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and by the author in man. The compensatory ansate and aldehydes is the corresponding organic acid, but small coronal sulci are respectively interchangeable with the quantities of carbon dioxide and monoxide and saturated upper and lower constituents of the primate fissure of hydrocarbons are also formed in some cases.—The diazoRolando. The common sensory area forms a morpho- derivatives of the benzenesulphonylphenylenediamines : logical buffer behind the cruciate zone. Quite one-sixth G. T. Morgan and F. M. G. Micklethwait. A descripof the lower animal's brain surface is allotted to visual tion is given of the substances produced by the interaction cortex. The “ true calcarine " fissure is the antecedent of of nitrous acid with the benzenesulphonyl derivatives of the human anterior calcarine, the intercalary sulcus under- 0-, m- and p-phenylenediamines, illustrating the different goes retrograde changes, and the suprasplenial sulcus is behaviour of these isomerides with this reagent.- The the derivative of the " sulcus intrastriatus lateralis.” In molecular condition in solution of ferrous potassium the limbic region, human types of cortex are repeated, and oxalate : S. E. Sheppard and C. E. K. Mees. Ferrous the genual fissure is the homologue of the calloso-mar- oxalate was shown to dissolve in alkali oxalates forming ginal. Parietal cortex is older, in the sense of phylogeny, double salts, such as K, Fe(C,0.), which dissociate accordthan frontal. The lateral sulcus is the forerunner of the intraparietal. Out of the ectosylvian region of lower ing to the scheme 2K + Fe(C,0); Spectrophotometric animals is developed the Sylvian region, including the

measurements indicated that the formation of ferrous ions insula, and much of the temporal lobe of primates.

at moderate dilutions was negligibly small.--A further It is concluded that the stability of the architectural plan analogy between the asymmetric nitrogen and carbon of any given field of cortex is directly related to the atoms: H. 0. Jones. The author showed that, during phylogenic age of that cortex, and to the importance, as

the formation of an asymmetric nitrogen atom in a coma means to survival, of the function it subserves; and, pound containing asymmetric carbon atom, that while the human brain has expanded more decisively isomerides, which are called the a- and B-compounds, are in some parts than in others, yet that expansion, if we produced. For this purpose methyl-l-amylaniline has been except the visual and olfactory areas, has been general in combined with allyl and benzyl iodides. The formation of kind.

magnesia from magnesium carbonate by heat and the January 26.-“ On a Method of Finding the Conduc

effect of temperature on the properties of the product. tivity for Heat.” By Prof. C. Niven, F.R.S.

W. C. Anderson. Experiments were made with native The first part of the paper contains a detailed account

and artificial magnesium carbonates to ascertain (1) the of the methods employed for finding the difference of tem

lowest temperature at which the evolution of carbon dioxide perature, and a description of the apparatus used. The

could be distinctly recognised ; (2) the comparative rates a' results of some experiments made with it are also given,

which the expulsion of the gas takes place at higher temand compared with those found by other observers. The peratures under atmospheric pressure; and (3) the extent

to which the magnesia obtained dissolves in water after second part of the paper contains a solution of the mathematical problem of the diffusion of heat in an infinite solid

being kept at different known temperatures for a fixed from a line at which it is supplied at a constant rate, and

period. It is inferred from the results that polymerisation the solution of some other allied questions. One result of

takes place when magnesia is heated, and that this goes the investigation suggests a method of finding the diffusivity

on more quickly in the “ heavy ” oxide than in " light directly, when the substance is of sufficiently great extent magnesia.- Transformations of derivatives of s-tribromo

diazobenzenes : K. J. P. Orton.--The addition of sodium “ The Boring of the Simplon Tunnel, and the Distri- hydrogen sulphite to ketonic compounds : A. W. Stewart. bution of Temperature that was encountered.” By Francis - The reduction products of anisic acid : J. S. Lumsden. Fox. Communicated by C. V. Boys, F.R.S.

When anisic acid, dissolved in amyl alcohol, is reduced by February 2.-" On the Compressibility of Gases sodium, the products are hexahydrobenzoic acid and 8-ketobetween One Atmosphere and Half an Atmosphere of hexahydrobenzoic acid.-- The physical properties of heptoie Pressure." By Lord Rayleigh, O.M., F.R.S.

hexahydrobenzoic, and benzoic acids and their derivatives: The present memoir contains a detailed account of the J. S. Lumsden.-The influence of solvents on the rotation observations referred to in the Preliminary Notice of of optically active compounds. Part vii. Solution-volume February, 1904. In addition, results are now given for and rotation of menthol and menthyl tartrates : T. S. air, carbonic anhydride, and nitrous oxide. In the Patterson and F. Taylor. following table are recorded the values of B for the various

Royal Microscopical Society, January 18.- Dr. Dukagases at specified temperatures, B denoting the quotient field H. Scott, F.R.S., president, in the chair.- The of the value of pv at half an atmosphere by the value at

President delivered his annual address, the subject if the whole atmosphere :

which was an inquiry as to " What were the Carbonisercus Gas

Temperature Ferns?" Oxygen

1.00038 Hydrogen

Geological Society, January 18.–Dr. J. E. Marr

0.99974 10.7 Nitrogen

F.R.S., president, in the chair.---On the geology of Arenig

1.00015 14.9 Carbonic oxide

Fawr and Moel Llyfnant : W. G. Fearnsides. This paper

13.8 Air

contains a detailed description of the succession of beds in

1.00023 II.4 Carbon dioxide

Sedgwick's typical area of development of his Arenig 1.00279 15.0

series. The author discusses the relationship of the various Nitrous oxide

1.00327

divisions he describes to corresponding beds of other areas. By means of a formula given by D. Berthelot the com- He gives a description of the intrusive igneous rocks, and pressibilities at o° C. are inferred, and applied to deduce

some account of the structure of the district and the nature the ratio of densities as they would be observed at o° C. of its glaciation. under very low pressures. According to Avogadro's law these the relative molecular weights.

Physical Society, January 27.-Dr. R. T. Glazebrook,

From the densities of nitrogen and oxygen we get N = 14.008, if F.R.S., president, in the chair. -Action of a magnetic field un O = 16. Again, from the densities of oxygen and nitrous

the discharge through a gas : Dr. R. S. Willows. It has oxide we find N 13.998. The former is probably the

been shown previously that a transverse magnetic field, it more trustworthy.

applied at the kathode, may in some cases reduce the

potential difference at the terminals of the tube. Chemical Society, January 18.- Prof. W. A. Tilden, shown in the paper that the pressure at which this decrease F.R.S., president, in the chair.— Nitrogen halogen deriv- commences corresponds to the pressure at which the voltage atives of the sulphonamides : F. D. Chattaway. A number required to maintain this discharge, under normal condof the nitrogen halogen derivatives of the sulphonamides, tions, is a minimum. This is also found to be the pressure which are obtained by the action of hypochlorous acid on at which the positive column is first completely striated the suphonamides and the alkylsulphonamides, were de- Reasons why such action takes place are given. ---Action ct scribed, and the ease with which they can be prepared and radium on the electric spark: Dr. R. S. Willows and J crystallised demonstrated.-Electrolytic oxidation of the Peck. In certain cases the authors have found that the aliphatic aldehydes : H. D. Law., The chief product of spark from a Wimshurst machine is extinguished by the oxidation of the lower members of the saturated aliphatic action of the radiations from radium and that the current

B.

II.2

1.00026

...

11.0

are

was

passing is decreased. The action is altogether different in which R may be N(CH2)2,N(C2H3)2, NH,, or OH. A according to the direction of the discharge. Using a spark- description of these substances is given.—The mixed treatgap longer than 2 cm. and making the larger knob, of ment of trypanosomiasis by arsenious acid and trypan-red : the machine used, positive, the radiations had practically A. Laveran, The injection of these substances has caused no influence. With the smaller knob positive the radium, the disappearance of the Tr. gambiense in certain animals, in most cases, extinguished the spark. The phenomenon and hence the author regards this disease as curable in is found to be due to the action of the B rays. Röntgen certain cases, the most efficacious treatment being the sucrays do not produce this effect, even if their ionising power cessive injection of arsenious acid and trypan-red. As the at the spark-gap is some thousands of times greater than curative doses of these substances are not far removed that of the radium. Lenard rays are, however, effective.- from their toxic doses, this toxicity being variable with the The slow stretch in indiarubber, glass, and metal wires animal species, the doses to be prescribed must be rigorsubjected to a constant pull: P. Phillips. When india- ously determined. This will be especially difficult for man. rubber is subjected to a sustained pull of constant amount -On the faculty possessed by cement strengthened with it yields at quite a large rate, the stretch at any time (t), iron of supporting large elongations : M. Considère. after the establishment of the pull, being given by Some doubt having been thrown on the earlier work of the x=a +b log t, a and b being constants for the particular author on this subject by German and American writers, pull exerted. For different pulls b is proportional to the details are given of some further experiments, the results pull. When the pull is removed the indiarubber slowly of which are in complete accordance with those of returns to its original length, the extension still remaining the earlier work.-On the new short period comet at a time t, after the removal being given by

1904 e (Borrelly, December 28, 1904): G. Fayet. Observx=b log (t/t.),

ations on this comet having now been carried on for a t being the time which has elapsed since the pull was estab- month, the calculation of its orbit can be made with more lished. These two results, for the slow stretching and certainty. The results confirm those previously published, slow recovery of indiarubber, have also been established for the time of revolution being now determined at about seven glass fibres subjected to sustained pull, but the magnitude years.-A secondary shadow observed on the rings of of the slow yielding is very much smaller. When annealed Saturn in October, November, and December, 1904 : M. wires of copper, silver, gold, or platinum are subjected to Amann and Cl. Rozet. Between October 20 and the end a sustained pull they behave in some ways similarly to of December, besides the shadow of Saturn projected on indiarubber and glass, but there are some very decided its ring a second shadow, narrower and less well marked differences. If the pull is greater than a certain amount than this, was observed. It traversed the rings through(in the actual experiments about one-third to one-quarter

out in the form of a curved line, and it

noted of the breaking weight) the stretch at any time (t) after that the portion of the rings between the shadow of the the establishment of the pull is given by the same law planet and that now described appeared to be more brilliant x=i+b log t, but below this value of the pull b is zero. than the other illuminated portions of the rings. It is not This law obtains up to the breaking strain of the wire, b clear to what this extra shadow can be due.-Remarks on increasing very rapidly a little before the breaking strain a generalisation of M. Riesz: Émile Borel.-On the is reached. When the pull is removed, there is no appre- zeros of integral functions of infinite order, not transfinite : ciable slow recovery like that occurring in indiarubber and Ed. Maillet. -On the precision of geographical positions glass. Iron and steel wires show themselves to be excep- obtained in the field with the prism astrolabe : M. tions to these rules.--Determination of Young's modulus Driencourt. This instrument, invented by A. Claude, has (adiabatic) for glass : C. A. Bell, with an appendix by Dr. C. already been tested in the Observatory of Montsouris, with Chree, F.R.S. In this paper it is shown that errors in very satisfactory results; it remained to be seen whether the acoustical determination of Young's modulus for glass, the same accuracy could be maintained in field observations. due to irregularities in the rods or tubes employed, may be Details are given of some measurements made in Madaeliminated by applying to the measured length of each gascar showing the remarkable saving of time, without free-free rod a correction given by the formula

loss of precision, resulting from its use.--On the self-regis

tration of the ions of the atmosphere : P. Langevin and Al=

dz, S. 7

M. Moulin. Owing to the existence of two kinds of ions

in air differing greatly in mobility, it is not possible to in which &S is the difference between the cross section at register these on the same apparatus, although the same the point s and its mean value, S., for the whole rod.-- principle is applicable. The theory of the apparatus with Some methods for studying the viscosity of solids : Dr. some details of its construction are given.-On the temperBoris Weinberg. The author has been carrying out in- ing of bronzes : Léon Guillet. The mechanical properties vestigations similar to those described by Prof. Trouton of bronzes of varying content of copper, and after tempering and Mr. Andrews in their paper the viscosity at varying temperatures, correspond very closely with the of pitch-like substances (Proc. Phys. Soc., 1903). The changes of constitution brought out by the experiments of details of his experiments are, however, different. He has

Heycock and Neville.—A brown modification of colloidal worked principally with lead and has employed three dis- ferric oxide : P. Nicolardot.-On the chlorination of tinct methods for determining the coefficient of viscosity. methyl-ethyl-ketone : André Kling. After trying the various Paris.

methods of chlorination of ketones, the method found to Academy of Sciences, January 30.-M. Troost in the give the best yield is described in detail, the action of chair.-On some new experiments relating to the prepara- chlorine in the presence of water and marble. The chief tion of the diamond : Henri Moissan. In connection with product was CH,.CHCI.CO.CH,, boiling at 114° to 117°, the study of the Cañon Diablo meteorite, it appeared desir- and furnishing the glycol CH,.CH.(OH).CH(OH).CH, on able to repeat the experiments on the formation of diamonds reduction. The action of dilute nitric acid upon vegetable in rapidly cooled cast iron, with especial reference to the fibres : M. Jardin. The use of a weak solution of nitric effect of sulphur and silicon in the ingot. The results acid, 5 parts of acid in 1000, is suggested for bleaching obtained with an ingot to which iron sulphide had been flax. It presents certain advantages in regard to the time added immediately before cooling were similar to those of and the amount of labour required, and leaves a fibre which the earlier experiments, except that the yield of diamonds takes the dye in a perfectly homogeneous manner.-On was slightly greater. The addition of silicon had the same fiedlerite : A. de Schulten. This mineral is a hydrated effect, except that the formation of the dense silicon carbide oxychloride of lead, of a composition corresponding to rendered the separation of the microscopic diamonds rather 2PBOHCI,PbC1,.-On the salts of the Tchad region: H. more difficult. Drawings of four typical crystals are given. Courtet.-On the parasitism of Osyris alba : A. Fraysse. --Senthesis in the anthracene series : MM. Haller and A. In a preceding note some conclusions have been given on Guyot. -hydroxy-g-triphenyl-dihydroanthracene condenses the biology of Osyris alba and on the anatomy of its very readily with amines and phenols, giving compounds suckers. In the present note is an account of the general of the type

physiology of these suckers and the relations existing ,C,H,

between the parasite and its host.-On the changes of com(C,H,', C C(C,H,XC,H, R).

position of the fruit of the Cucurbitacere: Leclerc Cou

du Sablon.-On the chemical composition and the significa

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340

tion of the aleurone grains : S. Posternak. The analyses

THURSDAY, FEURUARY 16. of aleurone grains obtained from four different species of Royal Society, at 4.30.- Probable Papers: Polarised Röntgen Radix plants showed practically the same composition, noteworthy

tion : Dr. G. C. Barkla. - The Effects of Momentary Stresses in Metais.

Prof. B. Hopkinson.--The Halogen Hydrides as Conducting Solvents points being the invariable presence of silicon and the Part I. The Vapour Pressures, Densities, Surface Energies, and absence of sodium and chlorine. The manganese was more

Viscosities of the Pure Solvents: D. Mcintosh and B. D. Steele-The variable in amount than the other elements.—The pre

Halogen Hydrides as Conducting Solvents, Part II. The Condactivity

and Molecular Weights of Dissolved Substances: D. McIntonbani paration of practically sterile musts from

apples : G.

E. H. Archibald.-The Halogen Hydrides as Conducting Solvents Perrier.--The mode of dorsal fixation of Lernaeenicus Part III. The Transport Numbers of Certain Dissolved Substances : Sardinae on its host : Marcel Baudouin.-The existence of B. D. Steele.- The Halogen Hydrides as Conducting Solvents. Part IV.: intra-uterine rickets : MM. Charrin and Le Play.-On the

B. D. Steele, D. McIntosh, and E. H. Archibald.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Recent Work of the Geological Survey: folded layers near Saint-Jean-de-Buèges (Herault) : René

Prof. J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S. Nicklès.-On the ascents of captive balloons carried out

Society of Arts, at 4:30.-The Indian Census of 1901: Sir Charles A. on the Mediterranean and on the Atlantic Ocean from the Elliott, K.C.S.I. yacht of the Prince of Monaco in 1904: H. Hergesell. A LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-A Revised Classification of Roses: J. G. Baker, study of the atmospheric conditions above the ocean,

F.R.S.– The Botany of the Anglo-German Uganda Boundary Com measurements being taken of the temperature, relative

mission : E. G. Baker, Spencer Moore, and Dr. A. B. Rendle. humidity, and direction of the wind at varying heights

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 17. above the sea level.-On the existence of high terraces in

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.- High Power Microscopy: John W. Gurdon. the North Ural : L. Duparc and F. Pearce.

GEOLOGICAL Society, at 8.-Anniversary Meeting.
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-The Protozoa in Relation to Disease:

Prof. E. J. McWeeney.

INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.- Annual General Meet DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

ing.-- Adjourned Discussion on the American Visit, 1904.- The Strength

of Columns : Prof. W. E. Lilly. THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 9. ROYAL Society, at 4.30. (1) On the Conversion of Electric Oscillations into Continuous Currents by means of a Vacuum Valve : (?) On an

CONTENTS.

PAGE Instrument for the Measurement of the Length of Long Electric Waves, and also small Inductances and Capacities : Prof. J. A. Fleming,

Scientific Results of the Belgian Antarctic Expedi. F.R.S.-Report

Area of Local Magnetic Disturbance in East Loch Roag, Lewes, Hebrides : Captain A. M. Field, R.N.

tion. By R. L. and W.E. P.

337 Phosphorescence caused by the Beta and Gamma Rays of Radium : G. T. Beilby.-(1) The Spectrum of Scandium and its Relation to

Italian Chemistry. By W. A. D.

339 Celestial Spectra ; (2) On the Stellar Line near A 4686; (3) Note on the A New Crystallography. By Harold Hilton.

340 Spectrum of u Centauri: Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., and F. E. Baxandall.-Europium and its Ultra-Violet Spectrum : Sir William Our Book Shelf :

Crookes, F.R.S.
Royal INSTITUTION, at 5.-Forestry in the British Empire : Prof. W.

Parsons : " The Arris and Gale Lectures on the Schlich, F.R.S.

Neurology of Vision”
INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Fuel Economy in Steam
Power Plants : W. H. Booth and J. B. C. Kershaw. (Conclusion of

“The Twentieth Century Atlas of Microscopical discussion.) The Value of Overhead Mains for Electric Distribution in tbe United Kingdom : G. L. Addenbrooke.

Petrography."-G, A. J. C.

341 MATHEMATICAL Society, at 5.30.-General Theory of Transfinite Num- Müller and Kränzlin : "Abbildungen der in Deutsch

bers and Order-types : Dr. E. W. Hobson.--On the Reducibility of
Covariants of Binary Quantics of Infinite Order. Part ii : Mr. P.W. land und den angrenzenden Gebieten vorkommenden
Wood.
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 10.
Grundsormen der Orchideen-arten ”

341 Roval INSTITUTION, at 9.-The Art of the Ionian Greeks: Dr. Cecil Bennett : "Intensification and Reduction"

341 Smith ROYAL. ASTRONOMICAL Society, at 5.-Anniversary Meeting.

Letters to the Editor :-
MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY.-Annual General Meeting. Address by the Slow Transformation Products of Radium.-Prof.

President, Mr. E. R. Sykes, on Variation (including Teratology) in
Recent Mollusca.

E. Rutherford, F.R.S.

341 INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-The Reconstruction of the Indian and South African Rainfalls, 1892-1902. —

Santa Lucia River Bridge, Uruguay: P. J. Risdon.
PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Address on Radiation Pressure by the President.

(With Diagram.)-D. E. Hutchins

342 elect, Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S.

Compulsory Greek at Cambridge. – Prof. J.
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 13.
Wertheimer

344 Society Of Arts, at 8.-Internal Combustion Engines : Dugald Clerk.

Notes on Stonehenge.

II. ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.—The Geographical Results of

(Illustrated.) By Sir the Tibet Mission : Sir Frank Younghusband, K.C.I.E.

Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. ,

345 INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Results of Force Measurements with Cutting Tools, and their Application to Lathe Geology of the Moon. By Sir Arch, Geikie, F.R.S. Design: Dr. J. T. Nicolson.

Notes

350 TUESDAY, FEIRUARY 14.

Our Astronomical Column :-
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-The Structure and Life of Animals : Prof.
L. C. Miall, F.R.S.

Ephemeris for Comet 1904 e

353 Sociological Society, at 4.-(1) Restrictions in Marriage: (2) Studies in National Eugenics : Communicated by Dr. Francis Galton, F.R.S.

Ephemeris for Comet 1904 d

353 INSTITUTION of Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.- Alfreton Second Tunnel : E. F.

Orbit of Comet 1904 e (Borrelly)

353 C. Trench.- The Reconstruction of Moncreiffe Tunnel : D. McLellan.

Observations of the Leonid Shower of 1904 ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.15.- Kinematograph Exhibition of

353 Native Dances from Torres Straits : Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S.--The Spectra of y Cygni, a Canis Minoris, and e Leonis

354 Dog-motive in Bornean Art: E. B. Haddon.

Systematic Survey of Double Stars

354 WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 15.

Report of the Yale Observatory, 1900-4 Society of Arts, at 8.--The Decline of the Country Town : Arthur H.

354 Anderson.

Prize Subjects of the Batavian Society of Experi. Royal MICROSCOPICAL Society, at 8.-- Practical Micro-Metallography with Experimental Demonstration : J. E. Stead, F.R.S.

mental Philosophy

354 ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 7.30.-Report on the Phenological The Pic Du Midi Observatory. (Illustrated.):

35 Observations for 1904: E. Mawley.-Observations made during a Balloon Ascent at Berlin, September 1, 1904: Dr. Hermann Elias and J. H. Field. Agricultural Notes ...

355 - The Winds of East London, Cape Colony : J. R. Sutton.

University and Educational Intelligence CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 5.30. - The Condensation of Anilino-acetic Esters in Presence of Sodium Alcoholate: A. T. de Mouilpied. - Nitrogen Societies and Academies

357 Halogen Derivatives of the Aliphatic Diamines: F. D. Chattaway.Nitration of Sibstituted Azophenols : J. T. Hewitt and H. V. Mitchel!. Diary of Societies

3o0

348

.

356

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ASCIDIANS AND AMPHIOXUS. By W. A. HERDMAN, D.Sc., F.R.S. ATHENÆUM.—"Cambridge is specially to be congratulated on the progress made in the life-history of the animals described in this volume. It is a good example of diligent work. . . . For the rest, the book is beautifully produced, with numerous and well-drawn illustrations. . . . All who take a serious interest in the advance of ichthyology will find this a fascinating book.”

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