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In connection with the conference there was a trade ex- building to be known as the John Lyman Laboratory of hibition of school building and furnishing appliances, which Natural History. Mr. Adolph Lewisohn, of New York, has consisted chiefly of school furniture ; and the Board of Educa- given 1000l. for the reconstruction of the chemical laboration, the Scotch Education Department, the Technical In
tories at Dartmouth College. struction Department for Ireland, the London County Council, Home Office, &c., contributed loan exhibits.
The following recent appointments are announced :i conference upon school hygiene, international in char
Dr. Ernst Neumann, associate professor of physics at acter, is to be held in London in 1907.
Marburg; Dr. Emil Wiechert, professor of geophysics at Bonn; Dr. Holleman, of Gröningen, professor of inorganic chemistry at Amsterdam; Dr. Bernhard Dessau, of Bologna,
professor of physics at Perugia; Dr. C. Russjan, of UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
Cracow, professor of mechanics at Lemberg ; Dr. L. Cour
voisier, of Heidelberg, observer at the Berlin Observatory; INTELLIGENCE.
Dr. Ferdinand Henrich, associate professor of chemistry CAMBRIDGE. – The subject selected for the Adams Prize in
at Erlangen ; Dr. Boehm, associate professor of mathe1900 is “ The inequalities in the moon's motion due to the
matics at Heidelberg ; Dr. Kueser, professor of mathedirect action of the planets.'
matics at Breslau ; Dr. Th. Vahlen, of Königsberg, assoThe successful candidate will receive about 2251.
ciate professor of mathematics at Greifswald; Dr. M. The syndicate appointed to draw up a scheme of instruction
Weber, professor of mechanics at the Hanover Technical and examination in mining engineering has issued a second
College ; Mr. B. H. Camp and Dr. G. D. Richardson, and amended report to the Senate. It is proposed that a
instructors in mathematics at Wesleyan and Yale Uni
versities respectively. diploma in mining engineering be granted to students who have passed the previous examination and have kept nine terms, and who have attained an honours standard in geology and chemistry in part i. of the natural sciences tripos and a second class standard in certain of the papers
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. in the special examination in mechanism. The candidates
LONDON. have also to produce a certificate in mechanical drawing. This amended scheme meets the objections which had at one
Royal Society, June 16, 1904.—“On the Lufluence of time been raised to the recommendations of the syndicate,
the Time Factor on the Correlation between the Barometric and it was warmly welcomed at the discussion in the
Heights at Stations more than 1000 Miles apart." By Senate house a week or two ago.
F. E. Cave-Browne-Cave, Girton College, Cambridge.
The conclusions drawn from the results given in this
(1) The correlation between the barometric readings at Council of the West Riding of Yorkshire, has been ap- | interval between the readings. In the case of Halifax and
two stations upwards of 1000 miles apart depends upon the pointed warden of the Goldsmiths' College, New Cross.
Wilmington, the correlation is sensible for at least nine Science states that the Emperor of Germany has directed days, and it reaches a maximum for an interval of about the German Ambassador to the United States to lay before sixteen hours in summer and twenty-three in winter. For President Roosevelt in official form the suggestion for an
these stations, and also for St. Helena and Cape Town, Exchange of professors between German and American univer- the observation at the more easterly station should be taken sities which he made to the American Ambassador on New
later for maximum correlation. Year's Day.
(2) There is a considerable correlation between the daily
rise at Halifax and Wilmington, and this correlation THE administration of the Board of Education in respect changes with the interval in a manner somewhat analogous of secondary schools under the board's regulations for to that in which the correlation between simultaneous secondary schools, as also of charitable trusts and endow- heights at two stations approximately on the same meridian ments connected therewith, will be conducted in future in depends upon the distance between them. the board's offices at Whitehall, and not at South Ken- (3) There are considerable differences between the sumsington. All correspondence on these matters should therefore mer and winter correlations, and these differences are of the be addressed to the Secretary, Board of Education, Whitehall, same general nature for both pairs of stations considered. London, S.W. This change does not apply to the board's (4) It is possible to predict the barometric height at one administration under the regulations for evening schools, station from an earlier height at a second station more than technical institutions, and schools of art and art classes, 1000 miles away, with a fair degree of accuracy, the mean which will remain for the present at South Kensington. observed error for forty dates, taken at random, for Halifax
and Wilmington, being o".15. Is the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society for December 31, Mr. L. 1. Price contributes a paper on January 19.-“ On the Comparative Effects of the Trythe accounts of the colleges of Oxford, 1893-1903, panosomata of Gambia Fever and Sleeping Sickness upon with special reference to their agricultural revenues.
Rats. By H. G. Plimmer. Communicated by C. J. An interesting feature of the discussions was the reference Martin, F.R.S. to the disastrous results arising from the new statutes The organisms used in these experiments were given to drawn up by the last commission, consequent on the fact the author by Col. Bruce, F.R.S., and they were taken that the work of the commission was done at a time when from monkeys which had been inoculated in Africa from agriculture was prosperous, and no sooner had the sittings cases of the respective diseases; so that when the author's reased than agricultural depression came on the country, experiments were commenced each organism had been and the resources of the colleges were seriously hampered. through one monkey, and they were therefore similar as
regards conditions. The trustees of the Peabody Education Fund have, we Rats inoculated with the Trypanosomata from Gambia learn from Science, voted to dissolve their trust.
fever lived about two and a half months; the Trypanosomata priation of 200,000l. for the George Peabody School for
were present in the blood from about four weeks after Teachers in Nashville, Tenn., was made by a unanimous inoculation until death. Post mortem the organisms were votn, the State and city having together voted an equal present in the blood and in all the organs; the spleen was sum íor the school. This appropriation leaves a fund of very much enlarged, and the liver and kidneys were conapproximately 240,000l., which will be distributed later gested. The lymphatic glands were enlarged. among other educational institutions. From the same source Rats inoculated with the Trypanosomata from sleeping we learn that the trustees of Syracuse University are about sickness lived without any symptoms for a period of from tu construct, with the bequest made to the university by the six to nine months, when they became paralysed, first in late Mr. John Lyman, which is said to amount to 40,000l., a one hind leg and then in the other, and they died in from
two to eight weeks after the paraplegia was complete, living the chlorine is rendered incapable of combining with the altogether up to eleven or twelve months. At no time were hydrogen. any Trypanosomata found in the blood, nor post mortem It has been hitherto supposed that an induced mixture in the viscera or glands. But in the spinal cord they were of hydrogen and chlorine if left to stand for some time in the present in small numbers, and inoculation of the cord dark must be again induced before combination will proceed into other rats has produced similar symptoms, whilst in- at its normal rate. This is not the case if a quartz actinooculation of the organs has been negative. In sections of meter is substituted for a glass one. the spinal cord amaboid and adult forms of the Trypanosoma have been found, and also those lesions which Dr. * The Theory of Symmetrical Optical Objectives. -Part Mott found in the nervous system of man in cases of II." By S. D. Chalmers. Communicated by Prof. Larmor, sleeping sickness, viz., a considerable cellular exudation Sec.R.S. around the vessels. This is not found in monkeys, in which In photographic objectives, consisting of two similar the organisms become generalised, and do not get localised lenses symmetrical to a central stop, the back member is in the nervous system as is the case in rats.
generally corrected for spherical and chromatic aberri These experiments go to show that the organisms asso- tions, astigmatism, and curvature of field for distant ciated with the diseases of Gambia fever and sleeping objects, and thus the whole system is perfectly corrected sickness, which are thought by some to be the same disease for unit magnification. The present paper disrusses the in different stages, are quite distinct in their effects, and aberrations for distant objects. In part i. it was proved they are also distinct morphologically; that the Trypano- that, to the first approximation, the above defects ar soma of sleeping sickness can be inoculated into rats, which corrected in the whole system when they are corrected in has been denied ; and that there is a great similarity in the single member. By geometrical constructions, using the lesions produced in the nervous systems of man and of the symmetry with respect to the axis and to the stop, rats, and in the localisation of the disease to the nervous these results are extended to practical systems. The paths system.
of parallel rays, incident on the combined system, are From experiments made, a double infection would seem obtained from those of two sets of parallel rays incident to be quite possible, and to be a likely event in these on the single system ; the aberrations of the combined diseases.
system are expressed in terms of the single system with
small errors-negligible in practical systems-due to the January 26.-.“ On the Modulus of Torsional Rigidity oi
image of the stop being imperfect. Quartz Fibres and its Temperature Coefficient." By Dr. Frank Horton, St. John's College, Cambridge, late Mackinnon “ Exterior Ballistics. Error of the Day and other Student. Communicated by Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. Corrections to Naval Range Tables." By Prof. Geo
In this research the dynamical method of experimenting Forbes, F.R.S. was employed, and the investigaton was divided into three
Gun-sights are always marked for standard conditions parts :
of muzzle velocity (m.v.) and air density (a.d.). When (1) The determination of the absolute value of the torsion either of these change the sights must be corrected. The modulus.
author finds from theory that if a.d. is increased m fold, (2) The variation of the modulus between 15° C. and and the range is diminished m fold, then the elevation 100° C.
and time-of-flight must be diminished m fold; and, em(3) The variation of the modulus between 20° C. and pirically, that up to 10° of elevation (10,000 yards for a 1000° C.
12" gun) elevation varies very closely as ilm.v.), as The radii of the fibres used were determined by measur
vacuo. On these laws he calculated from the naval ing their circumferences, the fibres being rolled between range table of a 12" gun, 8golbs. shot, 2463 m.v., at a two fine glass capillary tubes and the number of revolutions
4, 6, 8, and 10 thousand yards, the table for a b gun, made in travelling a distance of 5 mm. counted.
Toolb. shot, 1960ft. secs. The elevations only differed method fibres of diameter 0.001 cm. were measured from the Naval 6" table by -1, -4, -2, +2, and + 4 0.01 per cent.
min. of arc. In the second part of the research the jacket enclosing The laws, therefore, may be applied with perfect run the fibre was heated by using the vapours of various liquids fidence for the comparatively smali variations that occur boiling under atmospheric pressure. The modulus of in any one gun. rigidity was found to increase as a linear function of the temperature, but the values of the temperature coefficient Linnean Society, January 19.-Prof. W. A. IIerdman, of the modulus obtained from different fibres were F.R.S., president, in the chair.- The Rey T. R. R siderably different. In the experiments between 20° C. and Stebbing exhibited and explained specimens of ("rustautu 1000° C. the fibres were suspended inside a platinum tube, in various ways remarkable for structure, habits, habitat which was heated electrically. It was found that the
or colouring: -Botanical collecting : Dr. A. Henry. The modulus of rigidity increased with the temperature, at actual methods were briefly alluded to, stress being laid on first as a linear function of it, but as the temperature rose truthful labelling of the specimens at the moment of colthe rate of increase gradually diminished and a maximum lection, instead of months afterwards. when idenberigidity was attained at about 880° C. After passing this numbers were often given to plants of different protenanc. point the rigidity decreased very rapidly with increase of Dr. Henry described observations made by him in China temperature.
He alluded to mimicry in plants, in the case of two species
of Lysimachia (a protomorphic genus in China), one pa “ Note on the Cause of the Period of Chemical Induction
which mimicked Paris quadrifolia, with 4 leaves, while it in the Union of Hydrogen and Chlorine." By D. L. other recalled another species of Paris with 10-12 leases Chapman and C. H. Burgess. Communicated by Prof. He referred also to the extraordinary richness of spec H. B. Dixon.
on calcareous soils as compared with other soils, a fan. The induction period in the union of hydrogen and constantly seen in China, and well marked also in France, chlorine exposed to light, which has been ascribed by and asked for some explanation. In China, as elsewher various authors either to a change in the physical con- pure woods were rare, being only formed by a tm dition of the chlorine or of the mixture of hydrogen and conifers, like Abies Fargesii at high altitudes in Hupe chlorine, or to the primary formation of an unstable inter- Cupressus funebris in the same province at lower levels mediate compound, has been shown by the authors to be the home of the Reeves's pheasant), Pinus Vassepian due to impurities. The impurities are those which react (almost everywhere in the central and southern provin zal with chlorine, such as ammonia aná sulphur dioxide. At other species of Pinus more local; also certain species the ordinary temperature in the dark the reaction between oak widely distributed ; and Alnus nepalensis in Puman these substances and chlorine is not completed. In the | The explanation of the occurrence of pure foresis was al. light or by raising the temperature these impurities can a subject not completely understood : 6.g. in this cranin be entirely removed by the chlorine. The time required ash seeded freely, and in some places for a time looked ** for their removal is the induction period during which if it would grow into a pure wood; but apparenth PUSO
forests of ash only occurred on extremely rich soil in some Sir John Murray spoke on the relation of oceanography districts in Russia. With regard to botanical collecting, to other sciences. He pointed out that recent expeditions three stages had occurred. At an early period plants were had made only inconsiderable alterations in the contour collected to be merely named and classified; in fact, they lines of the sea-bottom published in the Challenger reports, were treated like postage stamps. The second period and was of the opinion that no great changes were likely began with Sir Joseph Hooker, who inaugurated the study to be made by the soundings of future expeditions. He of the geographical distribution of plants. The third expressed his belief that the great ocean basins had been period, that of the present day, was a step forward, in practically unaltered through geological time, but that the that attention should be paid to the plants themselves as continents, including a zone of not more than 200 miles social organisms, living in harmony and yet in competition seaward of their present outline, had frequently altered their together; and Dr. Henry urged that the time had come levels, supporting this belief by the fact that all known when the hunt for new species should cease to be the sedimentary rocks are of “terrigenous ” character, to the sole aim of the collector, and the study of the known exclusion of deep-sea materials. The meteorology of midspecies be taken in hand in their living conditions. He
where the diurnal temperature range of the water advocated map-making of small areas,
census-taking, is about 2° F., was contrasted with the meteorology over measurements, records of natural seedlings, soil, shade, land-masses, where absorption and radiation are high, and &c., and to illustrate this plan showed a series of slides the diurnal atmospheric range may amount to 80° F. As taken in France, the idea of which was to explain how the an example of the far-reaching effects of temperature, Sir commoner species of trees behaved at different altitudes John Murray cited the range of annual variation where and on different soils.-Cranial osteology of the fishes hot and cold currents are at war, amounting in some cases of the families Osteoglossida, Pantodontida, and to 40° F.; in such regions the animal death-rate is very Phractolæmida : Dr. W. G. Ridewood. This paper is high, and the dead organisms decomposing on the bottom a fourth instalment of the results of an extensive investi- start the formation of glauconite, a well-known constituent gation upon the skull of the lower teleostean fishes begun of sedimentary rocks. As another result of temperature, it in 1896. Descriptions are given of the skulls of Osteo- has been estimated that a tropical Copepod lives twentyglossum, Heterotis, Arapaima, Pantodon, and Phracto- four times as fast as an Arctic Copepod in the same period læmus; and in a summary Dr. Ridewood points out that of time; this may explain the predominance of specimens the evidence of the skull goes to show that the three and paucity of species in the Arctic as compared with the genera Osteoglossum, Heterotis, and Arapaima, first | Tropical fauna. In connection with chemistry, he pointed brought together into the family Osteoglossidæ by Dr. out the gradual transference of lime from the poles to the Gunther, constitute a perfectly natural group; that the tropics by organic agency; and, in connection with Pantodontidæ are more closely related to the Osteoglossidæ physiology, the possible relation between the serous and than to any other family of fishes, as has been suspected similar Auids of existing organisms, and the constitution since the first discovery of the genus Pantodon in 1876 ; of the primæval sea in which life first began on our earth. and that the Phractolæmidæ do not in their cranial osteology offer any evidence of close alliance with either of Faraday Society, January 30. — Prof. A. K. Huntington these families.
in the chair.-Mass analysis of Muntz's metal by elec
trolysis, and some notes on the electrolytic properties of February 2.-Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., president, this alloy : J. G. A. Rhodin. The first portion of the paper in the chair.-Descriptions of some new species and notes describes an apparatus which was specially designed by on other Chinese plants: W. J. Tutcher. The species the author for the purpose of the accurate and rapid in question had been found on the island of Hong Kong, determination of the copper content (which should lie with one from Kowloon and one from Wei-hai-wei.
between 60.5 and 61.5 per cent.) of Muntz's metal. The Bentham's “ Flora Hongkongensis” in 1861 enumerated author also discusses the electrochemical properties of 1053 species from the island, 159 of which had not at that Muntz's metal. The metal is largely used as a sheathing time been found elsewhere, but at the present time only to protect ships' bottoms from certain mollusca and algæ, about 50 of these remain peculiar to the island. The flora and to be successful it should dissolve in sea-water just to as now known amounts to about 1400 species, of which a sufficient extent as to render the surface poisonous, the 100 are regarded as endemic, though probably many will best conditions being the equal dissolution of the copper be found natives of the mainland Ferns amount to 100; and zinc. The author shows how these may be calculated grasses about as many; Leguminosa nearly as many; approximately by supposing that the electrolytic dissolution between 70 and 8o Cyperaceæ ; Compositæ more than 60, and
rate is proportional to the heat of formation of the orchids bó. Quercus Eyrei, first found by Capt. Champion, was ultimate compounds (zinc and cuprous chlorides), and to not collected by any recent collector until the author re-found the conductivities of the metals which dissolve. - The it in quantity ; even Hance had declared that Champion equilibrium between sodium sulphate and magnesium must have been mistaken in his locality. The luxuriance
sulphate : R. B. Denison. Experiments conducted from the usually associated with tropical vegetation is here wanting, standpoint of the phase rule are described, the object of due to the poverty of the soil, which is almost exclusively which was to determine whether the double salt of sodium disintegrated granite. The new territory leased to Great and magnesium sulphates, 2 MgSO,.Na,SO, which has Britain in 1898 has an area of about 300 square miles, been described as a naturally occurring mineral, is capable that is, ten times the area of Hong Kong. Lantao is an of existence in contact with solution, that is, whether it island resembling Hong Kong, but its highest peak is has been formed in nature by the evaporation of saline 3050 feet, with many well-wooded ravines, and when ex
waters. The corresponding potassium compound is known plored will doubtless prove rich in plants.-Revision of the to occur in Stassfurt as langbeinit, and it was thought European marine forms of the Cirolaninæ, a subfamily of that a detailed investigation might result in the isolation frustacea Isopoda : Dr. H. J. Hansen. Three new species of the sodium langbeinit from solution. Dilatometer and are described-Cirolana gallica, C. Schmidtii, and Eurydice tensimeter experiments pointed fairly conclusively to the affinis. Comparative tables of the genera and species are assumption that the compound sodium-langbeinit cannot supplied, distinguishing eight European species of Cirolana, exist in contact with solution, at least below 100° C., and one of Conilera, and six Eurydice.
hence this substance, if found as a mineral, must be a
product of a higher temperature.-Refractory materials for Challenger Society. January 25.- Sir J'hn Murray in furnace linings : E. K. Scott. the chair. -Mr. E. W. L. Holt exhibited and made remarks on some rare and interesting deep-water fish and Crustacea Mineralogical Society, January 31.-Prof. 11. A. Miers, from West Ireland.-Dr. R. N. Wolfenden exhibited and F.R.S., president, in the chair. ---Danalite from Wheal made remarks upon some Copepoda from the Gauss (Ger- Maudlin, Cornwall ; crystallographic characters of bariumman Antarctic) expedition ; their large size, up to somm., radium bromide : Prof. H. A. Miers.-Epidote from Inverwas remarkable, as also the fact that, of the 42' species ness-shire : H. H. Thomas. The crystallographic and from the Gauss and Belgica, five were common to the optical characters were described. A chemical analysis made subpolar seas and continuous by way of the mesoplankton.- by Dr. Pollard showed that the mineral contained a very low
percentage of ferric oxide (6.81). In this respect it was similar bromo-anhydro-base prepared by the reduction of 4-bromo :2: to epidotes from Huntington, Mass., and the Zillerthal, and nitroaceto-a-naphthalide, is now shown to be identical with like them showed correspondingly low refractive and double the anhydro-base obtained from Markfeldt's ethenyltriaminorefractive power and large optic axial angle, as compared naphthalene by the diazo-method. with epidotes containing higher percentages of iron.-Preliminary note on the regular growth of crystals of one
Mathematical Society, February 9.-Prof. A. R. Forsyeh. substance upon those of another : T. V. Barker. The president, in the chair.--The president referred to the loss observations of previous investigators were in general con
sustained by the society by the death of Mr. R. Tucker, firmed with regard to the growths of KI, KBr, KCl and
who was honorary secretary of the society from 1867 to NaNO, upon mica, and of NaNo, upon calcite. In all 1902. A resolution of condolence with Mr. Tucker's sura clean surface is necessary. Attempts to get a
viving relatives was passed. The following papers were regular deposition of NaNO, upon other rhombohedral
communicated :-General theory of transfinite numbers and carbonates of the calcite group and upon dolomite were
order types : Dr. E. W. Hobson. The paper deals with without any positive result, although the rhombohedral
the well-known contradiction which arises in the theory of angle of some of them is much nearer to that of NaNO, aggregates, and is expressed in the statements :- The than is that of calcite. The topic axes, however, are in aggregate of all ordinal numbers has an ordinal number order of magnitude as follows :-NaNO,, calcite, rhodo- which must be the greatest of all ordinal numbers, that is, chrosite, dolomite, chalybite, so that if the regular growth
the last of the series ; but the series cannot have a last depend on the fitting together of similar structures, the
element. The source of the contradiction is traced to the experiments point to the usefulness of the conception of assumption that an ordered aggregate necessarily possesses topic axes. The author is continuing his observations.- a definite order-type which can be regarded as an object, Apparatus for determining the density of small grains :
viz. the ordinal number coming immediately after all those Κ. Α. Κ. Hallowes. The method is by hydrostatic which are the elements of the aggregate of which it is weighing, and the grain is held under water (or prefer- the order-type. The author proposes to deny this principle, ably alcohol) in a spring-clamp, made of brass wire and and points out that those parts of the theory of aggregates two cover-glasses, which is suspended from the beam of which are of importance for the general purposes of mathethe balance by a fine hair.-Exhibits : Specimen of phenacite
matical analysis would not be affected by this denial.--The and one of aurichalcite from Cornish localities : A. Russell. Maclaurin sum-formula : Rev. E. W. Barnes. The paper -Specimens of sulphide of lead and oxide of zinc artificially contains a form for the remainder, and a fresh produced in furnaces at Laurium : H. F. Collins.
demonstration of the conditions in which certain generalisa
tions of the formula are valid.— The asymptotic expansion Geological Society, February 1.- Dr. J. E. Marr, of integral functions of finite non-zero order : Rev. E. W. F.R.S., president, in the chair.—On the sporangium-like Barnes. The object of the paper is to investigate the organs of Glossopteris Browniana, Brongn.: E. A. Newell asymptotic expansions of functions of the class in question Arber. Some specimens from New South Wales, on which without making any appeal to the theory of divergent scale-fronds of Glossopteris occur, also exhibit impressions series. It is shown that the most general type of integral of minute bodies, not unlike the sporangia of certain recent function of finite non-zero order with a single sequence and extinct ferns and cycads. They have never been found, of non-repeated zeroes admits, when the argument is large. except in the closest association with the scale-leaves of Glos- an asymptotic expansion valid everywhere save in the sopteris, and this is regarded as an indication that they may neighbourhood of the zeroes of the function, and all the cobe attributed to that genus, a conclusion supported by the efficients of this expansion can be built up from the simple evidence of the scale-fronds, which show scars of attachment Riemann Zeta function. Expansions are also found in and fragments of the sac-like bodies still apparently in con- the case of integral functions of multiple linear sequence.-tinuity. It is impossible to be quite certain that these bodies are sp ia, but there is much to be said for this view.
On the function 3 x"/18 : G. H. Hardy.-On the reThe closest analogy may probably be found in the microsporangia of cycads. A historical sketch is given of the pre- ducibility of covariants of binary quantics of infinite arder. sent evidence on the subject of the fructification of Glos- part ii. : P. W. Wood. sopteris. If the present conclusion be correct (that the sporangia
Royal Society, January 23.—Dr. Traquair in the chair,true ferns.
On deep water ship waves : Lord Kelvin. The waves were Chemical Society, February 2. — - Prof. W. A. Tilden, supposed to be produced by a floating or submerged body F.R.S., president, in the chair.-The following papers were
of proper form moving forward with a given speed in a read :-Camphorylcarbimide : M. O. Forster and H. E.
canal of rectangular section. A solution of the approxiFierz. The authors described this substance and some of
mate equations was first obtained for a particular form of its deriva and reactions.-Configuration of isonitroso
surface wave associated with a definite distribution of prescamphor and its unstable modification : M. 0. Forster.
sure over part of the surface and moving forward with a It is proposed to represent isonitrosocamphor and its unstable
given speed of propagation. The vanishing of the pressure isomeride by the configurations
distribution or * forcive" occurred for a given speed which
coincided wish the speed of propagation of the free sinus C7H14 CH4
oidal wave. When the forcive did not vanish it acted with
or against the displacement according as the speed of and C с
propagation was less or greater than this critical velocity. с
By a suitable synthesis of a series of distributed forcives
with their associated surface displacements, the solution was Syn-form
put in a form which lent itself towards the elucidation of
several important probleins. Thus in certain cases it w respectively. The evidence for this view is principally based possible to imagine a cover fitting part of the water surface upon the behaviour of the two isomerides towards magnesium and moving forward with the proper speed associating thos methyl iodide.--The determination of molecular weight by form of surface with a definite forcive, and in this way lowering of vapour pressure : E. P. Perman. The author solution was obtained of the train of waves acrompanying has worked out the details of a simple method by which the passage of a suitably shaped pontoon over the fieint molecular weights can be determined with moderate accuracy surface. Again, by superposition of two exactly equal tafrom measurements of the lowering of vapour pressure of the cives half a wave-length apart, the surface outside the solvent in which the substance under investigation is dis- region over which the forcive acted was reduced to rest solved.-Note B-NH-ethenyldiaminonaphthalene : R. The disturbed surface within the region of the acting Meldola and J. H. Lane. The ethenyidiaminonaphtha- forcive and moving forward with it could then be imagiae lene, obtained by Prager in 1885 by debrominating the as fitted with a cover; and thus was solved the problem
of finding the form of pontoon which, advancing through stances producing softness in wine : A. Muntz. A discusthe fiuid at a given speed, would be unaccompanied by any sion of the effect of the gummy matters present in wine on displacement of fluid surface either before or behind.—A
its taste.-On the extension of the Cretaceous seas in Africa : comparison of the lakes of Denmark and Scotland : Dr. A. de Lapparent. Traces left by the seas of the Upper Wesenberg-Lund. Dr. Lund had visited Scotland on the
Cretaceous have been recognised for some time in the Sahara invitation of Sir John Murray with the view of making and the Soudan, but up to the present there has been no this comparative study. The greatest possible contrasts direct proof of a communication between this and the existed between the lakes of Denmark and the typical High- Atlantic. Fossils recently collected by Lieut. Desplagnes land lakes of Scotland, the Danish lakes being, for ex- and Capt. Théveniaud make the existence of this communicaample, comparatively small and shallow, with great varia- tion highly probable.--On the three methylcyclohexanones tions of temperature from season to season, the water being and the corresponding methyl-cyclohexanols : Paul Sabatier rich in lime, and the littoral region being characterised in and A. Mailne. The three cresols are readily reduced to the most cases by luxurious vegetation forming the home of corresponding cyclohexanols by hydrogen in presence of numerous animals. Scottish lakes like Loch Leven, how
reduced nickel at 200°-220° C. These were converted by ever, approximated more closely in character to the lakes heating with zinc chloride into methylcyclohexenes, and by of Denmark. The paper contained an important discussion oxidation into methylcyclohexanones. The latter substances of the fauna of the two types of lakes, and of its influence are more conveniently obtained from the alcohol by the on the lakes themselves and their surroundings. The
reaction discovered by Sabatier and Senderens, passing the Danish lakes are gradually being silted up, and will before
vapours of the alcohol over copper heated to 300° C., the long disappear, while the lochs of Highland Scotland will
yield by this method being nearly theoretical.--On a measureremain practically unaltered through long ages.-On a new ment of the height of the reversing layer obtained with the family and twelve new species of Rotifera of the order
aid of the large telescope of the Observatory of Mont Blanc : Bdelloida : J. Murray. The great uniformity of structure M. Millochau. Measurements of two calcium lines under hitherto observed throughout the order Bdelloida gives
good conditions gave a thickness of o". 15.-Observations of much interest to the discovery in the Scottish lochs of an
the zodiacal light made at the summit of Mont Blanc : A. animal showing great divergence from the general type. Hansky. A detailed account of observations taken under The new family, which is called Microdinadæ, is peculiar very favourable conditions on September 21-22.-On soluin the structure of head and jaws. The discs and wreaths
tions of systems of linear differential equations with monoare quite absent, so that there is no corona, unless the drome coefficients : Ed. Maillet.-On Poisson's integral and terminal cilia of the throat are regarded as such. The singular lines of analytical functions : P. Fatou. On the rostrum and toes are as in the genus Philodina. The jaws
whole of the curves traced on an algebraic surface, and on of all other Bdelloida are ramate ; those of Microdina are
the Picard integrals of this surface : Francesco Severi.between ramate and malleo-ramate or malleate. The
On the deviation of freely falling_bodies : M. de Sparre. large teeth are all towards the anterior end of the jaws, Reply to a paper of M. Maurice Fouché on the same suband there are usually from one to two loops on the manu
ject.-On a new mechanical clutch : M. Hérisson.—An brium. A remarkable feature of the animal by which alone
integrating thermometer : Ch. Féry.-A synchronising elecit could be distinguished from all other Bdelloida is a large tromagnetic brake: Henri Abraham. The axis of the crimson gland attached to the æsophagus.-Variations in
motor carries a toothed wheel of copper, the teeth of which the crystallisation of potassium hydrogen succinate due to
pass between the poles of an electromagnet, actuated by the presence of other metallic compounds in the solution :
the same current as the motor. If synchronism is estabA. T. Cameron. The crystals were obtained from solu
lished, each tooth passes this space at the instant when the tions containing small quantities of ferric and chromic
electromagnetic field is nil, and there is no braking action. compounds, and may be described as oblique elliptic double
If the synchronism is imperfect, the brake absorbs the whole cones showing curved surfaces only. The crystals belong of the extra energy of the motor.-Magnetic hysteresis at to the same system as those of the acid succinate, and are
high frequencies in nickel and nickel steels : Ch. Eug. Guye evidently modifications due to the presence in small variable
and A. Schidlof.-On the direct fixation of ethero-organoquantities of the other metallic compounds possibly in a
magnesium derivatives on the ethylene linkage of unsaturated state of solid solution.-(1) Continuants whose main
esters : E. E. Blaise and A. Courtot. Ethyl methacrylate diagonal is univarial ; (2) the eliminant of a set of general reacts with magnesium-methyl-iodide giving the tertiary ternary quadrics: Dr. Thomas Muir.
alcohol dimethylpropenylcarbinol, the ketone methyl-ethylMANCHESTER.
acetone, and diisopropenyl. The conditions giving a
maximum yield of either of these have been worked out.-On Literary and Philosophical Society, January 24 - the cryoscopy of the sulphates : Albert Colson.-A new Rigidity of gelatin : H. Morris-Airey. After describing method of testing for ammonia : application to the examinsome of the properties of aqueous solutions of gelatin, ation of water for sanitary purposes : MM. Trillat and the results of a series of measurements of the rigidity of Turchet. In presence of potassium iodide and sodium these media were given.—The cause of the period of hypochlorite, ammonium salts develop a black coloration, due chemical induction : C. H. Burgess and D. L. Chapman to iodide of nitrogen, which can be estimated colorimetri(see p. 380).
cally. The coloration appears to be less liable to be inter
fered with by certain substances commonly present in natural PARIS.
waters than is the case with Nessler's reagent.--On the Acadenıy of Sciences, February 6.-M. H. Poincaré in evolution of carbon in combustibles : Isidore Bay and Just the chair. On the stability of ships : E. Bertin.-On the Alix.-Some hereditary anomalies provoked by traumatisms : action of hail cannons : J. Violle.' There are in the Beau- M. Blaringhem.-On the use of leucine and tyrosine as jolais twenty-eight societies for breaking up the hail-storms sources of nitrogen for plants : L. Lutz. These two nitrocommon in that region by means of the hail cannon. A com- genous substances can be assimilated both by phanerogams parison of the damage done during the period 1891-1900 with and fungi. The difference noted in a previous paper bethe losses through hail subsequent to the introduction of the tween these two classes of plants was due to the use of sand cannon (1900-1904) shows marked evidence in favour of the as a medium for the growth of the former.-On the cause of use of this means of dispersing the hail clouds. It has been the impoverishment of springs in plains : M. Houllier. The frequently noticed that both lightning and thunder are sup- author draws the conclusion that the progressive impoverishpressed within the protected zone, although they may be ment of the springs in the basin of the Somme during recent raging just outside this area.–Syntheses in the anthracene years is the result of the increased use of the land for agriseries. Symmetrical diamido-tetra-alkyl derivatives of the cultural purposes, leading to a very considerable increase in dihydride of g-tetraphenyl-anthracene : A. Haller and A. the amount of water evaporated by plant transpiration.—The Guyot. As a result of the condensation of g-diphenyl-y-di- proportions of the gases in arterial blood during the course hydroxy-anthracene dihydride with dimethylaniline of anæsthesia due to chloroform, remaining invariable so stereoisomeric compounds are produced, which, on account long as the pulmonary respiration remains very nearly of the wide differences in their properties, are very readily normal : J. Tissot. The mechanism of accommodation : H. parated. A similar reaction takes place with diethylaniline, Bertin-Sans and J. Gagnière. The experiments described, but the stereoisomers are more difficult to separate.---The sub- which were carried out with rabbits' eyes. support