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central axis of uric acid, whilst, in addition, the ureides
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. of these acids, namely, barbituric acid, dialuric acid, and alloxan, are converted by the ferment quantitatively into EPHEMERIS FOR COMET 1904 e.-Given below is an extract urea and carbon dioxide. Moreover, just as in the case of from a daily ephemeris computed by Dr. E. Strömgren from the sugars only the hexoșes are capable of undergoing the elliptic elements calculated by M. Fayet for comet fermentation, the bacillus of uric acid is indifferent to
1904 e. acids containing fewer or more than three carbon atoms.
12h. (M.T. Berlin).
log A The Psychological Bulletin (vol. ii., No. 1) for
2 29 38 +2i 14 0'1582 O'0816 January contains a notice of the meeting of the north
2 34 23
+ 22 27 central section of the American Psychological Association
2 39 14
01613 0'0940 which was held at Chicago on November 26, under the
2 44 10 + 24 47 presidency of Prof. W. D. Scott, of the North-western
2 49 12 +25 54
0:1647 0-1067 University. The following papers were read :-Is subjec
On February 7 the comet was very near to, but southtive idealism a necessary point of view for psychology? by west of, v Arietis (Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3991, Mr. Stephen S. Colvin; the genesis of meaning, by Mr. supplement). 1. E. Miller ; relation of sensation and revived mental processes, by Messrs. T. H. Haines and J. C. Williams; EPHEMERIS FOR COMET 1904 d.—The following is an the vehicle of cognition, by Mr. B. H. Bode ; psychological
extract from the daily ephemeris for comet 1904 d pubmethod, by Mr. C. A. Blanchard; an Iowa case of complete
lished in No. 3991 of the Astronomische Nachrichten by
Herr M. Ebell. congenital cataracts cured after twenty-two years, by Mr. James Burt Miner; the relations of psychology to logic, by
12h. (M.T. Berlin). Miss Harriet S. Penfield; the functional theory in psy
a (true) 1905
8 (true) log log A Bright. chology and the concept of transcendence, by Mr. J. H.
19 22 32 + 54 50 0'3492 0-3584 ... 0.82 Farley; the psychology of linguistic development in the 13 19 41 49
0*3542 . 03643 0978 individual, by Mr. M. V. O'Shea ; is the beauty of art a
I 45 +57 57 0*3593 ... 0 3710
0 74 higher type than that of nature? by Mr. George Rebec;
20 22 13 + 59 17 0-3645 ... 0*3784 070 the reality and the symbol in education, by Miss Julia H.
Brightness at time of discovery=1.0.
An observation made by Herr Pechüle at 16h. 24:3m.
(Copenhagen M.T.) on January 14 gave corrections to this The Walter Scott Publishing Company will shortly issue ephemeris of - 4s. and -0':5. a translation of “ Science and Hypothesis,'' by Prof. Poin
On February 9 the comet will be to the north-west of, caré. Prof. J. Larmor, Sec.R.S., has written a preface to
and near to, * Cygni, then, travelling in a north-easterly
direction, it will pass into the constellation Cepheus. this edition of Prof. Poincaré's work. A copy of the report of the librarian of the U.S. Con
ORBIT OF COMET 1904 e (BORRELLY).—From the observ
ations made at Königsberg on December 31 and at Paris on gress for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, has been January 11, M. Fayet has made an investigation of the received from Washington. The report runs to 600 pp., probable orbit of Borrelly's comet (1904 e). In the first and includes elaborate details concerning every department place three different sets of parabolic elements were comof the library's activities. A select list of recent purchases puted, but, although the arc traversed by the comet whilst during 1901-1903 constitutes part ii. of the volume, and a
under observation was very small, and the results obtained
were therefore not very trustworthy, the non-agreement of the third section is devoted to a report on copyright legislation. parabolic elements with the observational results was too
great to be admitted. M. Fayet therefore computed a set Mr. John A. BergsTRÖM, of Indiana, writing in the of elements on the assumption that the orbit was elliptical, Psychological Bulletin, describes a spring suspension for and these were much more satisfactory, indicating a short laboratory motors used for driving colour mixing or other period of about six years. experimental apparatus, with the object of reducing the
The following set of elliptic elements was finally adopted noise and vibration produced by motors resting on a fixed observed and computed positions :
as giving a fairly satisfactory agreement between the base.
1905 Jan. 1577425 (M.T. Paris) The third English edition of Prof. Mendeléeff's “ Princi
8 = 76° 6' 43"97 ples of Chemistry" has been published in two
30° 55' 21":25 1905 volumes by Messrs. Longmans, Green and Co. The
351° 35' 27":11 ) new volumes translation from
log 9 = 0.149236
the seventh Russian edition by Mr.
log e = 9.818195 George Kamensky, edited by Mr. Thomas H. Pope. There three appen
These results give a value for u of 423":915, and theredices to the work. The first of these is the Royal Institu- fore indicate that the comet is of the short-period type, tion lecture delivered by Prof. Mendeléeff on May 31, 1889, making one revolution in its orbit in about eight years entitled " An Attempt to apply to Chemistry one of the (Comptes rendus, No. 4, 1905). Principles of Newton's Natural Philosophy ”; the second, on the " Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements," is Prof.
OBSERVATIONS OF THE LEONID SHOWER OF 1904.-In a
note published in No. 3989 of the Astronomische NachMendeléeff's 1899 Faraday lecture to the Chemical Society; richten, Mr. Denning gives a few details of his observations the last is entitled “An Attempt towards a Chemical Con- of the late Leonid shower at Bristol. ception of the Ether," and its contents were described in During a watch of about one and a half hours between an article which appeared in Nature on November 17, 1904
13h. 3om. and 15h. 45m, on November 14, 55 meteors, of (vol. Ixxi., No. 1829). The work is one of the classics of estimated that, at that time, the latter were appearing at
which 33 were Leonids, were seen, and Mr. Denning chemical science, and the new edition will be widely the rate of about 25 per hour, for one observer, from a welcomed
radiant situated at R.A. = 151°, decl. = +23°. No increase
in the horary rate was apparent at 16h., and as the fog PRIZE SUBJECTS OF THE BATAVIAN became denser the observations were discontinued.
SOCIETY OF EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY. Two of the Leonids seen were as bright as Jupiter, whilst several others were as bright as, or brighter than, AT a recent general meeting of the Batavian Sociery first magnitude stars. One of these flashed out in the
of Experimental Philosophy of Rotterdam the follownorth-west at 14h. 38m., traversed the path 3150 + 57° to
ing subjects were proposed for competition. The gold 318° +503°, and left a short streak which lasted for about
medal of the society, of the weight of thirty ducats, or
its value, will be awarded for the best answer to one or 30 seconds. A few slow, yellow meteors from a radiant in Aries at
other of the suggested questions. Answers may be written 43° +21°, and some swift streaking meteors from a radiant
in the Dutch, French, English, German, or Latin in Leo Minor at 144°+37°, were also seen.
languages, in another handwriting than that of the com
petitor, and must reach the secretary, Dr. G. T. W. SPECTRA OF y Cygni, a Canis MinoRIS AND € LEONIS.— Bremer, at Rotterdam not later than February 1, 1906. In part vii. vol. cxiii. of the Sitzungsberichte der Kais. Chemistry.-An experimental investigation of the atomic Akad. der Wissenschaften, Herren E. Haschek and K. weight of an element which has not yet been satisfactorily Kostersitz publish the results of the reductions of the spectra fixed ; a research on the causes of departure from Ostwald's of g Cygni, Procyon and. € Leonis. After discussing in dilution law; measurements of the osmotic pressure in detail the methods of measurement and identification em- solutions at concentrations corresponding with deviations ployed in the reduction, and the general and specific char- from the simple gas laws; a study of the origin and acteristics of each spectrum studied, the authors give a physiological significance of the green pigment in the table of the wave-lengths and intensities of the lines for body of green articulated animals; experiments elucidating each star. The coincidences of each line with lines in the the formation and transformations of the sap in indiaarc and spark spectra of terrestrial elements, as determined rubber plants; a re-investigation of the variations from by Exner and Haschek, are also given, and in the last the laws of electrolytic dissociation observed by Kahlencolumn of each table the probable origins of many of berg in 1901; an explanation of the thallioquinic test for the lines are set down. Amongst the latter may be noted quinine. the rarer elements Yb, Pr, Sa, Nd, La, Pt, Wo, Gd, Eu, &c. Physics.-An investigation of the electrical properties
About 140 lines between 1 4250 and i 4534, 190 lines of some metallic alloys; of the variation with temperature between 1 4126 and 1 4550, and about 270 lines between of the specific heat of mercury; of the specific heat of 14215 and À 4702 are given in the spectra of y Cygni, sulphur and phosphorus in their various allotropic forms; a Canis Minoris and e Leonis respectively.
of the indices of refraction of substances showing SYSTEMATIC SURVEY OF DOUBLE STARS.—No. 99, vol. xvi.,
anomalous dispersion; of the cause of phosphorescence, of the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the particularly in the case of the lower organisms. Pacific is devoted to an address on double stars
Biology.-A description of the life-history and proper
ties of one before the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at
or several species of moulds, ferments, or St. Louis by Prof. R. G. Aitken.
bacteria which are of industrial importance; the action After discussing the work already performed in this field,
of sulphur and of copper salts on plant parasites, and of Prof. Aitken described a systematical survey undertaken
mineral salts on the development of fungi; the role of by Prof. Hussey and himself. All stars down to the ninth
micro-organisms in the formation of humus in the soil. magnitude as given in the Bonn Durchmusterung
Physiology.-An investigation of the permeability of red placed on the observing list, and the sky from the North
blood corpuscles to the ions of NaCl, NaNO,, Na,so.; and Pole to -- 22o declination was equally divided for observ
of the localisation of functions in the cerebellum. ation between the two observers.
Geology.-An exposition of the theory of the origin of The programme arranged for the observation of each star
the Netherlands; a critical investigation of the volcanors on the list on at least one good night, and all double stars
of the East Indian Archipelago. discovered with a separation of 5" or less
Civil Engineering.-Statistical investigations of the were to be
Dutch measured on at least two nights and catalogued.
polders"; an investigation of one of the
On September 10, Prof. Hussey had discovered 1035 and
principal rivers of Holland. Prof. Aitken more than 875 new pairs. Seventy-three per cent. of these are separated by 2" or less, and 142 are very THE PIC DU MIDI OBSERVATORY. close pairs in which the separation does not exceed o".25. Of similar pairs to the latter the previously published cata
a recent number of La Nature, M. L. Rudaux gave an logues do not contain 100.
interesting account of the present condition and operaProf. Aitken has examined, during this research, more
tions of this important mountain station. France is well than 12,000 stars, and finds that the doubles discovered
provided with high level stations, and the observations form about 3 per cent. of this total. Including those pre
from seven of them are published daily in the Bulletin viously discovered, the ratio of double stars, with distances
International of the French Meteorological Office. of less than 5", to the whole of the stars down to the ninth
account of the very favourable position of the Pic du Midi magnitude is apparently 1: 18 to 1: 20. This ratio is not,
station, and of the almost insuperable difficulties experihowever, the same for all parts of the sky, for whilst in
enced by its original founder, General de Nansouty, was some regions observed double stars are very scarce, in
given, in considerable detail, by M. R. Radau, in his useful others the ratio increases to about 1:8.
little work on “ Mountain Observatories " (Paris, 1876). Other details concerning the survey, its prosecution and
and has been summarised by Mr. A. L. Rotch in the the reasons for carrying it out are given in Prof. Aitken's
American Meteorological Journal. The summit, which has interesting paper.
an elevation of 2877 metres (the observatory being 17
metres lower), is situated on the outskirts of the Pyrenera, REPORT OF THE VALE OBSERVATORY, 1900-4.–Dr. Elkin's in lat. 42° 56' N., and long. 2° 12' W. of Paris, and afforda reports to the board of managers of the Yale University one of the finest views in Europe. Towards the north an Observatory for the years 1900-4, inclusive, occupy eight immense plain stretches as far as the eye can see, and to pages, and briefly describe the large amount of work per- the north-west, on very clear days, the blue waters of the formed at the observatory during that period.
Atlantic are visible, at a distance of 160 km. It lies Heliometer observations are the chief feature of the directly in the path of the great atmospheric disturbances work and special attention has been paid to the deter- which traverse the Bay of Biscay, while the summit mastir mination of the parallaxes of stars having large proper enjoys a clear and iuminous atmosphere, being some 200 motions. Practically all the stars in the northern hemi- metres above the level at which thunderstorm clouds usually sphere having known motions of o".5, or more, have now gather. These advantages early attracted the attention of been observed at Yale. A second triangulation of the astronomers and scientific men; M. F. de Plantade died in Pleiades and determinations of the parallax of Arcturus 1741 while observing at the ridge which has since taken have also been made. Another feature of the work is the his name. photography of meteor trails, and numerous trails of The project of a permanent meteorological station was meteors from the principal showers have been obtained. first mooted in 1869, and provisional observations were com
menced by General de Nansouty and his coadjutors in 1873, persons have attended the various local lectures provided, at the foot of the Pic, about 2300 metres above the sea, and while 1000 students entered for the courses offered by were continued under great hardships, and at considerable agricultural colleges. The expenditure of the counties is personal expense for about eight years. The present station given in detail, and presents some curious anomalies ; was established in 1880, by public and private subscrip- | thus the London County Council assigned to agricultural tions. The accompanying illustration gives a general view education 7421., while the authorities of one of the most of the station as it now exists. On the left the thermo- fertile divisions of Lincolnshire, in which agriculture is meter screen may be distinguished near the erection on practically the only industry, voted 651. for the purpose ! which the anemometer and actinometer are placed ; at the Again, East Sussex, with total income from the other end of the terrace is the equatorial building, and the “Residue Grant" of 77731., spent 61161. in grants to apparatus for celestial photography. The magnetic instru- agricultural colleges or schools, while West Sussex, with ments are placed in vaults underneath the terrace. The ån income of 45031., gave nothing for collegiate instrucmeteorological observations are regularly published in the tion, and was satisfied with an expenditure of 2751. upon annals of the Central Meteorological Office; useful predic- horticulture and poultry keeping. Conditions vary from tions have been given to the inhabitants of the plains of county to county, but differences in the needs of the agriimpending thunderstorms, and of probable floods owing to culturist do not explain the widely different educational the sudden melting of the snow on the mountains. Amongst policy of the local authorities. Under the new comthe miscellaneous observations undertaken under the able mittees, it is to be hoped that the unsystematic and direction of M. Marchand, we may specially mention those spasmodic efforts that have been too common in the past relating to the zodiacal light, to solar phenomena, and the may disappear, and though it is probable that in the
connection of the latter with magnetic disturbances. His immediate future less money will be spent on agricultural observations in this direction have shown that whenever education, it is likely to be expended to greater advantage. a terrestrial magnetic disturbance occurs, spots or faculæ The Board of Agriculture's report should be studied by exist on the central meridian of the sun. Important spectro- all members of county education committees who are scopic results have also been obtained respecting the interested in agricultural education. atmospheres of Venus and Mars.
A piece of work which has just been completed in the library of the U.S. Department of Agriculture has greatly
enhanced the value of the leading Continental agricultural AGRICULTURAL NOTES.
journals for English-speaking students. Complete card
catalogues of " Annales de la Science agronomique,' AN important new feature of the annual report on the "Land withschaftliche Jahrbücher,” and “ Die landwith
distribution of grants for agricultural education and schaftlichen Versuchs-stationen " have been prepared. research is a return giving the character of the instruc- Each index card gives author's name, title of article, and tion in agriculture provided by the county councils of a brief outline of the scope of the article. The catalogues England and Wales. The return shows that most counties may be purchased in two series, either author entry are now spending considerable sums on agricultural educa- sets, permitting papers to be indexed under the authors' tion-altogether 88,8931. in 1902–3, and to this sum 92001. names, or complete sets, furnishing two or more cards was added by the Board of Agriculture in the form of grants for each paper, which may then be indexed under the to collegiate centres. It is estimated that some 22,000 author's name, and also under the subject or subjects to which the article relates. The cost of the three sets of devoted to this purpose. When I think that we are spendcatalogues in the latter and more useful form is about 12l. ing 13 millions a year at least on primary education I The sets now issued bring the indexing down to 1903, say the sum now given for the purpose of the highest but the work will be continued, and supplementary sets education, the most profitable of all the investments we will be printed from time to time. Students who do not can make in that direction, is altogether inadequate." desire references to all branches of agricultural science may
CAMBRIDGE.—The voting on the report of the Studies and obtain sets of cards dealing with special subjects, such
Examinations Syndicate will take place on Friday, March 3. as soils, plant diseases, or forestry. Particulars of the
and on Saturday, March 4, on both days from 1-3 p.m. eighteen subject-groups under which the cards are classified
and from 5-7 p.m. No votes will be taken after 7 p.m. are given in Bulletin No. 9, issued by the Catalogue
on Saturday, March 3. Division of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
In view of the discussion on the report the syndicate has In the fourth report on the Woburn fruit farm, the
issued the report in an amended form. The chief changes Duke of Bedford and Mr. Spencer Pickering, F.R.S.,
include as alternatives in the papers in classical languages discuss the results of several years' experiments in the
(1) passages for translation from a selected book or books; manuring of fruit crops. In an introduction the soil of
(2) unprepared passages for translation, a vocabulary of the fruit station is described, and chemical and mechanical
unusual words being supplied, also the abolition of distinct analyses are given; the report then describes experiments grammar papers, although questions on syntax and accion strawberries, gooseberries, currants, raspberries, and
dence will be set in connection with the translation papers; apples. For various reasons the experiments on currants
further, one of the Synoptic Gospels is Greek, is now proand raspberries were unsatisfactory, but trustworthy data posed as an alternative to one of the Synoptic Gospels, were obtained in the work on the other crops. It was
together with the Acts of the Apostles in English, and found that 12 tons of farmyard manure per acre increased logic is included amongst the optional subjects in part iii
. the strawberry crop by 12 per cent. to 15 per cent., and These proposals are embodied by the Council in five graces. that the size and quality of the fruit were greatly im- It is on the second of these, which deals with the question proved. A mixed artificial manure supplying about the of compulsory Greek, that attention will be centred. same quantities of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash and
LONDON.-Sir Michael Foster has consented to offer himmagnesia as the dung similarly increased the yield, but did not improve the quality. Farmyard manure much
self for re-election to the next Parliament as member for increased the gooseberry crop, but the artificial mixture
the University of London. He sceks re-election as a reprefailed to do so, and it is explained that the increase in
sentative of science and higher education ; if re-elected he the former case was probably due to the greater quantity
will take his seat as a member of the Liberal Party. A of moisture retained by the dunged soil. Nitrate of soda committee, with Sir Thomas Barlow as chairman, has applied in summer was found to benefit apples in certain
been formed to promote his election. This committee seasons, but with this exception no kind of manure had comprises graduates belonging to different political parties any marked effect on the apple crop.
who are supporting Sir M. Foster on the ground of his many public services and in the belief that his special
knowledge will continue to prove of great value to the UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
House of Commons.
OXFORD.—Mr. George Longstaff, New College, has preBIRMINGHAM.—Mr. Chamberlain, the Chancellor of the offered to provide an extra assistant in the department for
sented gol. to the Hope Department of Zoology, and has University, presided at the annual meeting of the Court of the years 1905 and 1906. Governors held on February 6. Speaking after the adoption of the annual report, Mr. Chamberlain said that when the
A Sheffield gentleman, who does not wish his identity governors of Mason College met some five or six years ago and came to the decision that the time had come to give in connection with the Sheffield University movement that
to be disclosed, has, says the Sheffield Telegraph, intimated Birmingham its own university, it was thought that the he is prepared to subscribe 10,000l. towards the endowleast sum of money which would justify them in applying ment fund, provided four other sums of 10,000l. are confor a charter was 100,000l. But very shortly afterwards tributed. As an alternative, he is willing to give 5,000l. they found that there was a great opportunity, not only for provided nine similar donations are promised. Under themselves, but for other great provincial cities, to create either condition a sum of 50,000l. would be raised, and, a series of universities which in the first place would bring roughly, this is the amount still required to complete the home to all the population the advantages of the highest fund. education, and in the second place, would specialise this highest education with some more definite idea of its appli- of Leeds on February 6th, Mr. Alfred Mosely, C.M.G.
At a public meeting held under the auspices of the University cation to science than hitherto had been found to be possible. The moment they decided on a departure of that gave an address on “ Some Lessons learned by the recent kind they found that it meant something quite different Mosely Commission of Educationists to the United States from what they had previously supposed. New buildings
In the course of his remarks he said : Much remains in had to be specially devised, a very large and expensive England to be done so that she may be brought into line equipment had to be provided, and new chairs had to be
with the United States and Germany in the matter o!
education. created; altogether a completely new ideal had to be
In America the people realise that if the developed. And then they put their demand-a demand nation is to be made and saved it must be through the which, indeed, they did not strictly limit themselves to, but
medium of education. The time has come for us to rethey thought it would probably be sufficient for the present
consider our position, and above all to realise that the generation--they put their demand at the expenditure of Board schools and the primary schools are but the prelude one million of money. They had received at once nearly
to secondary education, which in the United States has half that sum, largely from Birmingham. And he might made such satisfactory strides—as it has also in Germany say in passing that the liberality of the local contribution The great difference in the education of the United States was a ground for the claim which they made for some and that in our own country is the appreciation there of further State support. “It is something,” he said, " that everybody, from the highest to the lowest, of the valur we have foạnd that the Government are becoming alive to of education. The Government has realised its obligations, our needs and to our deserts, and that they have been able and private citizens pour out their money like water. The to double the sum previously given for the university University at Chicago, for instance, has been built up education. But we may bear in mind at the same time that through the liberality of one man, who has given millions the present Chancellor of the Exchequer has promised to of pounds sterling. Why is there not the same spirit in double it again in his next Budget, and, therefore, I anti
England ? cipate that from that source we shall receive a very con- The current number of the Quarterly Review contains siderable addition. I do not at all accept it as in any way an article entitled " The Direction and Method of Edua satisfaction of our demands, because it is my conviction cation." The writer passes in review many of the officia that public opinion will soon insist upon larger sums being publications of the English Board of Education and the
Scotch Education Department, Prof. Sadler's report on in favour of free admission, and one only in favour of it. secondary education in Liverpool, and other publications. The remaining institutions gave definite Men of science would do well to note what is given as the Thirty-eight education committees are against free adsum and substance of official activity in education since the mission to evening continuation schools, two are in favour passing of the recent Education Act. The writer says, of it, sixteen expressed no opinion, and four suggest "If we were asked to describe in one word the whole scholarships. tendency of English education as manifested at the present time, we should speak of a humanistic renaissance." And again later, “ English education, we believe, is working
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. round to the humanistic ideal." Literary studies are included in every satisfactory scheme of elementary and
LONDON. secondary education, and the man of science recognises Royal Society, November 24, 1904.--"The Flow of Water fully the value of the humanities in the work of schools through Pipes.-Experiments on Stream-line Motion and and colleges. But whatever “humanistic renaissance
the Measurement of Critical Velocity,' By Dr. H. T. there may be dawning upon the world of education, it is Barnes and Dr. E. G. Coker Communicated by Prof. to be hoped that the danger of a return to the conditions Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S. of fifty years ago, when instruction in the methods of
In a brief note published in the Physical Review (vol. xii. science was unknown in our schools, and no opportunity p. 372, 1901), the authors described a thermal method of to become acquainted with natural objects was offered, will observing the change from stream-line to eddy motion for be borne in mind by all education committees and other
water flowing through pipes of different diameters. authorities.
The impossibility of heating a column of water uniformly The Hon. Maude Lawrence has been appointed to a newly- throughout while fowing in stream-line motion has been established post of Chief Woman Inspector under the Board previously observed. It was shown that, when water is of Education. Miss Lawrence will direct a staff of women heated electrically while flowing through a tube of two or inspectors of special qualifications and varied experience, three millimetres diameter by a central wire conductor, who will assist the Board in dealing with inany questions the heat is carried off by the rapidly moving stream, which for the treatment of which they have hitherto been some- forms a cloak of hot water around the wire, and leaves the what imperfectly equipped. Instruction in various domestic walls of the tube almost entirely unheated. subjects, such as needlework, cookery, laundry work, The change from stream-line to eddy motion can be very household management, and hygiene, has for some time clearly observed in a tube heated on the outside, since the past been given under the regulations of the Board for temperature of the emerging stream immediately increases schools of different grades. But the report of the Inter- when the flow rises above the critical point. The point of Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration points change is very sharp, and the disappearance of the streamto the need of a reform in the methods now commonly lines instantaneous. employed in the teaching of these subjects. It is con- It is clear from a study of the work of Osborne Reynolds sidered that this instruction has been less effective than it that the change from stream-line to eddy motion may take should have been, because it has been too theoretical and place within a wide range of velocities. Critical velocity has not been kept sufficiently in touch with the needs is measured in two ways : either by observing the velocity and habits of daily life. The new branch of the in
at which the stream-lines break up into eddies, or by spectorate will be employed to assist local authorities in obtaining the velocity at which the eddies from initially providing, as part of their educational system, ample oppor- disturbed water do not become smoothed out into streamtunities for girls of various ages to obtain a training for lines in a long uniform pipe. The first change may be home life simple, practical, and adapted, where necessary, at any velocity within certain limits depending on the to the special circumstances of each locality. There are initial steadiness of the inflowing water, while in the also many questions of importance involving the national second, the change can take place at only one velocity. physique, as affected by the studies, the life, and the Osborne Reynolds's experiments were carried out by the treatment of children, and especially of very young children, method of colour bands in a long rectangular tank. By from day to day in elementary schools, which women using a very much larger tank under a high head of water inspectors are specially qualified to investigate and to the authors were able to obtain a higher degree of steadiadvise upon.
ness than was obtained in the comparatively small tank THE council of the Association of Technical Institutions
used by Reynolds. A large number of experiments were has published its report of an inquiry, undertaken in May,
obtained, an account of which forms the main part of the 1904, as to the conditions of admission to evening classes
present paper. in technical institutions and evening continuation schools
Briefly, the result of the work may be summarised as
follows: throughout the country. The council considers that the returns and expert opinions recorded in this report justify
(1) The attainment of exceedingly high velocities of the following conclusions :-(1) That it is undesirable to
stream-line flow for certain sizes of pipes fed by perfectly
quiet water under a high head. establish any general system of free admission to evening continuation schools, or of free admission or admission
(2) The re-formation of stream-lines in certain cases after at specially reduced fees to evening classes in technical
eddies had formed, with a subsequent breaking up of the institutions. (2) That it is unnecessary to grant entirely
stream-lines at a very much higher velocity. free admission, to evening classes in technical institutions,
(3) A small divergence from the law of the change in to any special class or body of students or workers engaged viscosity with temperature for the upper-limit of streamin skilled industries, such as apprentices or persons under
line flow. twenty-one years of age. (3). That there is need for the lower-limit of stream-line flow by separate methods.
(4) A verification of the viscosity temperature law for the establishment in all technical institutions of sufficient“ free studentships " or “ scholarships " to secure the admission January 19.-" Further Histological Studies on the of all qualified and deserving students who are unable, by Localisation of Cerebral Function. The Brains of Felis, reason of their limited means, to pay the usual class fees Canis, and Sus compared with that of Homo." By Dr. without more sacrifice than should reasonably be expected A. W. Campbell. Communicated by Prof. Sherrington, of them. The plan to secure information adopted by the F.R.S. council was to issue a letter and form of inquiry to the This addendum to a work on cerebral localisation, preeducation authorities and technical institutions throughout sented by the same author to the Royal Society in the United Kingdom asking for information as to the November, 1903, aims at elucidating certain obscure funcexistence of the following conditions of admission to evening tional analogies and structural homologies pertaining to classes : (a) entirely free, (b) at less than normal fee, the brain. (0) by scholarships, (d) by arrangement with employers. The points emphasised are as follows :-Giant cells Replies were received with reference to sixty evening con- characterise the cortex of the lower mammalian cruciate tinuation school areas and from eighty-three technical in- zone, and this represents the motor area, as defined by stitutions. Of the technical institutions, fifty-five are not Profs. Sherrington and Grünbaum in the anthropoid ape,