Mr. Skottsberg and a reproduction of the whale might be prepared for the

prefers to confine the term Antarctic to 1 cold desert St. Louis Exposition. If whales grow slowly and require

zone which comprises Graham Land and the islands lying many years to reach their full size, there should naturally

north of it, also the South Shetlands and the South be examples of all sizes from small to large among those

Orkneys, and to distinguish another, the Austral zone, in measured. As a matter of fact, Mr. Lucas remarks that,

which the climate permits of the formation of forest or with the single exception of a female 64ft. long, all the

grassland. The two zones differ also with regard to their sulphur-bottom whales examined by him

algal vegetation; the Austral flora contains algü with

were fairly large, and while some were immature and some old, the

floating fronds such as Macrocystis pyrifera and Durvillea difference between the largest and smallest was, for such

utilis, but these are wanting in the Antarctic zone, where large animals, inconsiderable. With the exception noted the

calcareous algæ predominate. females, ten in number, varied from 68ft. ioin. to 75ft.,

As interesting summary of the rainfall of the British the greatest jump being from 71ft. 8in. to 74ft. 4in.

Isles for the year 1904 is given by Dr. H. R. Mill in Fourteen males varied from 67ft. zin. to 74ft. 8in., the

Symons's Meteorological Magasine for January. Taking greatest break being at the commencement of the series, the British Isles as a whole, the year may be considered from 67ft. fin. to 68ft. uin. No very small sulphur- as a moderately dry one; the deficiency in the amount of bottom whale was taken during Mr. Lucas's stay, but

rainfall does not seem to have exceeded 8 per cent. ; thr several young humpbacks were brought in from 24ft. to extremes noted were 129.3 inches at Seathwaite, and 10.1 26ft. in length. These were still nursing, and it seems inches at Shoeburyness. The whole of the Atlantic border fair to assume that a sulphur-bottom whale of the same

from Cornwall to Shetland had more than the average age (a yearling ?) would be from zoft. to 35ft. long. This amount; the excess was most marked in the west of seems to indicate that young sulphur-bottoms keep away Ireland, being as much as 18 per cent. in places, but the from the coast of Newfoundland, while the fact that the east of Ireland was so dry that the whole island exceeded 64ft. specimen was much younger than those 67ft. to 69ft. the average by only i per cent. In England and Wales there long would indicate that up to this point at least whales was a deficiency of about 12 per cent. The driest region

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occupied the midlands and extended to the Severn on the jection many optical phenomena, such as interference, south-west, the Humber on the north-east, and Yarmouth diffraction, and the behaviour in polarised light of crystalon the east. The whole of this area had a deficiency ex- line sections. Messrs. Ernecke, we notice, have acquired ceeding 20 per cent. For the whole of Scotland there was the sole right of manufacturing the various forms of the a deficiency of about 8 per cent. ; this was due mainly to Wehnelt interrupter. the exceptional dryness of the east coast. Dr. Mill loses no opportunity of enhancing the value of his published In the course of an investigation on the anomalous disrainfall tables, and we are glad to learn that all values persion of sodium vapour, Prof. R. W. Wood (Proc. Amer. quoted in future will be referred to an average of thirty Acad., 1904, xl., 365) has observed that the vapour of years, 1870-99.

sodium possesses a most remarkable viscosity which makes PARTS xi. and xii. of vol. ciii. of the Bulletin de la

it possible to obtain at one part of an exhausted glass

tube mass of the heated vapour of great density Société d'Encouragement contain a review, by M. L. Gruner, of the metallurgical exhibits at the St. Louis

separated by a high vacuum from the glass plates which Exhibition, and a general account, by M. H. Le Chatelier,

close the ends of the tube. The tendency of the metal to of the uses of special steels in industry.

distil into the colder parts of the tube is extraordinarily

small ; even after an hour hardly a trace of sodium vapour The report for 1904 of the Board of Trade on its can be detected beyond the heated portion. The vapour proceedings under the Weights and Measures Act contains appears to possess a cohesion similar to that of a liquid, particulars of a new denomination of Board of Trade and even in a vacuum tube it seems to have a free surface. standard of 50 pounds weight which has been made and Potassium, on the other hand, distils instantaneously into verified in consequence of representations by the Liver

the colder parts

the tube. The dispersion of sodium prol Chamber of Commerce and the Mersey Docks and vapour in the vicinity of the D,-line of helium is almost Harbour Board. The use in trade of this denomination incredibly great ; if a prism could be constructed of sodium of weight authorised by Order in Council vapour giving the same deviation as a glass prism of 60°, of October 9, 1903. During the past year a number of two lines in the spectrum, separated by a distance equal

Board of Trade standards, the accuracy of which is to one twenty-third of that between the D-lines, would required by law to be re-determined once in each five appear separated by a distance greater than that between years, have been verified in relation to the imperial and the red and bluish-green of the spectrum formed by the metric standards.

glass prism. But even this dispersion is small compared

with that which obtains within, say, one Angstrom unit ALTHOUGH several investigations have been made during

of one of the D-lines of sodium. The variation of the the past six years on the deviation of the kathode rays

index of refraction with wave-length is shown to conform in an electric field, the true nature of the deviation has

throughout the range 1 2260–7500, except very close to not yet been satisfactorily determined. In vol. xxxv. of

the D-lines, with the simplest form of the dispersion the Sitzungsberichte of the Physico-medical Society of

formula developed from electromagnetic considerations Erlangen, Mr. F. Schneider describes experiments from

for a medium with a single absorption band. which, by excluding disturbing factors, he is able to decide that the deviation is of a purely electrostatic nature, and

MM. H. MOISSAN AND CHAVANNE have taken advantage that the dark kathode space has no influence upon it. of the production of metallic calcium on a commercial scale Variations in the deviation caused by differences of

to re-determine some of its physical properties. The specipotential and by other circumstances were carefully

mens which they had under examination contained from measured. The same volume of the Sitzungsberichte also

99.3 to 99.6 per cent. of the metal, and were only acted contains a discussion, by Dr. A. Wehnelt, of the produc- upon slowly by water. Calcium can be easily turned into tion of negative ions by incandescent metallic oxides, and

cylinders possessing a brilliant lustre, tarnishing, however, an interesting account, by Dr. Ferdinand Henrich, of

as might be expected, in moist air. It is sufficiently Liebig's life as a student at Erlangen and Paris.

tenacious to be drawn into wire fine as 0.5mm.

diameter, and these wires were utilised for the determinaIs the December (1904) part of the Bulletin de la Société d'Encouragement (vol. ciii.), M. H. Le Chatelier criti

tion of the specific electrical conductivity, this proving to cises the method recently introduced by Mr. Gayley at

be about 16 per cent. of that of silver. The melting point the Carnegie Steel Works of using in the blast furnaces

was found to be 810° C. and the density 1.548. The metal

was also utilised to prepare calcium amalgam in quantity ; a current of air which has been freed from moisture by

this is stable in dry air at the ordinary temperature, and cooling it below o° C. by means of an ammonia freezing machine. It is contended that Mr. Gayley's paper, recently

does not absorb either nitrogen or oxygen. The crystalline read before the Iron and Steel Institute, contains state

amalgam corresponds very nearly to the compound Hg,Ca. ments which make it improbable that the alleged economy

It is interesting to note that, whilst in a recent list of of 20 per cent. in the fuel used in this process is due

Kahlbaum metallic calcium is quoted at 6s. id. for 15 solely to the mere desiccation of the air. The principal

grains, or about gl. per oz., since its manufacture on an

industrial scale it can be obtained at is. 6d. per oz. advantage of drying the air for the blast probably lies in its giving rise to a cast containing less sulphur than ordinary pig-iron, owing to the diminished formation in

Tue January part of L'Enseignement mathématique conthe absence of water of hydrogen sulphide capable of

tains a number of papers which should prove of interest to

English mathematicians. Dr. J. S. Mackay, of Edinattacking the spongy iron. Preliminary experiments have shown the probability of this view.

burgh, contributes an interesting account of the life and

works of the late Prof. Tait. Prof. Gino Loria gives an We have received from the firm of Ferdinand Ernecke, of account of the progress made and the methods adopted in Berlin, a catalogue of their lanterns for optical projection ; Italy in the reform of teaching of elementary mathematics, this catalogue is noteworthy because of the description and in particular geometry. Mathematical teaching for which it contains of methods for demonstrating by pro- engineers forms the subject of a paper by Prof. Jules




Andrade, based on his own experiences in the University The Engineering Standards Committee has now issued of Besançon, and finally, M. Louis Couturat, of Paris, its report on pipe flanges. It is entitled “British contributes a paper on The Definitions of Mathematics. Standard Tables of Pipe Flanges," and is published by

Messrs. Crosby Lockwood and Son at 25. 6d. net. A SERIES of articles by Mr. E. Edser on the “ Electromagnetic Theory is appearing month by month in The Department of Revenue and Agriculture of the Technics, and should prove useful to students of physics. Government of India has published the agricultural The article contributed to the January issue deals with the statistics of India for the years 1898–9 to 1902–3, in two electric circuit. A very simple method is given of deter- volumes. The first part is concerned with British India mining the force on a conductor carrying an electric cur- and the second with the native States. The voluminous rent perpendicular to a magnetic field, and this result is particulars have been compiled under the supervision of used to obtain an expression for the electromotive force the director-general of statistics. produced when a conductor cuts lines of force. The re

Several catalogues of physical, chemicals and other sults, of course, are well known, and are used by every

scientific apparatus have been received from Messrs. Brady electrical engineer, but the reasoning by which they are

and Martin, Ltd., of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Among inobtained is not so widely understood. Most of the results

teresting instruments described in a supplement that brings are determined directly from the properties of lines of

a larger catalogue up to date may be mentioned Sodeau's force, and the usefulness of the article is greatly increased

new form of gas analysis apparatus, and Seger's cones for by careful scale drawings.

the determination of the temperature of furnaces, kilns. Messrs. R. AND J. Beck, Ltd., supply, for one guinea, &c. A special supplementary list of new apparatus for a glass trough, 4X3 X 0.8 inches, which can be raised or experiments in physics includes particulars of simple apdepressed on a vertical metal upright a distance of from pliances described in recent text-books of practical physics 1} inches to 10 inches from the table. This trough forms which are largely used in the laboratories of schools and a simple form of light filter when filled with liquid, and colleges. will serve not only as a useful adjunct to a microscope, but

The story of the Zeiss works at Jena is of deep interest, for many other purposes where it is of advantage to use a

both in its scientific and sociological aspects. Prof. F. screen for monochromatic light.

Auerbach described the Jena enterprise in a volume pubMessrs. TAYLOR, TAYLOR AND Hobson, LTD., have lished in 1903. This work has now been translated into recently issued two series of rapid Cooke lenses that English by Mr. S. F. Paul and Mr. F. J. Cheshire, and should prove of great service, not only in high-speed photo published by Messrs. Marshall, Brookes and Chalkley, Ltd., graphy, but for the finest portraiture and for difficult

under the title “ The Zeiss Works and the Carl-Zeiss subjects under fair conditions of lighting. They are

Stiftung in Jena." A short account of the creation and known as the Series iv. and ii., and have full apertures

progress of these great cooperative works was given in of f/5.6 and f/4.5 respectively. The makers have fully the obituary notice of Prof. Ernst Abbe which appeared developed in these new lenses the advantages of construc

in last week's NATURE (p. 301). Many other interesting tion of their well-known Series iii. and v. Cooke lenses. particulars will be found in the English edition of Prof. The leaflet, which contains details and prices of these

Auerbach's book, which is a popular description of the lenses, includes some striking illustrations of the work

development and importance of

that offers accomplished by them.

valuable lessons to students of physics, technology, and

social science.
We have received from Messrs. Burroughs Wellcome
and Co. their photographic exposure record and diary,
which is a most handy pocket book and contains many

new features. The monthly light tables are now placed at ASTRONOMICAL OCCURRENCES IN FEBRUARY :-
the end of the book, and the order of the months has been Feb. 5. 9h. 7m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei).


8. 2h. Conjunction of the Moon and Venus.
reversed so that the current month faces the exposure
calculator, each month being torn off as it passes. This

3° 20' N.

5h. 56m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei). renders the calculation of an exposure a very simple pro

9. 18h. Conjunction of the Moon and Jupiter. Jupiter cess indeed. There is also ample room for recording

2° 49'. details of plates exposed, facts relating to positive ex

13. 5h. 12m. to 6h. 32m. Moon occults * Tauri posures, and ordinary notes and memoranda, for each of

(mag. 36).

In which three separate sets of pages are available.

Moon occults Tauri 5h. 14m. to 6h. 29m.

(mag. 3'9). addition to these and other items of useful information


12h. Venus at greatest elongation, 46° 41' E for photographers, there is a serviceable article on exposure,

Venus. Illuminated portion of disc=0°516, of Mars giving complete instructions for using the calculator pro

=0.903 vided, a concise explanation of the factors governing correct

18. 5h. 53m. to 8h. 9m. Transit of Jupiter's Satellite exposure, and an up to date list of the speeds of all plates

III. (Ganymede);

19. Partial eclipse of the Moon, partly visible at and films, including, besides British, a number of American

Greenwich. and Continental brands. Bound in a

neat cover, with

4h. 41m.

First contact with penumbra. pocket and pencil attached, this excellent, cheap, and

shadow. compact little pocket encyclopædia of photography should

7h. om. be in great demand by all workers, whether amateur or

8h. 7m. Last contact with shadow.

gh. 19m. professional.


Moon rises at Greenwich at 5h. 16m.
Mr. W. B. Clive has published new

and enlarged

Magnitude of the eclipse=0-410.

Ioh. 5m. to oh. 40ni. Moon occults Virginis editions of parts i. and ii. of Dr. G. H. Bailey's “ Tutorial

(mag. 40). Chemistry.” Both volumes have been edited by Dr.

24. Vesta 3 N. of 8 Virginis.
William Briggs

Minimum of Algol (8 Persei).
NO. 1840

28 7h. 40m.



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5h. 34m. Middle of the eclipse.





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+16 31


JUPITER'S Sixth SATELLITE.-A further telegram respect- TRIANGULATION OF THE PLEIADES Stars.-An important ing the recently discovered sixth satellite of Jupiter has addition to the data concerning the positions, the interbeen received from the Kiel Centralstelle. It contains a mutual distances, and the movements of the Pleiades stars statement from Prof. Perrine that the object discovered by is contained in parts vi. and vii., vol. i., of the Transachim

not identical with Prof. Wolf's minor planet tions of the Astronomical Observatory of Yale University. 1905 P.V. The position of the satellite on January 17 at During 1884-6 the director, Dr. Elkin, made a series Sh. 44.3m. (Lick M.T.) R.A. = ih.

8s., of heliometer observations for the triangulation of the dec. = +7° 37'.

Pleiades, and published the results in part i. of the same A later telegram than the above, published in a supple- volume of the Transactions. Since then, however, a new

No. 3990 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, source of systematic error affecting such results has been states that Proi. Perrine observed the satellite on January discovered, and Dr. Elkin has, therefore, re-reduced his 17-703 (G.M.T.), and found that its position with reference observations. The final values are given in part vi., and to Jupiter was 266° and its distance 36'.

are therein compared with the similar results obtained at EPHEMERIS FOR COMET 1904 e.- :--The following is the Königsberg in 1840 and those obtained during the more latter part of a daily ephemeris for comet 1904 e (Borrelly)

recent triangulation carried out at Yale. The results of published by Herr M. Ebell in No. 3989 of the Astro- these comparisons indicate a motion, in regard to the rest nomische Nachrichten.

of the group, of 9 out of the 58 stars common to the a (true) 8 (true) log? log A


three researches; the apparent displacements determined

from the comparison of the Königsberg and Yale results Feb. 1 2 98... +15 17 O'2092 ... 0'1501


are shown on a chart accompanying the present paper. 7 +15 54

Part vii. of the publication contains an account of the 3 2 13 6

second triangulation carried out at Yale by Mr. Mason F. 4 2 15 7 +17 7

Smith during the winters of 1900-1 and 1901-2, and 5 2 17 8

+17 43

0-2133 ... 0'1638 ... 0:54 shows the complete reduction of the observations, together Brightness at time of discovery=1.0 (=mag. 10.0). with a final table in which the places of 58 Pleiades stars, From the above it will be seen that the comet is now

for 1885.0, are given with the precession and secular travelling in a north-easterly direction through the con

variation values for each. stellation Aries, and is observable-although very faint- A BRIGHT Meteor.—Mr. J. Ryan, writing from the between sunset and midnight.

Manor House, Kensal Green, N.W.,

that he SOLAR ECLIPSE PROBLEMS.-In an address read at the observed a very brilliant meteor at about 11.58 on the International Congress of Arts and Sciences, held at St. night of January 27. The meteor appeared about three Louis in September, Prof. Perrine enumerated and dis- degrees below Orionis as bright as a star of the first cussed a number of the outstanding problems which still magnitude ; it travelled slowly in a path nearly parallel to confront solar eclipse observers.

a line joining * and B Orionis, increasing in size until it The first problem mentioned was that relating to the burst into a green ball when below B Orionis, and faded. existence of an intra-mercurial planet, and Prof. Perrine The complete path was traversed in about 8 seconds. states that this year's eclipse ought to settle the problem so far as the existence of a body brighter than the tenth magnitude is concerned. Such a body would not be above

THE GENERAL MOTION OF CLOUDS. 12 or 15 miles in diameter, and it would take about a million such to account for the anomalies in the motion THE issue of the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorof Mercury.

ological Society for October, 1904, contains a transThe movements and velocities of coronal matter are most lation of the report on the international observations of important problems which should be settled, and, clouds presented by Prof. H. H. Hildebrandsson to the stations situated so far apart as Labrador and Egypt may Permanent International Committee during its session be utilised during the coming eclipse, this should offer at Southport in 1903. It is not too much to say that all exceptional opportunity of solving the problem, because this report is one of the most important contributions to of the length of time between the passing of the shadow our knowledge of the physics of the atmosphere which at these places. Prof. Perrine suggests the employment the last twenty-five years have brought forth, and the of cameras having focal lengths of 40 or 50 feet and Royal Meteorological Society has rendered a substantial pointed directly at the sun, or, where the atmospheric con- service by making the report accessible to English readers. ditions are favourable, longer cameras, mounted horizon- Our knowledge, from direct observations, of the average tally, might be used. The rotational velocity of the corona motion of the air over the greater part of the earth's as regards that of the sun's surface is another problem surface has been in a sense complete for a considerable which he discusses. Finally, he points out the urgent need number of years, but of the currents in the upper air we for a number of well-equipped and well-organised expe- have until recently had little or no direct information, ditions, and suggests that the interchange of plans and and all schemes of a general circulation of the atmosphere ideas before the eclipse takes place might lead to results as a whole have had to substitute hypothesis for fact in of greater value being obtained.

dealing with this part of the subject. It therefore became Tue CONDITIONS IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

of the highest importance to whether any direct 1900-1:-An interesting discussion of the conditions evidence could be obtained on this point. The most obvious obtaining in the solar atmosphere during the minimum method of attacking the problem consisted in observing epoch of 1900-1,

as indicated by the author's eclipse the direction and speed of drift of dust photographs taken in Spain and Sumatra, is given in the particles suspended in the atmosphere. Dust particles are January number of the Bulletin de la Société de France by seldom sufficiently numerous in the upper air to be of use M. N. Donitch, of St. Petersburg. He discusses turn in this connection, but clouds occur in all parts of the the spectra of the chromosphere, the prominences and the world, and their observation is comparatively easy. Even corona, the form of the corona, and the solar repulsion this method, however, has its limitations. Observations theory of Prof. Bredichin as applied to the latter.

are clearly impossible on cloudless days, and it also freIn discussing the spectrum of the chromosphere, he refers quently happens that the upper clouds are obscured by to Sir Norman Lockyer's eclipse results, and, in directing lower cloud forms. special attention to the lines at M 5317.7 and 4233.8 To obtain any general results observations from every (Donitch), he states that his results as to the non-agree- part of the earth's surface were essential, and to secure ment of these with the monochromatic coronal radiations these the ponderous machinery of international cooperation incontestably confirm the conclusions arrived at from the had to be called into play. In the year 1878 a request English observations.

was addressed to the Permanent International Committee The spectra obtained by M. Donitch show that the to organise a comprehensive system of cloud observations. prominences may be divided into two types, one composed After some preliminary consultations a scheme, in which entirely of calcium vapours, the second containing in cloud forms were divided into two classes, viz. upper and addition hydrogen and helium.

lower clouds, was adopted, and observations on this plan NO. 1840, VOL. 71]






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