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THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 9, 1905.

naturalist to the expedition) for the cetaceans, Mr. Dollo for the fishes, and Dr. Pelseneer for the greater

part of the molluscs, will be a sufficient indication SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF THE BELGIAN

of the care and wisdom with which the selection of ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION.

these specialists has been made. Résultats du Voyage du S.Y. Belgica, en 1897, 1898, A total of more than sixty separate memoirs on

1899, sous le Commandemant de A. de Gerlache de the zoology of the expedition is promised, and of Gomery. Rapports scientifiques. (1) Zoology and these no less than fourteen (ranging in their subjects Botany. (2) Astronomy and Meteorology. (Ant- from seals and cetaceans to corals and sponges) are werp, 1902-4.)

now on the table before us. Within the limits of the (1) THE CHE cruise of the steam-yacht Belgica, organ- space at our disposal it would obviously be impossible

ised by the Belgian Government, may be to attempt anything like a summary-much less a regarded as the first of the series of expeditions fitted criticism of the vast amount of work contained in out during the last few years to explore the Antarctic this mass of literature. All that can be essayed is and to collect systematically its zoological and to record a few of the more striking results of some botanical products. Consequently, it fell to the lot of these investigations, and at the same time to of this expedition to be the first to bring back speci- express our opinion, so far as we are capable of mens of certain animals previously known, more or forming a judgment, of the high value and importless imperfectly, by examples obtained by the early ance of the work generally. expeditions to the South Polar regions, such as that As regards Mammalia, perhaps the most important of the Erebus and Terror. The most noticeable in- result of the Belgica Expedition was a negative one, stance of this is afforded by the seal known as namely, the practical demonstration that no large Ommatophoca rossi, which had been previously forms of terrestrial mammalian life inhabit Antarctica. known only by two skulls and a skin brought home in his first expedition Mr. Borchgrevink was, indeed, by the Erebus and Terror Expedition (1839-43). inclined to attribute certain marks commonly seen on Fortunately, the fasciculus of the Rapports dealing the hides of the Antarctic seals to the teeth of a land with the seals (by Captain Barrett-Hamilton) was carnivore, but it is now believed, with much more published in 1902, and ante-dates the British Museum probability, that they are due to sharks. Mr. report on the Southern Cross Expedition, thereby Racovitza, it may be added, was the first to make securing to the Belgica the full credit for having us acquainted with the peculiar gular pouch and been the first to increase our knowledge of this strange cry of Ross's seal. interesting species.

In treating of the cetaceans, Mr. Racovitza, who The comparative slowness of the rate at which it .(like Captain Hamilton in the case of the seals) has has been found practicable to issue the result of the no new species to describe, makes some very interestBelgica's work will, however, necessarily have dis- ing remarks with regard to the mode of life and counted some of its claims to priority, seeing that physiology of these animals. Especially important the aforesaid report on the collections made by the are those relating to the depths to which whales are Southern Cross was published in 1902, while at least capable of descending. These the author believes to one small instalment of the zoological results of the have been exaggerated very greatly, and he puts Discovery Expedition has already been made public. the extreme limit at one hundred, and the ordinary On the other hand, in many of the groups the new range at twenty-five metres. As he well remarks, it forms discovered by the Belgica expedition were de- is practically impossible to imagine an animal the scribed at an early date in the form of preliminary organisation of which would admit of its existence notices (in the case of the fishes as early as 1900), alike at the surface and under the pressure of abyssal and as the later parts of the work before us contain depths. His arguments are supported by certain reviews of the species described in the report of the facts in regard to the depths at which cetaceans are Southern Cross Expedition, an advantage rather than captured by the Japanese. a disadvantage has been gained by the delay in In the bulky fasciculus on the fishes Mr. Dollo publication. This is particularly noticeable in the has incorporated the results of Mr. Boulenger's work fasciculus devoted to fishes, which was published in on those obtained during the Southern Cross Expedi1904.

tion, and has thus been enabled to present his readers The characteristic of the reports on the Belgica with what is practically a monograph of the Antarctic collections is the wealth of detail with which the forms. The most remarkable representatives of this descriptions are worked out and the elaborate style fauna are those constituting the family Nototheniidæ, in which they are issued. The entire work is, for of which the author recognises no less than eighteen instance, published in quarto form, in large type, generic types, three of these being named by himwith no apparent limitations to the extent of the self.

self. Whether he is justified in proposing the letter-press, and a fair allowance of plates, most of Cryodraco antarcticus for the fish which he apparently which are admirably executed. Each section of the admits to be identical with the one captured during subject has been assigned to a specialist, and the the voyage of the Erebus and Terror and named mere mention of the fact that Captain Barrett-Hamil- Pagetodes, on account of the alleged insufficient deton is responsible for the seals, Mr. Racovitza (the finition of the latter, may be doubtful. In our opinion

seneer

von

means.

the original sketch of Pagetodes is amply sufficient metrical measurements, and the variations of temperafor the generic definition.

ture. The lowest temperature recorded was – 43° 1 C. Very few words must, unfortunately, suffice for the (-45°.6 F.) on September 8, 1898. The whole result parts devoted to invertebrates. In the fasciculus on is to exhibit the factors on which the climate depended brachiopods, Prof. Joubin directs attention to the during the sojourn of the expedition on the shifting apparently small bodily size of the Antarctic repre- ice. The observations do not refer to a particular sentatives of the group, a feature which is the more spot, the ship drifting with the ice some sixteen notable on account of the contrast they present in this degrees in longitude and two degrees in latitude. respect to the forms from the Straits of Magellan. The observation of the clouds and the discussion of Another important fact in connection with the fauna the results were entrusted to M. Dobrowolski, of the southern ocean is brought out by Prof. who had to encounter many difficulties, due to fog Koehler in his description of the echinoderms and darkness, which occasion lacunæ in the record. obtained to the south of lat. 69°, the furthest point An appendix gives a description, as complete as from which these organisms had at the time been possible, of a considerable number of cloud systems, obtained. Practically all these echinoderms have divided into three stages of cirrus, clouds at a mean proved to be new forms, but whether they belong to height, and of clouds at low altitudes. The greatest the sub-Antarctic or the true Antarctic fauna has not care seems to have been taken in the description of yet been definitely ascertained.

these systems during the twelve months of residence, The other fasciculi at present to hand include the but here again the expedition might have been following monographs :-molluscs, by Messrs. Pel better provided with apparatus. The observer had to

and Joubin; myriopods, by Mr. C. trust entirely to eye and the compass; no nephoscope Attems; collembola, by Mr. V. Willems; copepods, was provided, or photographic camera, or means by Dr. W. Giesbrecht; nematodes, by Dr. J. G. de for determining the height of cloud. Man; nemertines, by Dr. O. Bürger; bryozoans, by The same author discusses the formation of snow Mr. A. W. Waters; hydroids, by Dr. C. Hartlaub; and hoar frost, but in this department he appears to zoophytes, by Messrs. von Marenzeller and Carlgren; have been hampered by the want of instrumental and sponges, by Mr. E Topsent. The botanical

He had no microphotographic apparatus, and memoirs include one by Dr. E. A. Wainio on lichens; it has been difficult and sometimes impossible to rea second, by Mr. J. Cardot, on mosses; and a third, produce the varied structure which he encountered. by Mr. T. Stephani, on liverworts.

Hand drawings have been extensively used, and the In concluding this too brief notice of a most valu- general result of his work has been to confirm that able series of monographs, we may congratulate the of modern investigators who have recognised but Belgian Government on its wise liberality in author- two types of forms of structure. ising their publication, and the committee of the An interesting memoir is that of M. Arctowski Belgica on the manner in which they have carried discussing the optical phenomena witnessed during out their share of the task.

R. L.

the expedition. In this section he treats of the de

formation of figure of the sun and moon crossing (2) In the department of astronomy we have the the horizon, illuminations of the sky at twilight, the discussion of the rates of the chronometers employed green ray seen at the moment of the sun's setting, and a description of the methods by which time was halos, and other phenomena, the peculiarities of which ascertained during the long confinement of the are best studied in polar regions. The author Antarctic winter. We may say, and it is admitted apologises for the popular character of some of his by the author, M. G. Lecomte, that the astronomical notes, but though greater detail might have been equipment was inadequate. It consisted at the out

added if a spectroscope had been included in the set of three marine chronometers, a sextant, two outfit, these notes afford very interesting reading. artificial horizons,' an astronomical telescope, and a The discussion of the auroræ forms a volume by theodolite. The size of the telescope is not stated, itself, due to the same physicist. Only sixty-two but it was a relic of the old whaleship, the Patria, times in thirteen months was this phenomenon witand was that which had been used by the captain nessed, owing to the facts that the period of minimum to observe seals when at some distance from the ship. auroræ occurred about the time of the expedition, and With this instrument, three phenomena of Jupiter's the region in which the Belgica was ice-bound was satellites were observed and one occultation. Lunar far from the locality in which auroræ pass through distances were also observed, but the rates of the the zenith. Two excellent plates are given in this chronometers were generally determined from local section. observations. The accumulated error on return is not Oceanography is represented by two memoirs. In clearly stated, but the rates and errors are worked the first, M. Arctowski describes the method by which out apparently with great care.

observations were made on the passage across the Meteorology naturally claims a large part in the Pacific to the Straits of Magellan to determine the scientific results. The observations were under the density of the surface water. Later during the charge of M. H. Arctowski, and he has presented the wintering of the expedition samples were drawn from details with very great clearness, and accompanied considerable depths below the ice, and examined in the whole with many excellent charts, showing the physical laboratory on board. In the second graphically the behaviour of the barometer, the hygro-memoir M. Thoulet, professor at the University of

Xancy, gives the results of some experiments made the present work defines its nature, which is that of on the density of sea water in the course of an a treatise on inorganic chemistry, with especial referinquiry entrusted to him by the commission in con- ence to chemical industry. The commoner elements. nection with the results derived by M, Arctowski. and their compounds are dealt with in detail, but

W. E. P. instead of illustrating the text with time-honoured

drawings of lecture apparatus, the actual plant used

in the manufacture of these substances is depicted. ITALIAN CHEMISTRY. Trattato di Chimica Inorganica Generale e Applicato described concisely but sufficiently, but the book does

All the more recent processes of manufacture are all' Industria. By Dr. E. Molinari. Pp. xxii + 693. not degenerate into a mere treatise of technology. (Milan: Ulrico Hoepli, 1905.) Price 12.50 lire.

The principal physical and chemical properties of the DERING URING the greater part of last century the pro substances are clearly defined, as well as the relation

gress of science in Italy was retarded by the existing between them; owing to conciseness and to political troubles of the country; even after the nation the character of the type employed, a large amount had achieved its independence and unity, scientific of information is imparted which is not to be found 1 ducation was hampered by ecclesiastical controversies in the usual elementary text-Looks. A novel feature and by the poverty of the newly created Government. is tha

the average market price of each commercial Taxation has always fallen heavily on the Italian article is stated, whilst statistics are given of the cost prople, and the industry and energy of the north of manufacture and profit of many of the more imhave been taxed unduly owing to the poverty and portant substances. In many cases the development thriltlessness of the south. In spite of these dis- of an industry is traced through the patents referring advantages, Italy gave to science in the last century to it, for instance, in the case of the manufacture of many names which will long be remembered in its sulphuric acid and of alkali. history. In particular, the hypothesis of Count Before undertaking the syste natic treatment of the Avogadro, enunciated in 1811, forms the basis of the elements, 114 pages are devoted to general chemical whole of the modern development of chemistry; for theory. It is this part that is most liable to nearly fifty years, however, its importance was over- criticism. A portion might very profitably have been looked, and it was the peculiar merit of another omitted. The description, for instance, on pp. 37 to Italian, Cannizzaro, by reviving it, to establish a new 40, of as many as eight different methods of deterepoch in the development of chemical science and to mining vapour density, serves no useful purpose in introduce order where all was confused and contra- a book of this kind, while it is doubtful whether the dictory.

method of deducing the relationship (pp. 72 to 73) In the course of the past twenty-five years a school between the osmotic pressure and the freezing and of Italian chemists has arisen the quality of whose boiling points of dilute solutions will be intelligible work is on a high level of excellence. Side by side to the student in its present form. The historical with this, an astonishingly rapid development of all treatment adopted throughout the work is the cause hranches of the industry of Italy has occurred. The of a few misstatements which should have been rapidity of the advance may be gauged from a few avoided. Why, for instance, revive the story, which facts. In the six years 1893-9, the value of the has no basis in fact, that Priestley, after languishchemical manufactures of Italy exactly doubled itself, ing in poverty, died of poison? In discussing the increasing from about 1,000,000l. to 2,000,000l. per history of valency, no mention is made of Frankland annum. In the twenty-five years from 1875 to 1900 and Kolbe, Wurtz and Graham only being referred the value of the raw silk annually produced tripled to. It is, moreover, so far from being the truth itsell, and that of the woven silk, which in 1890 was (p. 136) that in 1809 Gay-Lussac and Thénard 000,0001., rose in 1900 to 4,000,000l. The cotton and admitted that chlorine was probably an element that wool industries have developed almost as rapidly, and even in 1811 they contested Davy's view of its il similar progress is seen in the case of new manu- elementary nature. Strangely enough, the part played lactures, such as that of steel rails, which have only by Cannizzaro in reviving Avogadro's theory is passed recently been introduced into the country. In some over in silence (p. 33), and the credit given to Gerhardt instances Italian manufacturers have begun to com- and Laurent alone. pete in foreign markets, and this development bids Dr. Molinari's treatise is especially adapted and fair to become still more rapid as Italy converts more is likely to be very serviceable to the student who and more of her abundant store of water power into intends devoting himself to chemical industry; for electrical energy.

a similar text-book at an equally low price the English The author of the present treatise, who holds the student has long sighed in vain. With a few slight position of professor of chemistry at the Society for alterations the work could be made equally useful to the Encouragement of Arts and Crafts of Milan, has the engineer. In particular, more space might be endeavoured in it to initiate a reform in the teach- given to considering materials of construction, whilst ing of chemistry in Italian universities, a reform the treatment of alloys is far too brief to be satiswhich has also been recently urged by Profs. Canniz- factory, considering the important part which they zaro and Ciamician. Hitherto the chemistry taught now play in engineering. Several pages of part i. has been of too academical a character, little attention might well be replaced by a general discussion of the bring given to practical applications. The title of remarkable influence of impurities and of thermal treatment on the physical properties of metals. The with the velocity Cz, compounded of c, and cg, (2) therephase rule, which is briefly explained, could be given fore the face perpendicular toc, grows with velocity a practical application by referring to the nature of Cg, (3) c, is a maximum or a minimum when c, and alloys, particularly in the case of carbon-iron mixtures. are minima. Of these statements (1) and (3) are un

As is the case with all the works published by the true, and (2) absolutely unproven. Thus the fundawell known firm of Ulrico Hoepli, the printing and mental principles on which nearly the whole of the reproduction of the illustrations leave nothing to be book is based are wrong. Much of the reasoning is desired. It is, however, a pity that so many proper of the same fallacious nature, or is, at best, only an names are wrongly spelt; thus Graham is uniformly appeal to probability; but one more example must spelt Grahm, and Van der Waals Van der Vaals. suffice. More than ten misprints of other names are obsery

The author sets himself (p. 251) the impossible task able.

W. A. D. of proving that a symmetry-axis of a homogeneous

medium is 2-al, 3-al, 4-al, or 6-al without employing A NEW CRYSTALLOGRAPHY.

either the law of rational indices or a molecular strucGrundzüge der Kristallographie. By Prof. C. M.

ture. He accomplishes this by assuming that if the Viola. Pp. iv +389. (Leipzig : W. Engelmann,

medium is brought to self-coincidence by a rotation

through an angle zy about an axis C, it cannot be 1904.) Price ii marks; bound, 12 marks. "HE opinion is rapidly gaining ground that the brought to self-coincidence by a rotation about C

2y. based on laws of

Prof. Viola apparently considers the space-lattice as rational indices and symmetry

no longer suffices

only a without modification for the classification and descrip- physical properties of a crystal, not as corresponding

convenient geometrical expression of the tion of crystals. It is recognised on the one hand that

to any reality of crystal structure. It is true that he isomorphism of kindred substances shows itself (as in

proves (by assuming that the densities of the molecule the Humite group of minerals) more in similarity of and of the crystal as a whole are equal, see pp. 280 crystalline habit and angles than in identity of optical 335) that the unit of crystalline structure must be the and geometrical symmetry, and on the other hand

same as the chemical molecule; but on pp. 322 and 334 that vicinal faces with high indices may play an

he uses arguments which would prove the existence important part in the economy of crystals. Prof. Viola

of an infinite number of such units in a finite volume. is evidently of opinion that the old methods cannot be

Crystallographers owe a debt of gratitude to the adapted to meet the situation, and his book is as

author for his clear and complete lists of references to revolutionary as it well could be. Crystals are here

the literature of the various subjects with which he divided into 7 sygonies, 10 fundamental forms, and 29 harmonies; symmetry is but a particular case of

deals; the historical notes are also very valuable. The harmony; twins are two similar crystals with two

chapters on the two-circle goniometer and the stereopredominant elements in common; the number of graphic projection contain much that is interesting

and not in the usual text-books. The appearance of space-lattices is reduced to 10, and of space-groups to 156. The basis of classification is descriptive, not

the book is attractive, but there is a large number of

misprints, some of which quite obscure the author's geometrical; blende, felspar, and garnet belong to the

meaning

HAROLD HILTON. same fundamental form, chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite to the same harmony. If the author had merely attacked the existing theory

OUR BOOK SHELF. and advocated a classification expressing the results of The Arris and Gale Lectures on the Neurology of direct observation alone, independent of any hypothesis, Vision. By J. Herbert Parsons, B.S., D.Sc, he might have had some success. Unfortunately, he F.R.C.S.

Pp. 70

(London: Hodder and has tried to build up a mathematical theory of his Stoughton, 1904.) Price 25. 6d. net. own, with disastrous results. The average shape of The two lectures delivered by Mr. Parsons in the all crystals of a substance grown under approximately spring of last year before the Royal College of the same conditions is its “habit”; the average shape

Surgeons deal with some points on the neurology of of all habits is its “ fundamental form.” The rate

the eye which are of extreme interest. The first

lecture has for its subject the course of the afferent of growth in any direction is proportional to the impulses from the retina to the central nervous system, “ cohesion” in that direction (measured, apparently, and their final distribution in the cerebral cortex, by the force needed to break a rod of the substance Since the delivery of these lectures there have been the length of which lies in the given direction), and

several important contributions to this latter subject. cleavage takes place perpendicular to the lines in which

The case of Dr. Beevor and Dr. Collier, reported in minima of cohesion are well marked. It follows that against the more restricted visual area for which

the summer number of Brain, seems to go conclusively the fundamental form has always a centre of

Henschen argues. In this case, despite the fact that symmetry. These assumptions are hardly justified by the lingual lobe, the depths of the calcarine fissure, and the cleavage and usual habit of many crystals, e.g. the lower cuneal lobe were all affected, the restriction fluorite and tetrahedrite, but the mathematical develop

of the field of vision was simply quadrantic. The ment of these hypotheses is, if possible, still more un

truth seems to be that the limits of the visual cortical fortunate than the premises themselves. It is argued

area correspond to the limits of the layer of Gennari,

and that this varies markedly in its relations to the (p. 14, cf. Fig. 20) that if two faces grow outwards surface in different cases. with velocities c, and cg, (1) their intersection moves The second lecture deals with an equally important subject, the nervous control of pupillary movements. our European orchids are terrestrial and have tuberous A review of the work done on the question of the roots, but Liparis Loeselii, a species very rare in course of the pupillo-dilator fibres is given. These Britain, has a distinct pseudo-bulb such as characfibres pass from the cervical sympathetic as a separate terises most of the tropical epiphytes of this order, and tract along the carotid towards the Gasserian a similar form of stem occurs in Microstylis monoganglion, and run thence with the ophthalmic division phyllos, so that the formation of a pseudobulb is not of the trigeminal along the nasal branch to the long correlated solely with the epiphytic habit. Both the ciliary nerves, thus avoiding the ciliary ganglion. The tuber and the pseudo-bulb serve as food stores for the final portion of the lecture is devoted to a discussion growing plant. In Goodyera repens there is a creepof the cortical localisation of pupillary movements. ing underground stem which also recalls that of its We agree with Mr. Parsons that a very critical spirit tropical congeners. These points and others of a is necessary in dealing with this subject. Here, more

similar character are well represented in the plates. than anywhere else, is to be found the “ elusive

These illustrations were executed from life by Mr. factor" which upsets all hypotheses. The term

Walter Müller, and they are so truthful that we may * synkinesis " seems to have a sufficiently useful commend them to the notice of orchid lovers. Our application in neurological nomenclature to justify its field botanists will find all the British species repreinvention. The limits of this notice do not allow of sented, as well as a few others that are not members more detailed criticism. We must, however, con

of the British Flora. gratulate Mr. Parsons on the singularly lucid, though necessarily inconclusive, fashion in which he has dealt

Intensification and Reduction. By Henry W. Benwith subjects of great complexity and importance.

nett. Pp. xv + 124. (London : Iliffe and Sons, Ltd.,

1904.) The Twentieth Century Atlas of Microscopical Petrography. Partii. With four plates. (London : This issue, No. 15 of the Photography Bookshelf Thos. Murby, 1904.)

Series, will form a useful addition to an already Since the note on this work appeared in NATURE (vol, restricted himself to setting forth in a clear and con

valuable set of handbooks. The author has wisely lxxi. p. 38), we have been informed that the "editor

cise manner the better methods employed in intensifiof it is Mr. E. Howard Adye, who is, in fact, responsible both for the text and for the very delicate

cation and reduction, and has not burdened the plates. The second part includes two igneous rocks beginner with an elaborate index to all possible from Edinburgh, the Carboniferous oolite of Clifton,

methods past and present. The processes dealt with and the beautiful green quartzite of Ightham, de reader should gain a good working knowledge of

are treated in some detail, so for this reason the scribed by Prof. Bonney in 1888. This last rock, we believe, usually contains altered glauconite in addition qualities of each method are clearly brought out,

the manipulations he has in hand. The distinctive to the minerals mentioned by the author. We fancy making the selection of any one for a particular that Mr. Adye is familiar with biological writing, which makes his descriptions rather more severely negative quite an easy matter. technical than is customary among English geologists. We thus read of a " dark brown fenestrated region at the periphery," "hypo-odontoid outgrowths," " bio

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. genetic formation," and so forth. We do not know, moreover, what degree of extraordinary accuracy is [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions suggested by the phrases " completely polarised light " expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake and " fully-crossed Nicols." The text, however, is

to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected usually clear and graphic. The four rock-sections

manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. accompanying the part, and issued through the labor

No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] atory of Mr. J. R. Gregory, are absolutely perfect

Slow Transformation Products of Radium. specimens of an art rarely cultivated in the British Isles.

G, A. J. C.

IN a

recent number of the Philosophical Magazine

(November, 1904), I have shown that radium, after passing Abbildungen der in Deutschland und den angrenz- through four rapid changes, finally gives rise to two slow enden Gebieten vorkommenden Grundformen der transformation products, which, on the scheme of changes Orchideen-arten. 60 Tafeln nach der Natur gemalt

there outlined, were called radium D and radium E.

These two roducts can be separated from each other by und in Farbendruck ausgefuhrt von Walter Müller

suitable physical and chemical methods. Radium D, which (Gera) mit beschreiben dem Text von Dr. F.

is the parent of E, gives out only B rays, while E gives out Kränzlin (Berlin). Pp. xiv +60+ plates.

Pp. xiv +60+plates. (Berlin : only a rays. It was calculated that D should be half transR. Friedländer und Sohn, 1904.) Price 10 marks. formed in forty years, and Ein about one year. Evidence This is a series of sixty coloured plates representing

was also shown that radium D was the active constituent in the orchids which occur in Central Europe. The

the radio-active lead of Hofmann, and that radium E was introduction and the text are from the pen of Dr.

the active substance present in both the polonium of Mme.

Curie and the radio-tellurium of Marckwald. Kranzlin, who tells us at the outset that the book is

Later work has confirmed these conclusions. I have not intended for professed botanists, but for those who examined the rates of decay of the activity of radium E and take an interest in botany, or who possess a love of of radio-tellurium, and have found them to be identical. flowers. For this reason it is, we suppose, that the Each loses half its activity in about 150 days, instead of minutiæ of anatomical structure and the details of the calculated period of one year. The specimen of radiophysiology are but lightly touched on. The reader, tellurium was obtained from Sthamer, of Hamburg, in the however, has put before him in a very clear way the

form of a thin film deposited on a polished bismuth rod. principal points in the morphology of this most in

I find that the same value for the decay and activity of

radio-tellurium has recently been obtained by Meyer and teresting group, together with an account of the conformation of each species.

Schweidler (Akad. d. Wiss. Wien., December 1, 1904).

I was, unfortunately, unable at the same time A general statement is made as to the geographical determine accurately the decay of the activity of polonium. distribution of the several plants, but no precise indi- A specimen of polonium (ratio-active bismuth) had been in cations of particular localities are given. Most of my possession for three years, and had during that time lost a

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