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were made for several years during the 'eighties. Com- form the most complete example of this alternation in parison of the results, however, showed that the adopted Prof. Hildebrandsson's report ; some further very striking classification was inadequate, and it became necessary to instances are to be found in the cloud results for the agree on a more complete subdivision of cloud forms. West Indies recently published by the U.S. Weather This task proved to be by no means an easy one, but Bureau (Monthly Weather Review, vol. xxxii., No. eventually our present international classification of clouds p. 166). into ten main types was adopted, and some years later,
III.-India. early in 1896, the international cloud atlas, which contains twenty-eight coloured plates illustrative of cloud forms,
The wind circulation over India is exceedingly comples together with explanatory text in three languages, was
at the surface, but at higher altitudes a much simpler published.
state of affairs is found to prevail. Prof. Hildebrandsson At the request of the committee, cloud observations were
divides his observations into two groups, those from the carried out at a large number of stations during the
north (Lahore to Calcutta) and those from the more period from May 1, 1896, to the end of 1897. At the
central districts between Bombay and Cuttack. He finds more important stations the height and the direction of
that in the former the upper currents blow steadily from motion of clouds were determined by means of the photo
the west from December to April, but during the remainder grammeter or with theodolites; at the remainder, direction of the year they tend to become easterly. Over Central only was observed with the help of nephoscopes.
India the upper westerly wind prevails throughout the The materials thus accumulated, as well as a large
year, except in August and September. Since the appearnumber of trustworthy observations of earlier date, are
ance of the report, Sir John Eliot has dealt with the dediscussed by Prof. Hildebrandsson in the present report.
tailed cloud observations taken at six Indian stations
the The method adopted has been to work out, for each region
during years 1896-1900 (Indian Meteorological of the earth's surface, the direction of the average monthly
Memoirs, vol. xv., part i.). These show a much steadier drift of the atmosphere at various heights with
upper westerly current in the north. At Simla and Jaipur “resultantometer devised by Mr. Sandström. The
the average upper wind is westerly throughout the year: results are set out in tables and diagrams, and in what
at Lahore and Allahabad an easterly component appears follows attention will be directed to some of the most
in the averages for August and September only. Further important points.
to the south we find an alternation similar to that de
scribed above. At Madras the equatorial upper current 1.—Tropical Zone.
from the east prevails during the summer; in winter the Observations at stations near the equator agree in show
upper currents vary between south and south-west. ing a drift of the upper atmosphere from some easterly point at all seasons of the year. At Paramaribo (Dutch
IV.—Temperate Zone. Guiana, lat. 51° N.), out of 270 observations of upper clouds, only 6 were from south-east and five from north- Throughout the temperate zone the direction of the east. This well marked easterly current in the upper- average upper currents is from some westerly point all most regions of the air near the equator was revealed in
the year round in both hemispheres, though few observsingular during the eruption of
ations are available from the south of the equator. In Krakatoa in 1883. The optical effects produced by the Europe and in North America there is thus substantial fine dust, which was carried up to great heights, travelled
agreement between the general drift of the atmospbere round the earth from east to west in about twelve or
at all levels, but when we turn to eastern Asia this is not thirteen days, indicating an upper east wind moving with
the case. The excellent observations taken at the Observ. the prodigious velocity of 83 miles per hour.
atory of Zikawei (Shanghai) show that at the surface and
at the level of the lower clouds the prevailing direction II.-Trade-wind Zone.
is from the north during the winter and from the east,
i.e. towards the low pressure system over the continent The generally accepted theory of the origin of the trade of Asia, during the summer ; but already at the level of winds formulated by Halley and completed by Hadley the intermediate clouds, and still more at higher levels, a teaches us to expect upper anti-trade winds from south-steady drift from the west is found at all seasons. Similar west or north-west in the northern and southern hemi- results are shown by the observations from Japan. spheres respectively, and this expectation was found to be Though there is substantial agreement in the mean fully confirmed. At Mauritius, which lies in the centre direction of air motion over Europe at all levels, a general of the region over which the south-east trade wind pre- tendency for a component from the north to make its vails, the cloud observations show a steady upper wind influence increasingly felt at higher altitudes is clearly from the north-west throughout the year. We may there- shown. Thus at Upsala, during the winter months, the fore assume the existence of an upper wind from the surface wind is from the south-west ; the lower clouds south-west at corresponding latitudes in the northern hemi- travel from west-south-west and the intermediate ones sphere.
from west-north-west, while at the cirrus level the direcAs more temperate regions are approached this south- tion of motion is from north-west. Further north, at westerly wind becomes deviated to the right, and at Nora, in Swedish Lapland, cirrus moves from north-west Teneriffe, and still more decidedly at San Fernando and throughout the year. Some particularly interesting results Lisbon, the average drift at the cirrus level is from almost have been obtained from those of M. Teisserenc de Bort's due west. No support is afforded to the assumption made balloon ascents in which the level of the highest cloud by James Thomson and by Ferrel in their schemes of the forms was exceeded. In all these cases the balloons were general circulation of the atmosphere, that the anti-trade carried towards the south-east, showing that they met wind continues its course as an upper south-westerly wind with a north-westerly wind in the uppermost layers of until the Arctic regions are reached.
the atmosphere. Special interest attaches to the observations from the North-westerly winds at the cirrus level are also very region between the upper equatorial east wind and south- prominent at Perpignan, Pola (Austria), Tiflis, and Madrid, westerly or north-westerly anti-trade winds. On the stations which lie on the northern side of the tropical belt northern side of the equator, at surface level, a broad of high pressure, over which, as we have seen above, the band on the earth's surface is alternately covered in direction of the anti-trade winds has become deviated winter by the north-east trade wind and in summer by from south-west to west. the tropical belt of calms. At higher levels a similar Prof. Hildebrandsson sums up the results he has arrived alternation is shown. In winter, when the trade wind at under the following headings :-prevails at the surface, the anti-trade from south-west (1) Above the thermal equator and the equatorial calms blows above, but in summer the tropical upper east wind there exists throughout the year a current from the east is found above the calm region at the surface. The which appears to have a very high velocity at great observations from square No. 39 of the Atlantic Ocean, altitudes, which is situated in 10°-20° lat. N., 20°-30° long, W., (2) Above the trade winds, anti-trade winds from south
west in the northern hemisphere and from north-west in UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL the southern hemisphere prevail.
INTELLIGENCE. (3) These anti-trade winds do not extend beyond the
OXFORD.—The Vice-Chancellor has been informed that polar limits of the trade winds; they are deviated to the
at a meeting of medical graduates recently held in Lonright in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the
don to consider the present provision in the university for southern, and become currents from the west above the
the department of pathology, it was resolved (1) that tropical high pressure areas, where they descend to feed
steps should be taken to bring before the university the the trade winds.
necessity of permanent and adequate support being received (4) The air of the temperate zones is involved in vast
for the pathological department; (2) that a fund be started "polar whirlpools," which rotate from west east. This rotatory movement appears to be similar to that of
for the purpose of assisting in this object, and the primary
object of this be the establishment and endowment of a ordinary cyclones; the air in the lower layers draws nearer
professorship in pathology. to the centre of the whirl, while that in the upper layers
It was announced last term that the Rhodes trustees recedes from it more and more as the height above the
have made a grant for five years to Dr. Ritchie, the present earth's surface increases up to the highest regions from
reader in pathology, and New College has now elected which we have any observations.
him to an ordinary fellowship for seven years, provided (5) The layers of upper air of the temperate zones over
that he continues his readership and does research work. flow the tropical high pressure areas, and there descend.
Mr. Edward Whitley, Trinity College, has very generously (6) The irregularities found at the surface of the earth,
given the university a thousand pounds towards the permore particularly in the monsoon areas of India, disappear,
manent endowment of a pathology chair. as a general rule, at the level of the lower or intermediate clouds.
CAMBRIDGE.—The Vice-Chancellor announces two impor(7) The theory of a vertical circulation of the atmo- tant bequests which have been left to the university. The sphere between the tropics and the poles, which has
first consists of 5000l., to be expended in improving the hitherto been accepted (Ferrel, James Thomson), must be instrumental equipment of the Newall Observatory, and Jhandoned.
of a very valuable collection of illuminated manuscripts The report as published in the society's journal is very and early printed books and objects of mediæval and early fully illustrated by reproductions of the diagrams of the art, to be placed in the Fitzwilliam Museum, left by Mr. original edition. M. Teisserenc de Bort's charts of the
Frank McClean, F.R.S., of Trinity College. The second average distribution of pressure at the 4000-metre level for
bequest is left by the late editor of the Athenaeum, Mr. January and July are also given, and they illustrate in
Norman Maccoll, of Christ's and Downing Colleges, and very striking manner the scheme of general circulation consists of sool. to form some endowment for a lectureship of the upper air to which the results of Prof. Hilde- in Spanish or Portuguese, together with a valuable library brandsson's report point.
The number of commissions allotted to the university,
the first half-yearly nomination to which will take place AMERICAN HYDROIDS.
after the examination in September next, is one in the
Royal Artillery, one in the Indian Army, and five in the THE first part of this large work dealt with the plumu- cavalry, Foot Guards, infantry, or the Army Service
larian hydroids. After an interval of four years, the Corps. second part, à folio of some 150 pages and 57 plates, has The regulations for administering the Gordon Wigan heen issued. It appeals exclusively and intentionally to fund are announced. The revenue will be divided between the student of systematic zoology; but owing to the wide the special board of physics and chemistry and the special distribution of the family—the sea-firs" of our coasts- board of biology and geology, to be used in promoting and this account, though dealing primarily with American encouraging scientific education and research. The bequest species, will assist students of sertularian taxonomy in amounts to some goool. almost any part of the world.
LONDON.--Mr. William Loring, late director of educaThe plan of this book is that of the first part. There is first an anatomical account of the stem and its branches,
tion under the County Council of the West Riding of
Yorkshire, has been appointed warden of the Goldsmiths' then a résumé of the distribution, horizontal and vertical, in different seas, and finally a hundred pages of specio
College, New Cross, and Mr. Edgar Schuster Francis
Galton research fellow in national eugenics. graphy. The most assiduous care has been employed in
The Mercers' Company has voted a sum of 1000l. to drawing up these descriptions and in illustrating them by well selected figures; and most critical and generous
the university for the promotion of the study of physi
ology at University College. consideration is given to previous researches on this group
Mr. W. Williams has been awarded the degree of of animals.
doctor of science through a thesis on The Temperature For some not very obvious reason, Prof. Nutting has
Variations of the Electrical Resistances of Pure Metals," decided to postpone the more interesting bearings of his
and other contributions. subject to the final volume, and confines himself in the
Mr. H. M. Hobart has been appointed lecturer in work before us rigidly to a consideration of the taxonomic
electrical engineering design at the Northampton Institute and diagnostic features of the Sertularidæ. We look in
in succession to Mr. E. K. Scott, who has been appointed vain for any explanation of the mode of distribution,
lecturer in electrical engineering in the University of though the occurrence of the majority in Alaskan and
Sydney. Mr. M. H. Smith has been appointed chief Arctic waters suggests a polar origin. There is no assistant in the mechanical engineering department in attempt to explain the absence of free medusæ, nor are
succession to Mr. W. E. Curnock, who has been appointed we given any information as to the habits of these
head of the mechanical engineering department of the hydroids, their modes of growth and of repairing injury, Technical College, Huddersfield. the influence of light upon their branching and reproductive powers. There is not a single experiment recorded in the
MANCHESTER.—The new public health laboratories, which work, though it is to be expected from the plasticity of
have been erected by the Victoria University and have cost such cælenterates that continuous and discontinuous
13,000l., were opened on January 27 by Mr. W. J. variation may be induced by changes in environment.
Crossley. Lord Spencer, Chancellor of the University, On the other hand, differentiating anatomical characters,
presided at the ceremony, and the large gathering included such as the forms of branching, the shape of the gonidial
the Lord Mayor of Manchester and the Mayor of Salford. sacs, and the opercula, are described and combined into a
Honorary degrees were afterwards conferred upon Prof. system with great care, and it is to be hoped that Prof.
Calmelle, Lille University ; Prof. Perroncito; Turin UniNutting has laid the foundation of a permanent and
versity ; Prof. Salomonsen, Copenhagen University; and authoritative classification.
Captain R. F. Scott, R.N. 1 "American Hydroids. Part ii. Sertularidæ." By C. C. Nutting, Smithsonian lastitution. U.S. National Museum. Special Bulletin. (Wash
It has been resolved to institute, in the United College, ragion, 1904.)
University of St. Andrews, a lectureship in organic chemistry, and to appoint Dr. James C. Irvine as the THE Association of Technical Institutions held lecturer.
general meeting on January 27 at the Manche It is reported in Science that, by the will of the late of Technology: Sir Philip Magnus was electMr. E. W. Codman, of Boston and Nahant, Mass., an
of the association for 1905, and in the course of estate which may reach 200,oool. will be equally divided
directed attention to the fact that in technical ins
students who attend even the most elementary between Harvard University and the Massachusetts General Hospital.
classes are too often insufficiently prepared
the teaching. They are deficient in power of The United States ambassador, Mr. Choate, has accepted they lack practical knowledge of arithmetic, the invitation of the governing body of the Battersea ments of science and the necessary skill in drac Polytechnic to distribute the awards and deliver an address
word, the training in the elementary schools of on the occasion of the next annual distribution of prizes on has not produced satisfactory results. The Wednesday evening, February 22.
teaching must be made more practical. The It is reported in Science that Harvard University and will supersede the class room in elementary the University of Berlin have practically arranged a method tinued Sir Philip Magnus, and manual training by which a temporary exchange of professors will occur.
the central feature of the training around It is further stated that a similar arrangement has been
studies will be grouped. Numerous papers made between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Principal Reynolds, of Manchester, Mr. Wir and the Berlin Institute of Technology.
Bolton, and Principal Crowther, of Halifax,
on the co-ordination of the work of evening MR. J. D. ROCKEFELLER has signified his willingness to
schools and municipal technical institutions. contribute to the University of Chicago for the year be- operation of employers in the technical training ginning July 1, 1905, the sum of 49,000l. for current
apprentices was the subject of a discussion expenses, this being the same sum that he has contributed
Principal Belcher, of Coventry, and Principal G during the present year. Mr. Rockefeller has also con
Norwich. The registration of teachers in techni tributed this year 12,000l. for the enlargement of the tutions was dealt with by Principal Wells, of Bati heating plant of the university.
The report of the council of the Association of A COURSE of lectures and discussions has been arranged Institutions was presented at the annual general by the Childhood Society and the British Child-Study on January 27. The report states that, from the Association, to be delivered in the Parkes Museum, Mar- view of those specially concerned with technical educ on. garet-street, W., and will commence on February 9. Among the year 1904 has been marked chiefly by the develo ant the subjects are :—Some physiological problems in educa- and coordination of local educational organisation arby tion; the proposed anthropometric survey; mental faculty the perfecting of matters of internal administration. It of the child : its growth and culture; fatigue in children; is too soon, the report states, to say what the effects of the health of children qua food and management; and the abolition of the Technical Instruction and Local imitation.
Taxation (Customs and Excise) Acts and the placing of At the annual conference of representative Mahomedans
all branches of education under one local authority
may from all parts of India, held at Lucknow a month ago, it have upon the further extension of technical education. was agreed to form science faculties at Aligarh College. While recognising the possible danger to these interests of The list of subscriptions towards this object was headed by
the large and growing demand for expenditure upon other the Raja of Mahmudabad with a munificent donation of branches of education, the association views with satis Rs.35,000. The aggregate subscriptions to the fund for faction the increasing recognition of the belief that promoting the advancement of Aligarh College to the technical education can only produce the best results when status of a university, which will be the future university it builds upon the sure foundation of a sound secondary of Mahomedans in India, now amounts to Rs.1,04,000
education. Among matters to which the association has (70ool.).
given attention may be mentioned that of the possibility In connection with the fund instituted to supplement the by advanced students in technical institutions; and that of
of obtaining a number of research scholarships, tenable resources of the Melbourne University, the Hon. F. S.
the desirability of instituting a scheme for the issue by Grimwade has given 1000l. for the purpose of founding technical institutions of diplomas upon some common an annual prize at the university, to be awarded in respect basis of award. This last question is of such importance of research work in some branch of industrial chemistry. that it has been referred to a subcommittee for further This donation, says the Pharmaceutical Journal, raises the inquiry and report. fund to 11,000l., and enables the university to claim a subscription of 1000l. promised by Mr. Andrew Carnegie. Tue annual meeting of the Mathematical Association The whole of the money subscribed, which, with a Govern- was held at King's College on January 28. Prof. G. B. ment grant of 12,00ol., now totals 24,000l., is to be devoted
Mathews, F.R.S., was elected president for the ensuing to the purpose of building laboratories. The Government year. Papers were read on models and their uses by has promised a supplementary grant of 5000l. next year.
Mr. E. M. Langley, and on the new geometry by Mr.
W. H. Wagstaff, who does not think it is desirable to The need for a university in the south-west of England make all boys learn deductive geometry, but that some continues to be urged locally from time to time. At the should learn logic instead, and that some training in recent ordinary general meeting of the governors of practical geometry should be given to all. A discussion on University College, Bristol, Mr. Henry Hobhouse said that the question : “Should Greek be Compulsory for Matheit was unfortunate that the south-west of England was maticians at Cambridge?" was opened by Mr. A. W. almost the only part of England and Wales that had no Siddons, who urged that mathematicians should not have local university, and spoke of Bristol as the only possible special arrangements made for thein; that, it Greek was centre for such an institution. Principal Lloyd Morgan, compulsory for others, it should be for mathematicians also. F.R.S., who returned recently from a visit to the United Prof. A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S., said it is to his mind States, gave it as his opinion, after inspecting the equip- extraordinary that teachers of classics argue that, is Greek ment and work of the American university colleges, that be made optional, therefore the subject will become extinct when the amount of work done by the staff of Bristol The subject has a strong hold on the public schools and University College is compared with the amount being the universities; every outside inducement to its condone in any one of the American institutions he had visited, tinuation is still maintained, but in a large number of and the cost of the one is compared with the cost of the schools in the country Greek is now extinct. If the ancient other, Bristol University College is ahead of them all. universities maintain this barrier of Greek as a preliminary Several speakers urged the pressing need for more funds. qualification for a degree, it means one of two things In this connection we are glad to notice that the college either that all the boys in those schools where Greek is received last year nearly 5000l. in donations outside the now extinct are cut off from the universities, and so those ordinary income.
institutions cease to be contributing to the educational
wealth of the country to the same extent as they used to colloidal metals probably takes place practically instando, or else that many boys often proceed to get up the subject taneously on the surface of the catalyser, so that the from the point of view of satisfying a miserable minimum. concentration of the hydrogen peroxide there is permanently What was asked for is a relaxation in favour of education maintained at zero, and the velocity of the reaction actually in general and not in favour of any special class of people. measured is that with which diffusion and convection The elimination of literary training in the country is not renew the solute contact with the catalytic particles. being sought.
As a result, it was shown that Nernst's hypothesis would lead us to expect the reaction to proceed as one
of the first order, a conclusion which agrees with the SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
experimental results found by Bredig and his pupils. The
actual values of the experimental velocity-constants are, LONDON.
however, far too small to allow us to reconcile them with Royal Society, November 24, 1904.-“ Preliminary Com. Nernst's suggestion, and the latter must therefore be tunication on Galvanic Cells produced by the Action of rejected. Light." By Dr. M. Wilderman. (From the Davy- In order to arrive at this result, minimum theoretical Faraday Laboratory of the Royal Institution.)
values for the rate of the reaction were calculated on The author finds that there is, under the action of light, Nernst's hypothesis. For this purpose the particles were a region of galvanic cells as wide and as varied as in assumed to be spheres with a diameter of 0.51, a value the case of ordinary galvanic cells. He finds constant and which, according to Bredig, is greater than any which inconstant cells, reversible and irreversible cells. The was met with in his solutions. The particles were supchemical reactions and chemical equilibrium in the galvanic posed to be in a state of continual movement, performing combinations are now perfectly clear ; they prove, however, the so-called Brownian motions, but in travelling through to be all sui generis, all the phenomena being intermixed the solution were assumed to take with them a film of and characterised by phenomena of induction and deduc-adhering liquid. In order to obtain a minimum value for tion, peculiar to light cells only. The author also the reaction velocity the total volume of the films was succeeded in placing this region of phenomena on a physico- supposed to be equal to that of the whole liquid. The mathematical basis, testing and proving the fundamental diffusion-coefficient of hydrogen peroxide at 25° was taken equations experimentally in all details. The principal as 10-5 cm.?/sec., a value which is smailer than that of results obtained are :
most substances with heavier molecules. (1) The total E.M.F. created by light consists of an The great part played by convection due to the Brownian E.M.F. produced by light at constant temperature, motions of the particles and stirring by gases, &c., was owing to the increase of the chemical potential and of demonstrated, it being pointed out that the experimental the solution pressure of the exposed plate, and of a thermo- results regarding the dependence of the velocity-constants E.M.F. caused by one of the plates in contact with the on the concentration of the catalyser can only be reconciled liquid being heated by light. Both E.M.F.'s are found to with the idea of a heterogeneous reaction if convection be directly proportional to the intensity of light; both plays an important part. give currents in the same direction, thus proving that Lastly, it was shown that the experimental facts all light acts on the chemical potential as well as on the agree with the assumption that the actual velocity of the solution pressure of the electrode in the same way as reaction on the surfaces of the particles always has a does heat.
finite value which is proportional to the concentration of (2) The peculiar course of the induction and deduction the solute in immediate contact with them. periods enables one to distinguish constant and inconstant In conclusion, Nernst's views regarding reactioncells showing polarisation from one another. A consider- velocities in heterogeneous systems were criticised from ation of the chemical composition and of the reactions a thermodynamical point of view, and it was shown that going on in the systems under the action of the current whereas they may possibly be correct for the majority of leads to the same results.
physical processes, great caution should be exercised in (3) The induction period follows a law
applying them to processes of a chemical nature. d'r/dt =((to' - *) (11 – 7+K),
January 19.-" The Dual Force of the Dividing Cell. giving at the same time also the fundamental law of Part i.-The Achromatic Spindle-Figure, elucidated by photography relating to the connection between the amount
Magnetic Chains of Force. By* Prof. Marcus Hartog. of silver salts decomposed and the time of exposure. The
Communicated by Sir William T. Thiselton-Dyer, deduction period follows a similar law
K.C.M.G., C.I.E., F.R.S.
The essential points of this research are described as :- da/dt = -('10-5) (TT – To'+K').
(1) The introduction of a convenient apparatus for the (4) The fundamental equation for the E.M.F. of con- study of the axial section of fields produced by isolated stant cells " reversible in respect of cation” (e.g. Ag plate poles of a dual force. in light, AgNO, solution in light, AgNO, solution in the (2) The formation of chains of force in a viscid material, dark, Ag plate in the dark) is
the recognition of their character as a distinct type of XE=0;$6oT (log. P/P4 - 20/1 + logo 2/64)Io- volt,
material configuration, and the study of their properties.
(3) The application of the conception of relative perand for constant cells reversible in respect of the meability, and of the recognition of chains of force to anion
(e.g. Ag-BrAg plate in light, KBr solution in the problem of the cell-figure. light, KBr solution in the dark, Ag-BrAg plate in the dark) is
Zoological Society, January 17. - Mr. G. A. Boulenger,
F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair.-(1) Some notes on TE=0.860Ti - loge P,/Pa+2uļu + z, log, pilpu)10-4 volt,
the cranial osteology of the mastigure (Uromastix); (2) where Pc, Pr are the solution pressures of the electrodes a contribution to the anatomy of Chlamydosaurus and in light and in dark, Pr. Pa are the osmotic pressures of
some other Agamidæ; and (3) a note on the brain of the cation or anion in the solution in light and in dark,
Cynopithecus niger: F. E. Beddard, F.R.S.-(1) A and T is the absolute temperature.
collection of sipunculids made at Singapore and Malacca ; The theory of thermogalvanic cells is also given in the (2) a collection of gephyrean worms from Zanzibar; and paper.
(3) the sipunculids and echiurids collected during the
Skeat Expedition " to the Malay Peninsula : W. F. December 8, 1904.-" The Role of Diffusion during Lanchester. Four new species were described in the Catalysis by Colloidal Metals and Similar Substances. second paper and nine in the last.-On the oral and By Dr. Henry J. S. Sand. Communicated by Prof. J. H. pharyngeal denticles of elasmobranchs : A. D. Imms. Paynting, F.R.S.
The author had found that these denticles were present This paper contains a criticism of the opinion expressed in varied abundance over the mucous membrane lining by Nernst (Zeitschrift Phys. Chem., xlvii., 55) that the both the oral and pharyngeal cavities in many of these catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide due fishes. Out of the specimens of the nineteen species
(representing eighteen genera) examined, only five, belong- water. Hüfner has ascribed this downward streaming to ing to as many genera, .were found to be totally devoid the water becoming heavier as it dissolves the gas, and of these structures.-The skull of a musk-ox from the so forming concentration currents. The author shows river-gravels of the Severn Valley at Frampton-on-Severn, from his experiments that the streaming is a gravitational near Stonehouse, Gloucestershire : Dr. C. W. Andrews. effect, but that it is not due to concentrated solution The specimen consisted of the cranial portion of the skull currents as understood by Hüfner. He also shows that of an old bull, and was found by Mr. w. T. Rennie, of when the surface layers of long columns of water, of Chepstow, who had presented it to the British Museum. small cross section, are continuously agitated by mechanical Remains of this species were comparatively rare in Britain, stirrers, or by currents of air drawn through them, the and the nearest previously recorded locality to that de- streaming becomes very rapid, with the result that the scribed Barnwood,
Gloucester.-Three columns of water are saturated with the gas in the course birds obtained by Colonel Waddell, C.B., on the recent of a few hours. The streaming takes place more rapidly expedition to Lhassa : H. E. Dresser. The birds ex- in sea-water than in distilled water.-Secondary radiation hibited and described were :-Babax waddelli, nearest to, Prof. J. A. McClelland.—The partial differential equabut differing widely from, Babax lanceolatus ; Garrulax tions of mathematical physics : Prof. A. W. Conway. A tibetanus, a much darker and more uniformly coloured method of obtaining singular solutions of these bird than Garrulax sannio, with the terminal part of the equations was obtained, applicable to non-bomogeneous tail white; and Lanius lama, a much darker bird than equations. A new class of functions called “kinetic funcLanius schach, with less white on the forehead, no rufous tions was introduced.—The Primary rocks of Ireland on the back or scapulars, and no trace of an alar speculum. with their intrusive rocks : G. H. Kinahan. The first Royal Meteorological society, January 18.-Capt. D.
part of the paper gave a general account of the rocks from Wilson-Barker, president, in the chair.-The President
the Permian to the Cambrian, specially mentioning their delivered an address on the connection of meteorology
characteristic shore accumulations. The second and more with other sciences. He said that meteorology and astro
important portion treated of all the occurrences of Irish nomy were doubtless the first of the sciences to attract
Archæans with their exotic adjuncts, and their probable the attention of men-which of the two exerts most equivalents in England, Wales, Scotland, Canada, and the influence on the well-being of humanity is a matter de
United States of America. pendent on the position of the globe; in many regions
January 17.-Dr. W. E. Wilson, F.R.S., in the chair. people are but slightly affected by the weather, while the
- Improvements in equatorial telescope mountings : Sir
new heavenly bodies, particularly the sun, exert an enormous
Howard Grubb, F.R.S. The author described a influence on human life. Everywhere in nature we find
form of slow motion for large equatorial telescopes in the effects of meteorological agencies. After speaking upon
which a small electric motor is used for actuating the the effects of evaporation, winds, rain, ice, snow, and
differential wheels, which are ordinarily worked by an pointing out the influence of weather on animal life,
endless cord. This new form was first applied to the vegetation, health, &c., he said that meteorology is a
24-inch photographic equatorial of the Radcliffe Observscience deserving more attention than it receives. He atory, Oxford, and is now being applied to the photothought it ought to be recognised as a preliminary to the graphic equatorial at the Cape Town Observatory, which studies of geography, geology, and kindred subjects, and is of the same size. The working of the instrument, he was of opinion that meteorological observatories might
which was exhibited at the meeting, was demonstrated very well be fitted up in schools, and pupils taught to
by the author, who also read a paper on a simplified form observe. This could be done at a small cost of time or
of his electrical control, which has lately been applied money. The tendency at present is to particularise in all
to several large instruments.-On the temperature of scientific work, but the true path to progress lies in keep
certain stars : W. E. Wilson, F.R.S. It seems probable ing a comprehensive outlook on the whole field of investi
that in the sun and some stars there are two quite gation. The United States have devoted much attention
distinct sources from which we can receive light which to meteorology with most satisfactory results. It is to be
gives a continuous spectrum. First, the photospheric regretted that official help and encouragement are so de
clouds, which are composed of droplets of matter in the ficient in this country. The baffling, difficult nature of
solid form, probably carbon ; secondly, layers of intensely meteorological problems should but serve as an incentive
hot gases which are under considerable pressure. Between to their elucidation. The persistent observer gains much,
these two sources of radiation lie principally the vapours not only in knowledge of the subject, but in the habits of
of titanium and vanadium, and other elements of suitable close and accurate investigation which he insensibly
atomic weight. In a sun-spot the temperature is locally acquires, and all workers in this field learn to appreciate
so high that the photospheric clouds are volatilised, and the difficulties which confront their fellow-labourers and
we then get the radiation only from the gaseous layer to recognise the value of what has been done by the
below, the spectrum being darkened by the intervening meteorological organisations of the world.—Mr. Richard
layers, consisting principally of the vapours of titanium, Bentley was elected president for the ensuing year.
&c., the lines of which are widened and darkened. It is
then suggested that as a star like Arcturus, or type iv. Entomological Society. January 18.-Frof. E. B. stars, have a spectrum which is very similar to a sudPoulton in the chair.-Mr. F. Merrifield was elected presi-spot, in these bodies the temperature is so high that they dent for the session 1904-5.-The president, Prof. Poulton, have no photospheric clouds, and that their want of delivered an address in which he discussed the part played brilliancy is caused by their only receiving the radiations by the study of insects in the great controversy on the from the gaseous layers which lie at some depth in their question, “ Are acquired characters hereditary? atmospheres.--Mr. Richard J. Moss exhibited the absorpargued that the decision whether Lamarck's theory of the tion spectrum of liquid oxygen. causes of evolution is or is not founded on a mistaken
MANCHESTER. assumption largely depends upon evidence supplied by the insect world, and finally concluded that the whole body
Literary and Philosophical Society, December 13, 1904 of facts strongly supports Weismann's conclusions. At
-Mr. W. H. Johnson in the chair.-Note on the disseminthe end of his address the president urged that the study
ation of seeds by birds : C. Oldham. The opinion exof insects is essential for the elucidation and solution of pressed by Mr. F. Nicholson at a recent meeting of the problems of the widest interest and the deepest significance. society that birds rarely act as disseminators of seeds, by
voiding them in their excrement, is not in accord with the DUBLIN.
experience of many field naturalists. Nearly fifty years ago Royal Dublin Society, December 20, 1904.- Mr. W. E. Darwin proved ( Origin of Species," chapter xii.) thar Wilson, F.R.S., in the chair.—Unrecognised_factors in certain seeds extracted from the excrement of small birds the transmission of gases through water : Dr. W. E. germinated, as did others from the ejected pellets and the Adeney. The author has described in this communica- excrement of carnivorous and piscivorous birds.
The tion an experimental investigation of the downward stream- evidence of Wallace and other observers may be cited to the ing which has been met with in experiments on diffusion same effect. In mid-Cheshire, during the spell of hard of gases in water, when the gas is placed above the weather at the end of November, 1904, an examination of