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study of organisms, which in a living state are for

OUR BOOK SHELF. the most part many hundreds of miles from his door, Game, Shore and Water Birds of India: with must have presented a task in conquering which his

Additional References to their Allied Species in

Other Parts of the World. By Colonel A. Le zeal and power of work can find no better example

Messurier, C.I.E., F.Z.S., F.G.S. Fourth edition. than the volume before us. To a great extent this

Pp. xvi +323. (London : Thacker and Co., 1904.) work must have been book work, and excellent book The first edition of this work was a modest little work it is, the purely bibliographical work especially ; volume, printed for private circulation only, on the and with the aid of herbarium specimens Dr. Oltmanns birds of Sind. This appeared so far back as 1874. has succeeded in giving us a general morphology of Four years later, with some additions, it was issued

to the public. Hume and Marshall's epoch-making the Algæ-a treatise to have been expected only from

work on the game birds of India appearing at the one with abundant leisure and a microscope near the

same time made a third edition imperative. This soa. To approach, then, in a spirit of criticism an

in due time appeared, and large additions were made encyclopædic book of this kind, to try to gauge its thereto, taken, with acknowledgments, from this worth, seems in the circumstances scarcely sports

formidable rival. Meeting with well merited manlike,” if I may use such a term, on the part of

success, a fourth edition has now been issued, which

differs from the earlier volumes in that it “ includes one who has had so many greater opportunities of references to all species in other parts of the world observation.

that are allied to the Game, Shore, and Water The De Bary of the subject is, of course, Dr. Bornet, Birds of India.” and no student can for a moment question his pre

This addition is made on the curious plea that eminent claims to instruct us. Schmitz, of Greifs

owing to the facilities of travel, Anglo-Indians are wald, whose loss we can never cease to deplore,

now engaged in most countries either on business or seemed

pleasure. It is to be supposed that Anglo-Indian destined to employ his indomitable industry in a work sportsmen are here specially referred to, and further, of this kind. Happily we have Dr. Oltmanns, and that, save for this volume, no information concerning happily he has had the courage to undertake a task

the avifauna of the countries they propose to visit so full of use and pleasure to all students of this

is obtainable. That this is not the case it is needless fascinating group of plants.

to say, and the traveller-sportsman would be ill

advised who started on his journey with this volume I do not wish for a moment even to seem to detract

for his only guide and counsellor. from the great performance of Dr. Oltmanns. One In so far as it concerns the birds of India likely irresistibly comes back to the Freiburg and De Bary to interest the sportsman, this book will do very standard. One hoped for a general morphology of the well; but it would have been vastly improved if the ilgæ as De Bary gave us one of the fungi. Dr. space now devoted to extra-Indian birds had been Oltmanns has given us an encyclopædic book-an and for the description of the geographical and climatic

utilised for fuller descriptions of the native species, admirable one-but not the reasoned work of genius conditions of the several regions of this vast hunting botanists have dreamt of.

ground. According to personal prejudice, very possibly, I The introduction to this book contains, we venture mean prejudice in the right sense of the word, I turned

to think, not a little that is out of place in a work of first to the obscure groups of primitive Algæ, groups abstruse scientific treatises, or from the labels of the

this kind. Much of it is admittedly compiled from that I have had so many opportunities of studying on Natural History Museum at South Kensington. the sea, and of which Dr. Oltmanns can have had few There can be no doubt but that the author, during chances of seeing living specimens. It so happened his long residence in India and his wide experience that while writing this review the present writer was

in the field, must have accumulated a vast store of engaged in describing a new generic form of pelagic facts concerning Indian birds which would be well Alga obtained on the outward voyage of the Discovery.

worth recording. For this reason, therefore, we

regret that he decided on including in this edition The point was put to the test by consulting Dr.

matter really foreign to the scope of his book. Oltmanns's descriptions and bibliography. From that, His first-hand observations would have been of inof course, the original sources were taken and verified, finitely more interest and value than the compilation not so much for the immediate purpose, as was natural

now presented.

The illustrations are numerous, and mostly very in any case, as for the aim of doing justice in review

crude. ing Dr. Oltmanns's book. The result was triumphant The Species of Dalbergia of South-Eastern Asia.

W. P. P. for Dr. Oltmanns-every reference and every descrip

By Dr. D. Prain. (Annals of the Royal Botanic tion having been pursued to its original source. It is

Gardens, Calcutta, vol. x., part i.) Pp. iv + 114; difficult to establish a negative, but no reference was and plates. (Calcutta, 1904.) Price il. 13$. found wanting

The stages in the evolution of the genus Dalbergia Naturally one turned

Dr. are sketched in the early pages of this memoir. Oltmanns has made his own-the Fucaceæ.

After removal of the extraneous species, the genus sem presumption, but it was dutiful, and here, again, divisions, Selenolobium, Dalbergaria, Sissoa, and

was delimited by Bentham in 1851, and four subthe book stood every test. The other groups of Algæ Triptolomea, were mapped out. Although Bentham were not made the subject of such rigorous treatment, himself pointed out that there was overlapping in but they were examined with scrutiny enough to these subdivisions, the grouping has been maintained warrant the expression of a very warm and hearty by later systematists down to and including Taubert,

who undertook the Leguminosæ for the “ Pflanzenrecommendation of this great book to the consideration

familien" in 1894. Dr. Prain, who had previously of botanists and cultivated readers.

reviewed the genus when collating the Leguminosa

GEORGE MURRAY. in connection with “ Materials for a Flora of the

next

to

the group

It may

Malayan Peninsula," has, after a study of several

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. years, introduced a new arrangement with two main (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions sections, Sissoa, which includes the greater part of expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake Bentham's Triptolomea and Sissoa, and Amerimnon, to return, or to correspond with the writers oj, rejected called after an American type. Dr. Prain's classifi- manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. cation differs from Bentham's, since he adopts the

No notice is taken of anonymous communications.) shape and orientation of the corolla and the form of

On a Method of Using the Tow-net as an Opening the style as the criteria of his subdivisions instead of

and Closing Tow-net. the characters of the inflorescence, stamens, and fruit. The genus is distributed through the tropics of

Every naturalist who has engaged in marine research

is aware of the great difficulties which attend upon research Africa and America as well as Isia, and it seems

in the intermediate depths. a pity that the author did not see his way to extend

Great ingenuity has been displayed in the invention of his monograph to all the known species. The dis

very elaborate instruments-many of them hopeful, some tribution in Asia is considered for five provinces of them successful. It had appeared to me, as the result East China, Indo-China, Indo-Himalaya, Malaya, of observations, and after conversation with Mr. J. Y. and Papuasia; the number of endemic species in each Buchanan, who had made similar observations, that a soluis large, and amounts to 72 per cent. for East China. tion of this problem might be found easily in experiments Very few species are found in more than two of with the ordinary tow-net. these provinces; Dalbergia tamarindifolia occurs in

Our joint experience was this. If an ordinary tow-net four, and Dalbergia torta ( = D. monosperma), which

were lashed at two opposite points of the rim to a rigid has pods well suited for dispersal by ocean currents,

sounding-wire, and so plunged at speed into the depths.

the net would fold over and close. It might then be towed is the only species found in all five provinces. Owing

at the required depth and afterwards reeled in by the to the inclusion of recent specimens from Malay and China, the total number of authenticated species upward course.

sounding engine at express speed-again closing in its amounts to eighty-six; a few, including the Dalbergia laccifera of Lanessan, still remain unidentified. The

A А.

B

с memoir is illustrated with diagrams of groupings and maps of distribution, as well as with figures of each species, and issued as the first part of the tenth volume it forms a valuable addition to the Annals of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. The Process Year Book. Penrose's Pictorial Annual, 1904-5: Edited by

William Gamble. Pp. xvi + 160. (London : Penrose and Co.) Every year we receive this annual, and each time it is our pleasure to point out the very high standard which the volume attains. The current issue bids us to repeat the opinions expressed in our previous notices, and to supplement them with the statement that the standard has again been changed to one of a higher order.

To gain some idea of the possibilities of process work of to-day, when the best work and materials are employed, the reader has only to take up this book and examine the contents, which will at once indicate the high state of efficiency and the variety of methods that are available. In the first place we have a series of instructive articles, covering 160 pages, most of which are from the pens of well-known workers. These deal with manifold portions of a far-reaching subject, and give the advice, results of experience, and views of these workers on numerous Through the great kindness and sympathy of Mr. M. H. points of interest. Of the illustrations, which form Gray, of the Silvertown Submarine Telegraph Company, I such a conspicuous feature of this annual, much could was afforded an opportunity of putting this theory to the be written, for it is in them that we see the practical

test on board the Dacia. results of the processes in use to-day. If we sum

The conditions of the experiment appeared to me at the up the plates, colour prints, supplement illustrations, missing at Gibraltar; but this was a blessing in disguise

time adverse, since my tow-nets and other apparatus were and illustrations in the text, we have a collection

I set to work and made a tow-net out of old bunting and which for variety of subjects and excellence of repro

the rim out of a barrel hoop. This tow-net was so flimst duction is unique. The photogravure, as a frontis- that in towing it alongside at little more than mere piece by J. J. Waddington, Ltd., the “ Turner

steerage-way it frequently burst. To plunge it into the reproduced by the three-colour process of André and depths would be a supreme test, since not even No. 3o Sleigh, and the interlayed half-tone by the Arthur Miller's Silk in an open net could stand the strain 1 (ox Illustrating Co., Ltd., are three amongst a host proposed. Of the north-west coast of Africa I had three of other good samples that are met with.

days' opportunity of experiments, the absurd tow-net bring Apart from the large number of process workers

in ludicrous inverse proportion to the magnificent sounding who await annually the appearance of this year book,

crew and sounding engine. A reference to the diagram this handsome volume will appeal to a wide circle of

will show A, the descent of the net folded over ; # the readers who are in any way connected with the

net opening at the required depth ; ¢, the net bring toard artistic or utilitarian side of the art of reproducing closed as in its descent.

at the required depth ; and 1), the net being reeled in pictures. The editor and his contributors, together I confess that when the first experiment was made I had with the publishers and printers, all deserve great faint hope of seeing that Alimsy tow-net again, but : credit for such an admirable result of their combined emerged with many organisms we had not captured on efforts.

the surface. To cut matters short, these experiments were repeated for three days without a hitch at from 200 to for ocean passages from west to east.

Thus the scope 300 fathoms, the flimsy net emerging from its trials on of his theory must be understood as being much wider every occasion with success.

than what would be conveyed in ordinary nomenclature by There are two practical points. The first is the art the name Theory of the Trade Winds." of plunging the net at the surface, the next that of So far then from opposing Hadley's theory, my father's whipping it out on reeling in, so that there may be no amplifies and completes it.

JAMES THOMSON. contamination of surface organisms during the critical 22 Wentworth Place, Newcastle-on-Tyne, February 6. moments. With a highly expert sounding crew such as I had at my service this was easily done.

Remarkable Temperature Inversion and the Recent My repeated experiments were also addressed to this

High Barometer. point, viz. to ascertain the best rate of descent and ascent During Friday and Saturday, January 27 and 28, the baroof the net, and my experience was 100 fathoms a minute.

metric pressure over the south of England was exceptionally The flimsy net stood all tests.

high, readings of 31.00 inches being observed at 6 p.m. To the modern marine naturalist, whose complicated on Saturday in the extreme south-west of the country. In (and expensive) opening and closing tow-net is an object the neighbourhood of London the barometer rose to 30.90 of worship, this simple advice may seem like telling him during the night of January 26, and remained at about to “bathe seven times in Jordan”; he wishes to do a

that height until the morning of January 29, a well marked great thing.

GEORGE MURRAY.

anti-cyclone with readings over this value being shown on February 5

The Sixth Satellte of Jupiter. The author of the article on the sixth satellite of Jupiter in NATURE of January 19 has obviously made a slip in assuming that the “retrograde” motion ascribed to the sate!- 6000 lite means retrograde in the sky, and not in the orbit. According to the ephemeris, Jupiter on January 4 was moving direct, i.e. eastward, about 225" daily. The satellite was west of the planet (position angle 269°), approaching Jupiter 3000

3000 at the rate of 45" a day, and, therefore, moving eastward (direct) about 270" daily.

The position angle on January 17, according to the latest bulletin from Mount Hamilton, was 266°, having decreased 3° ; the distance of the satellite had decreased from 45' to 36'.

2000 ft

2010 If the object is really a satellite this necessarily indicates a retrograde orbital motion, unless the plane of its orbit is so much inclined to that of the other satellite-orbits as to make the new one pass north of the planet at inferior conjunction

1000 instead of south as the others now do.

The observations thus far published would, however, apply equally well to an asteroid a little within or beyond the (rbit of Jupiter, and near perihelion in an orbit of some eccentricity and with a mean distance from the sun somewhat

40' f greater than that of Jupiter. We must wait for further observations to determine the truth.

C. A. YOUNG.

Fig. 1. -Temperature inversion on January 28 at Oxsbott, Surrey. Princeton, N.J., U.S.A., February 3.

the morning and evening weather charts of January 27 The Circulation of the Atmosphere.

and 28. I HAVE read with great interest your review of Pros. During such conditions it is in general impossible to raise H. H. Hildebrandsson's report on

"The General Motion a kite, owing to the want or lightness of wind; but on of Clouds" (NATURE, February 2, p. 329).

January 28, during the afternoon, there was sufficient All his observations appear to support the theory of my

breeze from the west to start a kite carrying recording father, the late Prof. James Thomson, as set forth in the instruments, and to take them to a height of 3600 feet. Bakerian lecture on “The Grand Currents of Atmospheric

A very remarkable temperature inversion was found to Circulation " (Phil. Trans., vol. clxxxiii. p. 653, 1892) and in exist, the details of which are shown in the accompanying his earlier paper read before the British Association in

chart. At 3.40 p.m. the surface temperature was 47°.0 F.; 1857.

at 4.45 p.m. it had fallen to 45°0 F. The temperature Is it possible that Prof. Hildebrandsson has not decreased steadily to 40° F. at 3000 feet; a little higher these papers, and has accepted theories put forward as

a rise of 12° took place, the temperature at 3300 feet being Prof. James Thomson's instead of referring to the 52° F. At 4.28 p.m., at 3600 feet, the temperature was originals? Anyone who takes the trouble to read these 53° F. Unfortunately, the humidity trace on the meteoropapers carefully must see that it is distinctly stated that graph partially failed, but it suffices to show that the the main direction of the upper current of the atmosphere temperature inversion was, as such inversions in my exis from west to east while moving steadily and gradually perience always are, accompanied by extreme dryness of towards the Poles, and that the air keeps this west to

the air. east motion as it sinks to a lower level, and becomes the The wind was west at the surface, and shifted gradually great return current towards the equator. This motion to north-west at the highest point reached, but there was can hardly be termed “ vertical circulation." As for no sudden change of direction at the height where the Prof. Hildebrandsson's assumption concerning Hadley's temperature inversion occurred. theory, I should like to quote the following passage from I do not wish to imply that the high barometer and the my father's paper :.

temperature inversion are necessarily correlated phenomena, "In 1735 George Hadley submitted to the Royal Society but the coincidence is interesting. W. H. Dines. the paper of which I have made mention already as supplying for the first time a substantially true theory

Dates of Publication of Scientific Books. of the primarily dominant conditions of atmospheric With reference to the complaint of Mr. R. P. Paraiypye circulation. The paper is entitled ' ('oncerning the Cause (p. 320) that a big sum is still asked for Price's “ Treatise of the General Trade Winds,' and it is right here to notice on Infinitesimal Calculus," I should be obliged if you that Hadley applied the name 'General Trade Winds not would allow me to point out that the price of this work merely to those winds of equatorial regions to which the is, and has been for some time, 55. a volume. name Trade Winds is ordinarily restricted, but uses it as

HENRY FROWDF. including also the west to east winds known to be pre. Oxford University Press Warehouse, Amen Corner. valent in higher latitudes, and used in trade by mariners London, E.C., February 8.

seen

66

A National University Library,

Now to Mr. Wells's points in order. It must be the experience of any graduate of Oxford or

(1) "* * The Food of the Gods' does not claim to forecast

the future." Cambridge who is residing at a distance from those univer

My mistake was natural. It only shows sity towns that a serious obstacle to the prosecution of

the risk Mr. Wells runs in appearing before the world research arises from the impossibility of consulting the

in two entirely different characters. Still, I hit upon a university libraries, and the absence of any provision for

weak point. He pictures an ideal State, but cannot show borrowing volumes, or obtaining references under arrange

us how it is to be realised. Archimedes had no fulcrum ments similar to those pertaining at the libraries of the

for the lever with which he would have moved the world. Royal and other scientific societies. Moreover, while Oxford

Mr. Wells has no power to apply to his. and Cambridge possess the special privilege of acquiring

(2)I have mixed up. Anticipations' and 'Mankind in the free copies of books copyrighted in England, there are now

Making.' Why keep them separate? “ Anticipations "also many universities in this country which are far too poor

deals largely with ideals, to keep up even a decently respectable library in any branch

(3) Re the question—Which of the great national of science.

syntheses" will attain predominance, see Anticipations." The conditions of modern times have created a need for chap. viii. passim, and especially pp. 100, 101 (6d. ed., a National University Library, enjoying the same privileges 1904). This chapter seemed to me an interesting speculaas the Oxford and Cambridge libraries, and which should

tion, but Mr. Wells describes what I thought, and, on be available for graduates of any British university; per

re-reading, think is to be found in it as " balderdash. sons engaged in any specified branch of research to have the

True, through inadvertence I wrote “ Anglo-Saxon " in

stead of " opportunity of borrowing books through the post as in the

English-speaking," for which I am sorry. case of the Royal Society.

G. II. BRYAN. (4) Re the recruiting of the upper strata of society from

the lower, nothing, he says, is known about this. Still,

those who have studied human evolution think they know Mutation.

something. Prof. Karl Pearson even says that there are The term mutation is applied in biology to that sort of " class statistics " for the population of Copenhagen, and variation in which the equilibrium of the organism seems writes, “ the population would accordingly appear to be to be disturbed, and a new position of equilibrium is found, ultimately, and in the long run, reproducing itself from which is markedly different from the original one. This

the artisan classes(Natural Science, May, 1896). Dr. may apply to a whole organism or merely to some one Mercier (see the Sociological Society's papers, 1904, organ, so far as external appearances show.

p. 55) regards a civilised community in the light of a in all the discussions regarding mutation which have lamp, which burns away at the top and is replenished at lately taken place, the difficulty has been felt that it is the bottom." As to stagnant classes, I find in " Antiimpossible by any methods yet known to perceive and cipations," p. 121, It (the new Republic) will tolerate no measure the internal changes and influences leading to

dark corners where the people of the Abyss may fester, mutability. It is certainly not supposed that mutability is no vast diffused slums of peasant proprietors, no stagnant without cause, but it is obviously difficult to detect the plague preserves.” See especially p.'117 for Mr. Wells's causes which bring it about.

plan for getting rid of undesirable types. As to careful It occurs to me that some help may be obtained from

parentage, see “Mankind in the Making," p. 99:-" The analogies derived from psychology and sociology. What

first step to ensuring them (the ends aimed at) is certainly mutation is in biology, conversion is in psychology, and to do all we can to discourage reckless parentage." revolution in sociology. It may be said that to assume

In conclusion, let me describe myself as a much-battered such parallels is merely to beg the question, but I think

but not unfriendly critic of the New Republic. that the apparent parallelism cannot be without significance.

F. W. H. Now the phenomena leading towards conversion have been studied subjectively (cf. James, Varieties of Religious Experience”), and those leading towards revolution have

The Melting of Floating Ice. been studied objectively, with certain well-defined results. May I suggest that Dr. Deventer, of Amsterdam, whose If the supposed analogy is a valid one, it appears to follow letter to you is referred to in your issue of January 26 that mutability is due the

(p. 303), has discovered a mare's nest"? as ordinary variability (just change of opinion His observant pupil, who noticed that in a glass filled and reform are due to the same general causes as con- to the brim with water and floating ice the melting of the version and revolution), but that there is this difference- latter did not cause overflow, was apparently totally mutability represents an explosion of energy, as it were, in ignorant of the laws of flotation, or he would not have a given direction, and therefore differs from ordinary vari- expected otherwise. Why should the level of the water ation somewhat as the firing of a gun differs from the change? The .ice in melting must of necessity just fill explosion of a loose heap of powder. It also follows that with water the space that it displaced when floating, and the cause of the explosion is not plasticity in the organism, so the level remains unaltered. So Dr. Deventer's statebut in some measure the reverse; that is, the power of being ment that “when a vessel contains a solid floating in influenced, and at the same time of withstanding the its own liquid, the level of the latter does not change by expression of the influence until it had acquired considerable the melting of the solid” appears quite superfluous. force. This implies a certain rigidity of type, quite com- As to making this a general law applying to solids parable with a type of mind familiar to all. It further floating in their own liquids, surely the rule is that solids appears to follow that the chance of mutations succeeding do not do so, but sink.' Why make a general law which from the first is comparatively remote, though such a thing only applies in the case of a very few exceptional subis quite possible ; but since they are the result of general stances, such as ice, cast iron, and bismuth?

HEAT. causes, the sort of changes the mutations exhibit are likely February 8th. to come about in due course, just as the sort of changes represented by a revolution are likely to prevail ultimately, though the revolution itself may appear to fail.

A Lunar Rainbow.
T. D. A. COCKERELL.

Last night, after 10 p.m., a thunderstorm passed over C'niversity of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, January 25.

this town, travelling from west to east. When the storm

had passed and the rain had almost ceased, a bright quarterFact in Sociology.

moon shone brilliantly almost overhead. To the east the MR. WellS is a dangerous man to criticise. Such clouds were still very heavy and dark, and in that direction thunderbolts as crude, dull,' balderdash,” come there appeared a perfect rainbow. The arc of the bow was hurtling at one's head even from his modified letters low; it appeared as a grey band with a certain suggestion (Nature, February 2). But I prefer to regard it all as of colour, against the dark leaden sky, meant only for sheet lightning. Indeed, when I consider I should be glad to know from any of your readers if the courtesy that characterised my article (NATURE, such moon rainbows are of common occurrence, as the one December 29), plain-spoken though, it was on some points, ' of last night is the first which I have seen. I cannot take any other view.

Pretoria. Transvaal, January 15.

J. McCRAZ

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NOTES ON STONEHENGE.

the axis of the present circles, which, it may be stated, II1.--THE EARLIEST Circles.

passes 3 teet to the N.W. of the N.W. edge of the

Friar's Heel (see Fig. 8). to

There are besides these two large untrimmed sarsen in relation to the orientation theory, it soon stones, one standing some distance outside the vallum, becomes clear that its outer circle of upright stones one recumbent, lying on the vallum, both nearly, but with lintels and the inner naos, built of trilithons, not quite, in the sunrise line as viewed from the centre oriented in the line of the “ avenue" and the summer of the sarsen circle. These are termed the “ Friar's Solstice sunrise, are not the only things to be con- Heel ” and “ Slaughter Stone” respectively. sidered. These stones, all composed of sarsen, which, I will deal with (1) first, and begin by another quotabe it remarked, have been trimmed and tooled, are tion from Mr. Cunnington, who displayed great not alone in question. We have :

acumen in dealing with the smaller stones not sarsens. (1) An interior circle broken in many places, and “ The most important consideration connected with other stones near the naos, composed of stones, the smaller stones, and one which in its archæological

bearing has been too much over-
looked, is the fact of their having
been brought from a great distance.
I expressed an opinion on this sub-
jeçt in a lecture delivered at Devizes
more than eighteen years ago, and
I have been increasingly impressed
with it since. I believe that these
stones would not have been brought
from such a distance to a spot where
an abundance of building stones
equally suitable in every respect
already existed, unless some special
or religious value had been attached
to them. This goes far to prove
that Stonehenge was originally a
temple, and neither a
raised to the memory of the dead,

astronomical calendar or almanac.

“ It has been suggested that they were Danams, or the offerings of successive votaries. Would there in such case have been such uniformity of design or would they have been all alike of foreign materials? I would make one remark about the small impost of trilithon of syenite, now lying prostrate within the circle. One writer has followed another in taking it for granted that there must have been a second, corresponding with it, on the opposite side. Of this there is neither proof nor record, not a trace of one having been seen by any person who has written on the subject. This small impost, not being of sarsen, but syenite, must have belonged to the original old circle ; it may even have suggested to the

builders of the present Stonehenge Fig. 8.-Map of the Stones made by the Ordnance Survey. A, N.W. stone; B, S. E. stone ; the idea of the large im posts and c, Friar's Heel; D, Slaughter stone.

trilithons, with their tenons and

mortices.' “ blue stones," which, as we have seen, are of an In Prof. Gowland's examination of the contents of entirely different origin and composition.

the holes necessarily dug in his operations, it was found (2) Two smaller untrimmed sarsen stones lying near that the quantity of blue stone chippings was much the vallum, not at the same distance from it, the line greater than that from the sarsen stones. While the joining them passing nearly, but not quite, through sarsen stones had only been worked or tooled on their the centre of the sarsen circle. The amplitude of the surface, the blue stones had been hewed and trimmed line joining them is approximately 26° S. of E, and in extraordinary fashion ; indeed, it is stated by Prof. 26° Ñ. of W. Of these the stump of the N.W. stone Judd that some of them had been reduced to half their is situated 22 feet from the top of the vallum according original dimensions in this process, though evidence of to the Ordnance plan. The S.E. stone has fallen, but this statement is not given. according to careful observations and measurements It seems, then, that when the sarsen stones were by Mr. Penrose, when erect its centre was 14 feet set up, the sarsen and blue stones were treated very from the top of the vallum. The centre of the line differently. This being so, the following quotation joining the stones is therefore 4 feet to the S.E. of from Prof. Judd's “ Note" is interesting (ArchaeoContinued from p. 349.

logia, lviii., p. 81):

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