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361

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1905. ably coming down from a remote period; a supposition

which receives support from a peculiar service required

of them, known as “ buildases." This consisted in THE HISTORY OF COAL MINING.

working at times in the morning without receiving

any payment beyond a drink of ale. This custom of Annals of Coal Mining and the Coal Trade. Second

exacting labour without pay is supposed to represent Series. By R. L. Galloway. Pp. xvi + 409.

some ancient service required from their tenants by (London : Colliery Guardian Co., Ltd., 1904.)

the monks of the Abbey of Buildwas, in Shropshire, IN Na former volume (noticed in NATURE, vol. lix.

whence the name was derived. Another etymology p. 337) the author carried his annals of coal

would have buildas, a contraction of build-house, bemining down to the period of the Select Committee

cause the money obtained by means of this unpaid of the House of Commons on Accidents in Mines in labour enabled the butties to build rows of cottages. 1834 He now continues the subject to the passing Another curious term was that applied to the small of the Coal Mines Inspection Act of 1850, and to the stools which in the north of England formed a establishment of the Royal School of Mines. This

regular part of the collier's accoutrements. This stool volume, like its predecessor, is comprehensive and was known as a cracket, a word which appears to accurate, ind a monument of industry and of thorough be a variety of cricket. technical knowledge.

In reviewing the history of this interesting period The period of fifteen years reviewed is one of much it is surprising to find what a large number of recent interest After ten years of stagnation came a re- inventions had been anticipated. For example, the markable increase of activity in the coal and iron pneumatic system of haulage, successfully applied by industries. The chief causes that imparted the impetus Blanchet at Epinac, in France, in 1877, was patented we're the rapid extension of steam navigation and the in 1845 by Knowles and Woodcock in Lancashire. mania for constructing railways. Fresh life had been The use of reciprocating rods to raise vessels containgiven to the manufacture of iron by the introduction ing coal adopted on the Continent by Méhu, and subvi hot blast, and, owing to its increasing cheapness, sequently by Guibal, was made the subject of a patent the metal was being more largely used in collieries. by Slade in 1836. The process of raising mineral in Steel, however, was still a scarce commodity. The

successive stages, proposed for working the deepchief seat of mining operations at this period was in level mines of the Witwatersrand, appears to have been the Wear and South Durham district. In South

not uncommon during the first half of the nineteenth Wales a considerable development of the steam-coal century. Winding by endless chain, as proposed by district took place, owing largely to the opening of 0. C. von Verbo in a book published a few months the West Bute Dock at Cardiff in 1839. In York

ago, was patented as early as 1789; and in 1839 an shire the greatest depth attained in 1841 was at

automatic arrangement for cutting off the steam and Barnsley, where the coal lay 594 feet below the surface. applying the brake, invented by John Wild, was in In Lancashire two pits were begun in 1838 at Pendle-operation in Lancashire. The well known ventilator ton, which reached the coal at 1392 feet, whilst at patented by W. P. Struvé was identical in principle Apedale, in North Staffordshire, there was a mine with the hydraulic air-pump used in the Hartz mines with the exceptional depth of 2177 feet. Frequent since the Middle Ages. Iron props, adopted in France instances of spontaneous issues of fire-damp are re- in 1880, were used in Derbyshire collieries in 1811, as corded. Full details of the various explosions are were also pieces of timber built up two and two crossgiven by the author, and the gradual improvements wise so as to form a square pillar. This so-called in mining operations are traced. The author's records pig-sty timbering was introduced as a novelty by the show that the men who did most to advance mining Australian miners at the Day Dawn mine, in Queensprogress at this period were John Buddle, of Wallsend land, ten years ago. (1773-1843), Dr. W. R. Clanny (1776-1850), Sir Henry In one respect the work is open to criticism. The De la Beche (1796-1855), Michael Faraday (1791-1867), title “ Annals of Coal Mining " should more properly Sir Goldsworthy Gurney (1793-1875), Lord Playfair have been “ Annals of British Coal Mining," inasmuch (1818-1898), Sir Warington Smyth (1817–1890), and as Continental and American practice is barely menJames Young, of Bathgate (1811-1883), the founder tioned. This is to be regretted, as during the period of the Scotch mineral oil industry.

under review several events happened abroad to which Incidentally. Mr. Galloway gives interesting etymo- reference might usefully have been made. Thus, the logical details of some local terms the origin of which first Belgian railway was opened in May, 1835, the is uncertain. Thus, in South Staffordshire and Scot- first German railway in December, 1835, the first land the word

butty signifies a comrade or French railway in 1837, and the first Austrian railway associate. Issuming neighbourhood to have been the in 1838. The first railways made in the United States original idea, a root for the word is suggested by were coal roads to the mines. In 1835 Thomas and the author in the term but "as used in the expression Laurens suggested heating boilers with blast-furnace " but and ben," applied to a divided house shared by gas. In 1835 Kind improved the methods of deep Iwo occupants. Igain, what appear to be traces of boring. In 1846 Schönbein discovered gun cotton, a primitive state of servitude existed in Staffordshire, and nitroglycerin was invented in the following year. where the labourers employed in the haulage of coal In 1830 the modern mine-theodolite was invented by continued to be known as “ bondsmen ”-a name prob- F. W. Breithaupt, of Cassel, and in 1845, in France, NO. 1842, VOL. 71]

R

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the trust-like company of the Loire was formed, that of a diagram in which the ordinate y represents sin A,

the prototype of the coal trusts and syndicates given by the conditions, and the abscissa x represents of to-day. Events such as these had a far-reaching sin o in an actual stroke in which, for given a, the ball influence on the development of the coal-mining A passes over or very near to P. A series of values of industry.

sin o being found corresponding to a series of values Special commendation is due to the author for the of sin a. we draw a freehand curve through them. scrupulous accuracy with which references to original In general, a line parallel to x for given y cuts this authorities are given, and for the care with which curve in two points, namely, P,, in which o has the the proof-sheets have been read. Two trifling mis- smaller value (the through stroke), and Q,, in which prints have, however, escaped detection. Freiberg it has the greater value (the fine stroke). It comes appears as “ Freyburg” (p. 292), and Sir Marc next in order to find for any y the margin of error for Isambard Brunel as “M. J. Brunel” (p. 291). P, and for Qy. This is done by using the formula of

BENNETT H. BROUGH. appendix ii., first edition. The linear error on the

object ball is (AO being 30) 3080, The consequent MATHEMATICS OF BILLIARDS.

linear error at P (PO=30) is denoted by E. Then Billiards Mathematically Treated. By G. W. Hem

308a / E gives the margin of error. A new curve, called ming, K.C. Second edition. Pp. 61. (London :

the blue curye, is then drawn, having for abscissa

x = sin e, and for ordinate y=308a/E, in the same way, Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 3s. 6d. net.

by a series of trials, as the first curve. The blue curve MORE fortunate, or more careful, than most

has two branches. Then the margin of error for any authors, Mr. Hemming, whose recent death

of the points P, or Qy of the first curve is that ordinate will be regretted by many, did not find it necessary

of the blue curve which has the same abscissa. As in his second edition to make any material alterations the result of this method it is found that the margin in his original work. He added two appendices, iii.

of error is the same for the through as for the fine and iv., with which alone it is necessary to deal in the stroke, when sin a=0.320, and sin 8=0.132 for the present notice.

through, and sin 8=0.960 for the fine stroke. For Appendix iii. discusses the comparative advantages

smaller values of a the through stroke has the of fine and through strokes, with regard to the margin advantage; for larger values of a the fine stroke, of error permissible in the respective cases. In the

until a certain maximum is reached. figure opposite p. 47, A is the player's ball, O the object

In appendix iv., f, the coefficient of friction between ball, and the stroke is to make A, after striking 0,

two balls at impact, formerly taken as zero, is assumed pass within a distance of the point P depending on

to have the values 0.01 or 0.02, and it is found that. the nature of the stroke, namely, for a

instead of p=3.5, as above assumed, we should have distance equal to the diameter of a ball, for a losing

for f=0.01 p' = 3.445 +0.0625 cos @ hazard the necessary distance from the centre of the

for j=0.02 R' = 3.391 +0.125 cos 8. pocket, which may vary between different tables.

It will be observed that both these values of p' give The angle AOP is given by the conditions of the

very approximately p' = 3.5 when 0=30°, that is, for problem, and in the notation adopted is * - A. The

the half-ball stroke. angle of aim, OAS, is the thing to be determined. It

Before this notice was in type Mr. Hemming was shall be denoted by a, as in appendix ii. of the first

taken from us by death, to the sincere regret of his edition. In the present appendix A, is also used for

many friends, including the present writer. the same angle. S denotes the position of the centre

S. H. BU'RBURY. of the striking ball at impact, so being the common normal. If ASO==-0, o and a are connected by the relation sin /sin a=AO/OS=AO/2 if we denote OS, A MORPHOLOGY OF THE ALGÆ. the diameter of a ball, by 2; and in the special case

Morphologie und Biologie der Algen.

Dr. considered of AO=P0=30, or 15 diameters, we might

Friedrich Oltmanns. Vol. i.

Special part. Pp. to a very near approximation use a instead of sin a.

vi+733; illustrated. (Jena : Gustav Fischer, 1904.) Further, the angle OPS is denoted by P, and the angle of deviation, 7 – ASP, by 8. It is then shown

HE charming little university town of Freiburg THE

has been the birthplace of important ideas in an that as the equation connecting 8 and 9,

obscure department of natural history. De Bary tan (+8)=p tan 0,

began there his researches into the life-history of the where, for reasons given in the former edition,

lower fungi, and afterwards continued them at Hallt p=3.5. From this last equation 8 may be obtained in and Strassburg Owing to his great work and interms of o or a. In fact,

spiration we botanists owe a germ-theory of disease tan 8=(p-1) sin o cos /(cosa 6+ p sina a) a theory which was in time to bear fruit in practical, is easily found.

medical and surgical form in the mighty hands wi The complete method, were it practicable, would be Lord Lister. To Freiburg, then, we come again for to find an equation in 0 or a having two roots, one of a morphology of the kindred group of the Alga, which, sayo, should correspond to the fine, the There is a difficulty in understanding how even an other, 0,, to the through, stroke, and thence the margin assiduous German professor, living so remote from the of error might be found for each stroke. This analysis sea as Freiburg is, can have obtained the inspiration being difficult, a practical solution is obtained by means which has guided his research for years past. The

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