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The final stage of the pearl oyster cestode was sup. anchors itself by hooks, the presence of an occasional posed to be undergone within the body of an elasma hole in the floor of this chamber is not to be wondered branch which fed upon Balistes. But, so far, the only at! elasmobranch tetrarhynchid which the authors have There is a wealth of plates in this volume, all of examined was obtained from the spiral valve of a sting which are as good of their kind as one could wish. ray (Taeniura melanospilos), and this larva was of a The same cannot be said of one or two of the text species quite distinct from either the Balistes or oyster figures, however, which leave much to be desiredlarvæ. It is to be noted, however, that from this ray notably the figure of the dissection of a pearl oyster two perfect specimens of Balistes were taken.

on p. 43 Thus, though we may yet find that the sequence of Yet another volume is required to complete this rehosts is as was indicated in the first volume of this port; this is promised early next year. Judging by report, we are at present left somewhat in doubt. In the standard set by the two volumes now issued, the due time, doubtless, Messrs. Shipley and Hornell, the complete work will form one of the most valuable authors of this really fascinating section, will solve commentaries on a great industry yet issued. the riddle.

W. P. P. We have dealt at some length on this matter because, apart from its interest as a sequence of stirring events in the life-history of a very humble organism,

NOTES. it has considerable importance from an economic

Ai the invitation of the British Association, the local point of view : since, when the chain of evidence is complete, it may be possible, as was first suggested committee in Johannesburg has nominated the following by Keelart in 1857, to raise the percentage of pearls

as vice-presidents and secretaries respectively of the different by infecting oysters in other beds with their parasites sections for the meeting in South Africa, the general

Prof. Jeffrey Bell contributes some notes on the arrangements of which were described in NATURE of echinoderms, appended to a description of the species | February 2 (p. 323) :-Mathematics and Physical Sciencecollected, by Prof. Herdman. Although these notes vice-president, Dr. Breyer ; secretary, Mr. R. T. A. Innes. barely fill three pages, Prof. Bell has crowded into this Chemistry-Mr. J. R. Williams, Mr. W. A. Caldecott. space some trenchant criticisms and some really Geology-Dr. Corstorphine, Dr. Molengraaff. Zoologyvaluable facts.

Dr. Gunning, Dr. Pakes. Geography, Mr. E. H. V. MetThe reports on the arthropods are full of interesting vill

, Mr. F. · Flowers. Economic Science and Statistics matter, and deal with a large number of new species; but we venture to think that a longer summary of the

Mr. S. Evans, Mr. Robert A. Ababrelton. Engineeringprincipal results arrived at would have added to the

Mr. S. Jennings, Mr. E. Williams. Anthropology—Dr. usefulness of these chapters. Dr. Calman's work on

Schonland, Mr. A. von Dessauer. Physiology-Sir Kendal the Cumacea will be welcomed, inasmuch as no species Franks, Dr. A. Mackenzie. Botany—Mr. Burtt Davý, of this group have hitherto been described from any Prof. Pearson. Educational Science-Mr. E. B. Sargant, part of the Indian Ocean.

Prof. Hele-Shaw. The collection of cephalopods has been worked out by Dr. W. E. Hoyle. Though small, it contained one

The Hunterian oration delivered by Mr. John Tweedy new species of unusual interest. This was a small

at the Royal College of Surgeons on February 14, and octopus, which has been named Polypus arborescens abridged elsewhere in this issue, contains several intereston account of the presence of curious branched pro-ing references to the growth of natural knowledge by the cesses scattered all over the body, some of which are use of the experimental method, with illustrations from surmounted by a tuft of fibrils. After a most careful | John Hunter's work. It has been said that though Hunter study Dr. Hoyle is still uncertain as to their purpose. had never read Bacon, his method was as strictly Baconian He dwells at considerable length upon their micro- as if he had. Mr. Tweedy pointed out that this view is scopical structure. He is satisfied that they are not based upon a complete misinterpretation of the Baconian parasitic organisms, nor are they, he considers,

system. Francis Bacon himself neither knew nor underglandular or phosphorescent organs. The fact that no

stood the physical sciences, and his spirit was much less nerves have been traced to them would seem to show that they are not tactile bodies, yet on the whole he

modern than that of his illustrious namesake, Roger considers that it is this function which they perform.

Bacon, who lived three hundred years before him. John Prof. Herdman, who has studied the living animal in

Hunter did not follow the mechanical methods of the a small tank, describes these mysterious processes as

Baconian system, but he possessed every moral and intel being contractile, and “ kept frequently moving-un- lectual qualification for useful scientific research-a fertite coiling to a considerable length and then curling up imagination ready to suggest possible relations of facts, again suddenly.” This seems to suggest that they openness of mind, and a conscientious scientific spirit that may be alluring organs comparable to the waving flag submitted every hypothesis to the test of observation and of the angler-fish or the long, worm-like tongue of experiment, taking nothing on trust. Mr. Tweedy occuthe “ mata-mata " tortoise.

pied the chair at the festival dinner held at the college in The fishes collected during this investigation have been described by Mr. J. Johnstone. Twelve species

the evening of February 14, when there were present, in all are dealt with.

among others :-Prof. C. Allbutt, Sir W. Broadbent, Sir The most interesting feature of this report is that

Lauder Brunton, Sir D. Duckworth, Sir Harry Johnston, concerning the supposed naso-pharyngeal passage in

Sir Norman Lockyer, Sir W. Ramsay, Prof. C. Stewart, Cynoglossus. Kyle, in 1900, described in this genus

Sir W'. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. W. A. Tilden, and a curious nasal sac, which, he believed, communicated Sir F. Treves. with the mouth by means of a pore in the floor of the sac, a feature which he regarded as of considerable

The death on February 9, at the age of forty-four, of morphological importance.

Mr. F. 0. Pickard-Cambridge makes a break it will be Mr. Johnstone examined several species belonging to impossible to fill in the ranks of British arachnologists. this genus, and in no case did he find this naso- From boyhood he had devoted himself to the study of pharyngeal passage. But what is really interesting English spiders, and was rightly regarded as the leading is the fact that he found this cavity, on more than one authority upon this subject. He completed, moreover, in occasion, inhabited by a copepod. Since this creature 1904, his monograph of the Central American spiders for

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Godman and Salvin's “ Biologia," and this work, supple- Institute for the purpose ; and (2) for defraying the cost of mented by the determination of specimens in the British equipment. It has also been notified, in connection with Museum and of the collections made by himself on the the mineral survey which the Government of Northern Amazons, gave him a quite special knowledge of the Nigeria has in contemplation, that a sum of 300l. per Neotropical species. He unfortunately left unfinished annum will be paid to the Imperial Institute in order to his revision of the generic nomenclature of spiders, and defray the expenses of examining specimens of minerals, also the county records of Arachnida he was compiling for &c., sent to the scientific and technical department so long the “Victoria History.” Mr. Cambridge was

an admir

as the survey is in progress, probably a period of three able draughtsman, as is testified by the plates illustrating years. the many papers he contributed to scientific societies and

On Saturday next, February 25, Mr. D. G. Hogarth periodicals.

will begin a course of two lectures at the Royal lastitution MATHEMATICIANS will have heard with regret that Mr.

on “ Archæology." On Tuesday, February 28, Prof. Karl Robert Tucker died on January 29. He received his uni

Pearson will deliver the first of three lectures on " Some versity education at St. John's College, Cambridge, of

Recent Biometric Studies." On Thursday, March 2, Prof. which he was a scholar, and was placed among the

H. H. Turner will commence a course of three lectures on wranglers in 1855. He became a schoolmaster, and was

Recent Astronomical Progress," and on Saturday, for many years head mathematical master at University

March 11, Prof. J. J. Thomson will begin a course of

three lectures on College School. His original contributions to mathematics

“Electrical Properties of Radio-active deal chiefly with configurations of points, lines and circles

Substances.” The Friday evening discourse on March 3 related in special ways to a fixed triangle, and one system

will be delivered by Chevalier G. Marconi, on “ Recent of circles, which he discovered, is called after his name.

Advances in Wireless Telegraphy," and on March 10 by He was also the editor of Clifford's “Mathematical

Prof. J. J. Thomson, on the “ Structure of the Atom." Papers.” In 1867 he became one of the secretaries of the

Mr. Perceval Landon will give two lectures, on April 4 London Mathematical Society, founded in 1865. From that

and 11, on “ Tibet," Mr. A. Henry Savage Landor's lertime forward he made the society his peculiar care, and

Exploration in the Philippines " having been

deferred until after Easter. the success which it has attained is almost entirely due to him. He retained the office of secretary for thirty-five The annual report of the council of the Institution of years, editing the Proceedings, and conducting the corre- Mechanical Engineers was read at the annual general meetspondence with authors and refereesma delicate duty in

ing of the institution on February 17. The first report, bo respect of which he established an admirable tradition.

Prof. David S. Capper, to the steam-engine research comHe also wrote an account of the early history of the

mittee, has now been completed, and, together with a presociety. In all his work he

business-like and liminary report on progressive speed and pressure trials thorough, and at the same time modest and unselfish.

carried out previous to March, 1896, will be presented at

the March meeting. Since the presertation, in January, The new wing which is to complete the Armstrong 1904, of the late Sir William Roberts-Austen's last report

, College of Science in Newcastle-on-Tyne will be opened by the alloys research committee has continued its work at the the King next year.

National Physical Laboratory. Dr. Glazebrook, director of

the laboratory, has arranged a series of investigations on The Société nationale d’Agriculture de France has specimens of nickel steel presented by Mr. R. A. Hadfield. awarded to Prof. Wm. B. Alwood, of Charlottesville, Va., It is anticipated that a further report will be presented this a diploma and silver medal for his recent work in pomology, year by the committee, communicating the results of these especially as relates to the fermentation of by-products researches. Further investigations having great practical from apples.

importance are now being considered. Prof. F. W. Burstall

reports that the two specially constructed large gas-engines The anniversary meeting of the Geological Society was and a gas-holder erected in the new power house of the held at Burlington House on Friday, February 17. Dr. Birmingham University are now available for the gasJ. E. Marr, F.R.S., was elected president. After the pre- engine research committee's experiments. A scheme of sentation of the medals and prizes already announced experiments, indicating the methods of working, is under (p. 253) the president delivered his anniversary address, consideration, and it is hoped that the next report will be which dealt with the classification of the sedimentary rocks. ready for presentation at the opening of next session. A

gift of rool. towards the expenses of carrying on the re ARRANGEMENTS have been made whereby messages may search has been received from Dr. Ludwig Mond, E.R.S. be sent to Cunard mail steamers at any stage in their The series of experiments on initial condensation in steam voyage across the Atlantic. During the first three or four cylinders, which Prof. T. Hudson Beare is carrying out days after the vessels ieave Liverpool the messages will be with special apparatus for the purpose, are in active prosent from Poldhu, Cornwall, direct to the steamer. During gress, but are still incomplete. The results obtained so the next three or four days the messages will be forwarded far, however, justify the hope that the committee will be by cable to the North American Continent, and repeated able to present, during the year 1905, an interim report thence to the approaching ship.

dealing with the results obtained in the experiments on

non-jacketed cylinders. It is intended to hold the next We learn from the Iimes that the Treasury has agreed summer meeting in Belgium, in view of the International to place at the disposal of the Board of Trade 500l. per Exhibition to be held at Liège this year. annum for four years for the purpose of taking practical steps to encourage and investigate the development of the We have received from Messrs. John Wheldon and Co., cotton-growing area of the Empire. This sum will be of Great Queen Street, a copy of a catalogue of zoological used (1) for the payment of scientific assistants, who and sporting books and papers arranged geographically. would themselves do part of the proposed work and would To those who are working on faunas and distribution the also set free members of the existing staff of the Imperial | list will be distinctly useful.

Ix vol. v., No. 5, of the Records of the Australian pine, Pseudotsuga taxifolia. Long-leaf pine is the standard Museum, Mr. R. Etheridge describes the remains of a ple- timber of construction, but is not always obtainable in long siosaurian reptile of the genus Cimoliosaurus from the Upper pieces, when red fir takes its place; red fir produces Cretaceous of White Cliffs, New South Wales, which have long, straight timber, but shows considerable variation in been completely opalised. This is the second skeleton of the quality ; loblolly being principally sap-wood has to be treated genus which has been obtained from these deposits in an with preservatives if it is required for external work. Exopalised condition. Precious opal occurred only here and periments were also made with sweet gum, Liquidambar there—more especially in the transverse processes of the styraciflua, to ascertain whether the timber could be bent neck-in the second specimen, the richness of the colour of and put to the same uses as hickory, but the results were which bore no comparison to that in the example first not favourable. obtained.

WHEN we consider the enormous mass of material which MR. W. E. CLARKE, of the Edinburgh Museums, sends us has been accumulated regarding the quantity of rain which a paper from the Annals of Scottish Natural History for falls, it is remarkable how little attention appears to have January on the vole and the shrew of Orkney. The vole, been given to the number and size of the drops. A very which it will be remembered was recently discovered and simple and ingenious method of studying raindrops is denamed by Mr. Millais, turns out to be remarkably interest- scribed in a paper in the Monthly Weather Review for ing, for it appears to come nearest to the water-vole, October, 1904, by Mr. W. A. Bentley. The raindrops are although its dentition is of the type of the common field-vole. allowed to fall into a layer of dry flour one inch deep, which The shrew, Mr. Clarke believes, will probably turn out to be is exposed to the rain for a few seconds. The flour is the pigmy species. Mr. Clarke has been assisted in his allowed to stand for some time, and the pellets of dough, investigation into the structure of the vole by Prof. 0. C. each representing a raindrop, are then picked out and may Bradley.

be preserved. The method was tested by allowing measured Dr. Gilchrist's presidential address to the South African Philosophical Society at the meeting in August last, which is reported in the latest issue of the Transactions of that body, deals with certain features of the marine fauna of South Africa. It is shown that as the Cape seas receive rurrents from different parts of the ocean, so the fauna is of a particularly varied type, containing North Atlantic, Antarctic, and Indian types, and even an element from the Far East.

The subject of the affinity of the endothiodont reptiles is resumed by Dr. R. Broom in part iv. of vol. xv. of the Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society. The author emphasises their relationship to the dicynodonts, and shows that, while in the endothiodonts the tendency has been to increase the development of the molars, in the dicynodonts the latter teeth have been completely eliminated. In our own opinion, Dr. Broom's work tends to show that both groups should be included in a single family.

Fig. 1.- Form of raindrops. Complete set of samples from the great THE report of the director of the botanic gardens and

general storm of August 20, 1904. Duration of storm, fifteen hours. domains, Sydney, for 1903 refers to the changes in the One raindrop sample per hour was taken throughout the storm. gardens consequent upon the extension into the inner domain. Tree-planting in the Centennial Park has been drops of water to fall from a height into the flour ; it was continued, the additions during the year being principally

found that the dough pellet differed but little in size from Acacia binervata, Eucalyptus botryoides, woolly-butt, Tris

the drop which produced it. In the paper a series of interesttanio conferta, brush-box, and species of Casuarina. Many ing photographs of such dough-pellets is given, illustrating of the various species of Eucalyptus have suffered from the

the variation in the size of the raindrops during the course of attacks of a coccid identified as Eriococcus coriaceus.

showers of different types. The largest drops met with

somewhat exceeded a fifth of an inch in diameter ; this is in The Philippine Islands are yielding a number of interest

agreement with the observations of Wiesner (quoted by ing plants. A second list by Mr. E. D. Merrill has been Hann in his “ Lehrbuch ''), which gave 7 mm. as an upper issued as a publication, No. 17 of the Bureau of Government limit. Mr. Bentley gives tables showing the relative Laboratories, Manila. The author distinguishes twelve

frequency of occurrence of drops of various sizes in rain species of Terminalia in his synopsis of the genus, three from various kinds of clouds. being new. Among other new plants are four species of Pandanus, three of Illipe (=Bassia), and

We have received from the secretary of the English

a climbing Dischidia belonging to the section Conchopyllum in which

Ceramic Society a copy of its Transactions for the session the leaves flattened against the supporting tree trunk serve as

1903-4 The society, which has its headquarters at a shelter for ants.

Tunstall, Staffordshire, is still in its infancy, but it would

appear that its existence is likely to exert considerable inA PROGRESS report on the strength of structural timber by fuence for good on the future development of the English Dr. W. K. Hatt forms Circular No. 32 of the forestry seriey potteries. The Transactions contain papers describing published by the United States Department of Agriculture. attempts to solve special problems in the industry, and the Tests were made with long-leaf pine, Pinus palustris, keen discussion which followed their delivery is indicative loblolly, Pinus taeda, and a red fir, known also as Oregon of the interest with which they were received. There can be F.R.S.,



little doubt that such a society must tend to the spread of at – 184° C. and boiling at – 164o at atmospher knowledge and the improvement of method in pottery manu- The authors add that the methane, purified facture.

always possessed a sweet, faint garlic odour, An interesting paper by R. Kremann on the melting point

be attributed to impurities, and must be regar

to the gas itself. The reaction between solid of dissociating substances and the degree of dissociation during melting is contained in the Sitzungsberichte (1904. liquid fluorine was studied at the same time; vol. ciii., part vii.) of the Imperial Academy of Sciences

stances instantly combined, the reaction being of Vienna. From theoretical considerations involving the

by a bright flash and a violent explosion, com law of mass action, melting-point curves are deduced for

verising the glass tubes. substances, such as the compounds of phenol with aromatic A TWELFTH edition of Mr. W. T. Lynn bases and with picric acid, at different degrees of dissoci- Remarkable Comets" has been published ation. By comparing the shape of these curves with those Sampson Low, Marston and Co., Ltd. obtained, for instance, on adding aniline to the compound of aniline and phenol, the actual degree of dissociation of these

The Cambridge University Press has publis substances during melting may be very approximately ascer

number of a new scientific periodical entitled tained. Incidentally, the important result is established that

of Agricultural Science. The magazine

Messrs. R. H. Biffen, A. D. Hall, T. H. Mid the addition of one of the products of dissociation of the

T. B. Wood, in consultation with Messrs. compound may in many cases cause a rise in the melting

J. R. Campbell, and W. Sommervi point without there being question of the formation of an

intended to circulate among agricultural te isomorphous mixture. The results obtained are applied to

experts, and will be issued, as material accu an investigation of the additive compounds of nitroso

parts of about one hundred pages. Each volum dimethylaniline with various aromatic bases.

sist of four parts. The first number appeals In an inaugural dissertation for a doctorate at Bonn in many departments of agricultural research, University, Herr Jacob Steinhausen presents the results the articles it contains may be mentioned thos he has obtained during a research on enhanced lines.” del's laws of inheritance and wheat breeding, by. Adopting the English name originally proposed by Sir | Biffen ; the influence of pollination on the develo Norman Lockyer, the author gives a detailed description the hop, by Mr. A. Howard ; the importance of the of the enhanced lines and their different appearances in of the products of growth in the assimilation of various spectra, and then describes the apparatus and by the organisms of the root nodules of leguminou methods employed by him in his own research. Using a by Mr. J. Golding; the analysis of the soil by small grating of i metre radius, which produced a dis- the plant, by Mr. A. D. Hall; variation in the persion such that 10 Angström units extended composition of the swede, by Mr. S. H. Coil 0.595 mm. on the plate, he photographed and compared analysis as a guide to the manurial treatment the arc and spark spectra of the elements Al, Sb, Pb, Cd. pastures, by Messrs. T. B. Wood and R. A. Be Mg, Hg, Bi, Sn, Zn, Ba, Ca, Sr, and Ti, using in most the improvement of poor pastures, by Prof. T. H. cases metallic poles for the spark, and powdered metal, or The magazine should prove of interest and salt, on carbon poles for the arc. The wave-lengths are all teachers of agricultural science as well as only given to the nearest unit, and will, therefore, need engaged in research in this field of knowledge, re-determining, with a larger dispersion, before they become

The third part of Herr C. K. Schneider's " Illust of any great use for stellar identifications. In discussing

Handbuch der Laubholzkunde " has just been publish the nature of the lines the author adopts an error made

the firm of Gustav Fischer, Jena. The first two by Prof. Kayser (“ Handbuch der Spectroscopie '), viz.

were reviewed in Nature of November 24, 1904 (vol. that in accounting for spectral variations Sir Norman

p. 76), and a further notice will appear after the Lockyer has always considered only the temperature of

consisting of about nine parts, has been completed. the spark as the cause; yet it is now more than thirty years since the discoverer of enhanced lines explicitly stated that the possible effects of electrical variations must

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. be included in the general term


EPHEMERIS FOR Comet 1904 e.—The following is a Some ten years ago Prof. H. Moissan, in the course of extract from a continued ephemeris for comet 1904 his work on the production of carbides in the electric calculated from M. Fayet's elliptical elements by Dr. E. furnace, prepared aluminium carbide and showed that in Strömgren, and published in No. 3994 of the Astronomische contact with water pure methane was evolved, thus giving Nachrichten :a new and direct synthesis of this important hydrocarbon.

Ephemeris 12h. (M.T. Berlin). In the current number of the Comptes rendus (February 13)

a (true) 8 (true) logo


Bright Prof. Moissan and M. Chavanne give an account of their determinations of the physical constants of pure marsh gas

3 10 47 +30 7 0:1669 ... 0'1233

0946 Mar. 1

3 prepared in this way.

3 22 The methane, after being freed

0*1711 ... 01359 5 3 33 44

+33 47 0*1757 0 1486 from traces of moisture and less volatile impurities by

9 3 45 49 +35 25

0*1805 ... 0°1611 passing through a tube cooled to -85° C., is solidified by

3 58 16

+ 36 56 ... 0'1855 ... 0°1736 033 cooling with liquid air, and any more volatile gases pre- The comet is now becoming very faint, and is travelling sent pumped away. The gas allowed to boil off from the in a north-easterly direction through the southern part of crystals was proved to be pure by a combustion analysis,

the constellation Perseus. On March 11 it will pass near and possessed at o° C. and 760 mm. pressure a density of

to & Persei. 0.5547, the theoretical density being 0.555. The melting

Revised ELEMENTS FOR Borrelly'S COMET (1904 – and boiling points were measured by means of an iron

When publishing the previous set of elements for come Constantin thermocouple, previously standardised against based upon the results of only a few observations, the

1904 e, M. Fayet explained that, as his computations sen a petroleum ether thermometer, the crystals melting sharply could only be regarded as approximate. Now, however



h. m.


Feb. 25

+ 32


13 ܙܙ





the observations extend over nearly a month, and M. Fayet lains the numbers 522 to 548, inclusive, thereby showing the has made another research regarding this comet's orbit, number discovered during last year to be twenty-seven. The obtaining the following set of elements as his result :- provisional designation, the name of the discoverer, the T = 1905 Jan. 16 65370 (M.T. Paris)

date of discovery, and the authority for the orbit are also $8 = 76° 41' 34" 49

given for each planet. A number of notes explain the i = 30° 31' 58":75 1905'0

absence, for various reasons, of several bodies, to which 352° 13' 58":98

provisional designations were allotted, from the final list. log = 0145175 logė = 96792206

u = 503"-932
These elements give a close agreement with the places

T a meeting of the Sociological Society on February 14

Mr. Francis Galton communicated two papers :determined by independent observations, and indicate that (1) restrictions in marriage, and (2) studies in national Borrelly's 1964 comet is, really, of the short period type, eugenics. completing its orbital revolution in about seven years, instead of six years

In the first paper he remarked that marriage, as one of as given by the previous elements

the social agencies that influenced the racial qualities of (Comptes rendus, No. 5. 1905).

future generations, came within the purview of eugenics. The Sun's ROTATION.-During the years 1899, 1900, and It belonged to the practical policy arising out of eugenic 1901 Prof. N. C. Dunér made a further series of observ- science, to promote such choice in marriage as should ations of the rotation velocity of the sun at different helio- tend to the reproduction of the higher types of individual. centric latitudes. Combining the results with Anthropological investigation had shown marriage to be obtained by him during a similar research prosecuted in one of the most modifiable of social institutions. Hence the years 1887-1889, and now corrected, he found the values the assumption was warrantable that with the gradual given in the following table :

incorporation of eugenic conceptions in the social ideal, cos


there would proceed a concomitant change in the customs

and conventions affecting marriage. The paper then pro04 +2'08 183 14.770


ceeded to illustrate by actual examples the modifiability 150 +1997


13'989 14:48 of marriage customs. In one or other of its many forms 30-1 +170 184 12'072 13'95 polygamy was now permitted by religion, customs and 450 +1'27

181 9'018 12'75 law-to at least one-half of the population of the world, 60'0 +0.81

5752 11.50 though its practice might be restricted, on account of cost, 750 +0:39 184 2769 10-70 domestic peace, and the insufficiency of females. In wherein 0 the heliocentric latitude, v = the rotational

Christian nations the prohibition of polygamy, under severe velocity of the sun's edge, n = the number of observations,

penalties, by civil and ecclesiastical law had been due, not and <= the daily rotation angle (Astronomische Nach

to any natural instinct against the practice, but to conrichten, No. 3994).

sideration of social well-being. Hence it might be inferred

that equally strict limitations of freedom of marriage SECONDARY SHADOW ON Saturn's Rings.—During might, under the pressure of worthy motives, be hereafter series of observations of Saturn made at Aosta (Italy) in enacted for eugenic and other purposes. Endogamy, or October, November, and December, 1904, Signors M. the custom of marrying exclusively within one's own tribe Amann and Cl. Rozet observed a secondary shadow, other or caste, had been sanctioned by religion and enforced by than that of the planet, projected on to the illuminated law in all parts of the world, but chiefly in long-settled surface of the rings. First seen

on October 20, this nations, where there was wealth to bequeath and where shadow was thinner and much less accentuated than that neighbouring communities professed different creeds. of the planet, whilst its curvature was in the opposite sense Endogamous systems of marriage rested on customs deterto that of the latter body. From October 20 to November mined by a certain religious view of family property and 15. despite the fact that

opportunities of family descent. Eugenies dealt with what was more valuobserving it occurred, the shadow was not seen, but from able than money or lands, namely, with natural inheritthe latter date until the end of December it was shown on ance of high character, capable brains, fine physique and twenty-six

drawings of the system. On seven drawings made vigour, in short, with all that was most desirable for a between December 22 and 27, the shadow appeared bifur- family to possess. It aimed at the evolution and presercated where it traversed the inner ring, and on November vation of high races, and it well deserved to be strictly 28 and 29 a third line of shadow, narrower and feebler enforced. In every society there existed conventional rethan the preceding and much further from the planet, was strictions of the nature of “taboo," though not necessarily spen (Comptes rendus, No. 5, 1905).

called by that name. If non-eugenic unions were proOBSERVATIONS OF THE ZODIACAL Light.-During a

hibited by such taboos, none would take place. Marriage journ on the summit of Mont Blanc

selection was very largely conditioned by motives based on

on September 21 and 22, 1904. M. A. Hansky made a number of observ- religious and social convention. Persons who were born ations of the Zodiacal Light, and found that its form was

under the various marriage systems lived under such rules that of a spherical triangle having its apex near to the

without any objection. They were unconscious of their

restriction. ecliptic. At 3h. 4om. (M.T. Paris) the altitude of the apex

Under the heading “ Studies in National Eugenics," Mr. was 52°, the length of the triangle, reckoned from the centre of the sun, was 80°, and its breadth was, at the

Galton communicated what he described as

authorised programme of what he conceived to be the horizon, 25° and in the plane of the sun's axis 30°. The

duties of the Francis Galton research fellowship in latitude of the apex was +2°, and three zones were distin- national eugenics. The topics to be considered he classified guishable in the light. The first of these had the form of a spherical triangle and was very feeble, the second was

under the following headings :-(1) Estimation of the avermore parabolic, whilst the form of the third was a parabola personal and ancestral data. This included questions of

age quality of the offspring of married couples from their In his paper, published in the Comptes rendus (No. 6, 1905). M.' Hansky indicates the points of resemblance be

fertility, and the determination of the probable error of tween this phenomenon and the corona, and makes a

the estimate according to the data employed. (2) Effects number of speculations as to the true nature of the light.

of action by the State and by public institutions. (3) Other He concludes by saying that he believes it to be an elec

influences that further or restrain particular classes of trical phenomenon of the same type as the corona, and

marriage. (4) Heredity. The facts, after being collected, that it' is, probably, simply a prolongation of the coronal

should be discussed, for improving our knowledge of the streamers.

laws both of actuarial and of physiological heredity, the

recent methods of advanced statistics being of course used. PERMANENT NUMBERS FOR THE Minor Planets discovered (5) Bibliographical compilations. (6) Extension of eugenic DURING 1904.-In No. 3994 of the Astronomische Nach- studies by wider cooperation. (7) Certificates.

With rerichten, the permanent numbers allotted to the minor gard to the last named, he said that in some future time, planets discovered during 1904 are given. The list con- dependent on circumstances, he looked forward to a suit





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