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able authority issuing eugenic certificates to candidates for of fitness on the husband befor
them. They would imply more than an average share of tribes, for instance, a man may
the several qualities of at least goodness of constitution, demonstrated his strength and
of physique, and of mental capacity.

in the chase by killing a rhinocer
The discussion on the papers was opened by Dr. Haddon, pelago there are peoples where
who said Mr. Galton sought to establish a science of in the collection of a number of
eugenics, he took it, because the postulates of eugenics Among the Arabs of Upper Egypt,
were an inevitable corollary from the general doctrine of marriage must evidence his courage:
organic evolution—in the building up of which Mr. Galton suffering-with smiling countenance-
had played a notable part. The evolution of the species whipping by the relatives of the bride.
having reached a self-conscious stage in man, it followed on this question of marriage, whereby
of necessity that increasingly rational and coordinated brought into both organic and social
attempts should be made to guide and direct the evolu- species, moral teachers had before them.
tionary process towards definable and verifiable ideals. It of tasks, in inculcating a keener sense
was, as he understood it, the aim of eugenic studies to individual. There was perhaps hardly
ascertain the means available for this rational guidance which the moral consciousness of civilis
of human evolution, and the defining of the ideals towards greater need of intellectual training.
which it should be directed. There was ample warrant in As contributions to the discussion, a consid
anthropological data for the assumption that in the de- of written communications were received, fro
velopment of marriage customs there a tendency ing amongst others :-Dr. Havelock Ellis,
towards adaptation to higher social purposes.

Huth, Dr. Max Nordau, and Prols. Yves De Dr. F. W. Mott said there were two general ways

McKendrick, Posada, Sergi, Steinmetz, T. towards the rational improvement of the stock :-(1) by

Weismann. The last named raised the quest checking the reproduction of the unfit, and (2) by when a hereditary disease like tuberculosis encouraging the reproduction of the fit. For the former appearance in a family, it is afterwards possit purpose the readiest means would be the segregation of be banished entirely from this or that branch of defective children while quite young, and the curtailment or whether, on the contrary, the progeny of those of their social privileges as they grew to maturity. As who appear healthy must not sooner or later regards means towards the encouragement of fertility in tuberculous progeny. He himself considered that the higher types, he suggested as an initial tentative in stock might produce a branch entirely free practical measures a further development of the present specific disease. system of marriage registration. Why, for instance, Mr. Galton, in the course of his reply, said it should not medical as well as legal certificates of marriage satisfaction to find that no one amongst his com had be procurable at registry offices? The former would be impugned the conclusion which his memoir on Fire of the nature of a bill of health, certifying that the con

tions in Marriage " was written to justify. tracting parties reached a certain standard of hygienic requirement. Such certificates would of course be voluntary, but since they would be valuable not only to their THE ABSORPTION OF LIGHT BY THE possessors but also to their children, they would tend to

ATMOSPHERE.' come into general usage. In any case he considered it a matter of national importance that Mr. Galton's concep- THE great attention that has been paid during the

last tion of eugenics should be most seriously considered. The

few years to the subject of photometry has brought first desideratum was to get it accepted as a legitimate and

into prominence the problem of the amount of light absorbed hopeful study.

by the atmosphere. At the same time, the improvement Mr. Ernest Crawley said Mr. Galton's paper showed how

that has taken place in the instrumental means, which anthropological studies could be made fruitful in practical

renders possible the detection of minute changes in lustre. politics. Sociology should be founding its science of

has required the use of accurate corrections by which the eugenics upon anthropology, psychology, and physiology.

effect of the earth's atmosphere can be eliminated from He hoped that while chiefly considering the normal in

the observations. The corrections which have been applied dividual it would not forget the special claims of those to photometric measures have been based generally on abnormal persons whom we call geniuses. In a well empirical or interpolation methods rather than on a strictly ordered State they should be considered before the de- physical basis. There are several reasons which have congenerate and the diseased. As regards marriage customs,

tributed to this unsatisfactory condition of the problem. he took it as an assured generalisation of anthropological

The difficulty of computing the length of the path of the science that there are two permanent polar tendencies in

ray of light in its passage through our atmosphere, the human nature, first against unions in the same home, and

want of homogeneity in the constitution of the atmosphere secondly against too promiscuous marriage. Many customs

itself, our ignorance of the law of the temperature gradient assumed by early anthropologists as normal types were,

at considerable heights above the surface, and of the dis he believed, mere sports--such as group-marriage, and tribution of water and dust particles near the surface, have marriage of brother and sister. Polygamy he believed to all complicated a subject the theory of which under ideal be an example of a certain tendency in man to confuse limiting conditions may not be very difficult. Bouguer left sexual (i.e. organic), with matrimonial (i.e. social) concerns. a very satisfactory theory, based, however, on the assumpThey must beware of this confusion, and therefore be on tion that the path of the ray was rectilinear. Laplace their guard against its possible effects in studying eugenics. attacked the subject from the side of the theory of refrarMr. Galton's suggestion that religion was called upon tion, but practically did not much advance it. From that to play a part in the development of eugenics he con- time onward, the question has rather been left in the hands sidered to be a sound deduction from history and anthro- of observers, who have been content to make their obserepology. In the sanctification of marriage, religion had ations homogeneous by the employment of an interpolation one of its earliest and greatest functions; and as primitive formula, based on the results of their actual practice. religion, in this as in other respects, was based upon the Dr. Bemporod thinks that the time has come for the best knowledge of primitive times (i.e. upon primitive discussion of a physical theory of the extinction of light to science), so the most developed form of religion should be the atmosphere, and certainly his pamphlet bearing this illuminated by the most advanced form of knowledge (i.e. title is a most welcome contribution to this subject. It by contemporary science).

may be that in some sense it is a premature effort. That Dr. E. Westermarck said he entirely agreed with Mr. is to say, that the data for a complete solution of the Galton's contention that restrictions in marriage as they problem do not exist. The series of observations which are existed in the simpler social formations, so they might be now being conducted by means of kites and balloons, and further modified and developed for eugenic purposes which have for their object the examination of the different amongst the most highly civilised peoples. The germ of eugenic intentions was well seen amongst savage and

1 "Zur Theorie der Extinktion des Lichtes in der Erdatmosphäre." B barbarian peoples in those customs which imposed a test

Dr: A. Bemporod. Pp. 78. (Mitteilungen der Grossh. Sternwartz *

Heidelberg)

strata of the atmosphere at various distances remote from requires not only centuries of clinical observation and the surface, may be expected to throw some additional light a complete logical apparatus, but it also requires an upon the constitution of the gaseous envelope through which advanced state of all the other natural sciences. It conthe light passes, and, moreover, there is the troublesome cerns itself with the recondite problems of life in the most and disturbing question of selective absorption, the import complex and the most highly differentiated of its manifestance of which the author fully admits, but does not considerations, whether under the conditions of health or under numerically in his work, which may play a very important those of disease. Until physics and chemistry had advanced part in the future theory of atmospheric extinction. But from the conjectural and the aprioristic to the scientific any improvement which may hereafter be made will not stage, medicine could only be conjectural and aprioristic invalidate the calculations, so far as they refer to the mass too, however useful it may have been as a practical art. of the air through which the light beam penetrates.

The thoughts and labours, the experiments and discoveries Dr. Bemporod divides his work into five sections. In the of the great pioneers of modern knowledge in the physical first he presents the problem in its most general form, and sciences were the necessary prelude to a scientific progress defines the function F(s), the so-called path of the ray in in biology, which, in its turn, was a condition precedent the atmosphere. Chapter ii. exhibits a critical examination to any real advance in the science of medicine, surgery, of the theories of Bouguer, Lambert, Laplace, and of some and pathology: Harvey, in the order of time and of others less well known. In the next the author discusses thought, was the necessary antecedent of Hunter. the hypotheses of Ivory and Schmidt on the constitution The starting-point of John Hunter's career as anatomist, of the atmosphere. Of the two, Schmidt's hypothesis of a biologist, and surgeon was in the year 1748, when he came uniform decrease of the temperature with the height above

to London with a receptive and intelligent mind, a quick the surface gives the best agreement with the observed and observant eye, and a well-trained hand, to collaborate temperatures derived by Assmann and Berson from balloon with his brother William in the anatomical school which ascents. The latter hypothesis is the one therefore selected

had been started two or three years before. for development, but both Ivory and Schmidt give prac- Considering the important part that human anatomy now tically the same values for extinction, while Laplace's theory plays in medical education, it is difficult to conceive that at the zenith distance of 87o appears to be a tenth of a

there was no systematic teaching of anatomy in England magnitude in error. Chapter iv, explains the formation

before the middle of the eighteenth century. During the of the extensive numerical tables that accompany the work,

many centuries which elapsed between, say, the time of and in the last the author has some remarks on the in- Hippocrates and the middle of the sixteenth century, the fluence of geographical position on the absorption, as well

dissection of the human cadaver was almost unknown. as of the effects of oscillations in temperature and pressure.

Forbidden alike by the laws and customs and religion of The whole forms a valuable addition to a subject of great

the ancient Greeks, and by the creed of Mohammed, the interest and importance.

study of human anatomy was placed under a civil and religious ban until the end of the thirteenth century. In ancient Greece the laws relating to immediate burial were

very stringent. Even victorious generals had been conJOHN HUNTER AND HIS INFLUENCE ON

demned to death because they neglected to bury the slain. SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS.'

The pathos of Sophocles' tragedy of Antigone turns, As the history of philosophy: considered from one point it will be remembered, upon the sacredness of the dead,

of view, is the record of the development and growth and of the necessity, higher than imperial commands, of of ideas and of the formation of beliefs and doctrines re- immediate burial. specting man and the universe accomplished through the When the tradition of Greek medicine passed-in the thinking of a few great minds, so the history of medicine seventh and eighth centuries-into the hands of the is a record of the observations, thoughts, and achievements Mohammedans, human anatomy was equally neglected, the of a few great personalities--Hippocrates, Celsus, Galen, practice of dissection being implicitly forbidden by the Paré, Harvey, and John Hunter, to name only the greatest. Qurân. Even after the dissection of the human cadaver John Hunter is the theme which has been assigned to me. received the sanction of the civil authorities in southern Throughout the ages of civilisation the growth of know- Europe, the teaching of anatomy

cursory and ledge has been slow and often irregular, but it has been occasional, and merely descriptive. Mundino of Bologna, continuous and it has been sure. How slow and yet how in the fourteenth century, who was the first in modern sure we may realise by comparing the dialectic notions of times to dissect the human cadaver, seems to have disAristotle respecting weight and motion with the direct sected only two bodies. So little was known of human appeals to the evidences of the senses afforded by the anatomy, and so strong was the tyranny of tradition, that demonstrations of Galilei, whereby it was shown that, so when Vesalius, in the middle of the sixteenth century, far from there being in nature bodies possessing positive alleged that the anatomical descriptions of Galen could not levity, all matter is equally affected by gravity, irrespective be adapted to man, there were not a few who, in their zeal of its form, magnitude, or texture. By the simple experi- to repel the accusation that Galen had used animals in ment of dropping objects from the Tower of Pisa, Galilei, dissection, did not hesitate to maintain that the human who began life as a medical student, laid the foundation organisation had changed since Galen's time. of modern physical science, and especially of dynamics. In England, notwithstanding Harvey lectures on anatomy This expedient was one of the first appeals, at least in in the first quarter of the seventeenth century, there was no modern times, to the use of direct experiment in physical organised teaching of anatomy before William Hunter's science, and the truth thereby established became a deter- time. In this matter William Hunter has not received all mining factor in Newton's great discovery of the law of the credit he deserves. Had his ambition been realised, he gravitation. From Aristotle to Galilei an interval of more would, nearly a century and a half ago, have solved a than eighteen centuries had elapsed. Galilei and Harvey problem in early medical education in London which is were contemporaries.

still perplexing the minds of many thoughtful persons. He John Hunter was born exactly a century after the public desired to establish an anatomical school in London upon cation of Harvey's " Exercitatio De Motu Cordis.” It is an extensive scale. With this object in view, he offered to one hundred and eleven years since John Hunter died. Yet erect a building at the cost of 7000l, for the study and how modern Hunter is! Inventions and discoveries now teaching of anatomy provided the Government would grant crowd upon us so thick and fast that we are apt to forget him a piece of ground to build upon. It was also his inhow recently modern physical science began, and especially tention to give to this institution all his preparations and modern medicine. In the order of time medicine, in its his books. With a lamentable lack of sympathy which rudest and simplest forms, must have been one of the first British Governments have too often manifested in their of the empirical arts, but in the order of ideas it was one dealings with science and education, William Hunter's of the last to enter into the hierarchy of the sciences. As offer was declined. Smarting under a keen sense of disa system of organised knowledge medicine presupposes and appointment and full of resentment, he determined to Abridged from the Hunterian oration, delivered before the Roval

transfer his favours to Glasgow, which now enjoys the College of Surgeons, February 14, by Mr. John Tweedy, president of the possession of his priceless museum and his library. Beati college

possidentes.

was

After John Hunter had worked at human anatomy for employ them. But Bacon himself neither knew nor vaderten years, he manifested his intellectual growth by direct- stood the physical sciences. His spirit was essentially ing his thoughts to the higher and more scientific disci- mediæval, and much legs modern than that of his illustrious pline of comparative anatomy and physiology. He realised namesake Roger Bacon, who lived three hundred years that human anatomy alone was an insufficient guide to before him. Francis Bacon's aim was purely utilitarian. pathology and surgery. He collected all manner of He had no idea of knowledge for its own sake, and br animals at his house and grounds at Earl's Court in order cherished the hope that by increasing our knowledge of to study their ways and habits, and from every available nature the secret of the transmutation of substances would source he acquired animals, living or dead, for the pur- be learnt, and probably the knowledge of the making of poses of observation, experimentation, or dissection. In gold. He not only had no practical acquaintance with his use of the lower animals for the elucidation of physio- natural science, but he lacked insight into the true methods logical problems he followed while amplifying the practice of its investigation. He understood very imperfectly the of Harvey, who in his turn adduced the authority of Aris- value of experiment, and he assigned quite a subordinate totle. There was, however, a striking and characteristic position to quantitative determination, the precise quality difference between the use which Aristotle made of the which is the most striking characteristic of modern science, dissection of animals with reference to human anatomy and which constituted the most original and perhaps mus and that of Hunter. There is no trustworthy evidence that brilliant of the reasonings which Harvey employed in his Aristotle or Hippocrates or even Galen dissected the human famous induction. So far from being the founder of the body, certainly not in the sense we understand by the term modern scientific method, Bacon's writings were themselves “ dissection." They dissected the bodies of animals instead one of the products of the intellectual awakening which of those of man, and transferred their observations of began at the end of the sixteenth century. Notwithstandanimals to the corporeal organisation of man. Hunter, on ing his affectation of scientific knowledge and scientine the other hand, practised the dissection of lower animals methods, Bacon had an unscientific weakness for superin addition to that of man, and transferred his observations stitions. He believed in natural and judicial astrology, to the embryology and morphology of man and to the though not without some hesitation and discrimination. elucidation of the problems of human and comparative He believed in the transmutability of elements and of the physiology and pathology.

metals, in charms and signatures as remedies, and so coorJohn Hunter was a philosopher in the strict and primary pletely did he ignore Harvey's discovery of the circulation sense of the word. He had a passion for knowledge. of the blood that in one of the latest of his writings he “Let no man presume to call himself wise,” says Pytha- ascribes the pulsation of the heart and arteries to the goras; " God alone is wise. Man can never get beyond dilatation and contraction of the spirits. Well might the passion for wisdom.” John Hunter had this passion. Harvey say, .in disparagement of Bacon's scientitu He devoted himself to the pursuit of knowledge, searching writings : " He writes philosophy like a Lord Chancellor." for it in every department of the organic world, animal and Bacon's ruling idea was the collection of masses of facts vegetable. In one of his letters to Jenner he says : “I and then the employment of processes of arrangement, and have but one order to send you, which is, to send every- separation, and exclusion, so artificially contrived that a thing you can get, either animal, vegetable, or mineral, man of common intelligence should be able to announce the and the compound of the two, either animal or vegetable truth sought for. This method has been slightingly de mineralized. And, again : " Have you any large trees scribed as a kind of scientific bookkeeping. " It is diffiof different kinds that you can make free with? If you cult," says Stanley Jevons,“ to imagine a less likely way have, I will put you upon a set of experiments with regard of arriving at great discoveries. The greater the array of to the heat of vegetables. With respect to the observ- facts the less is the probability that they will by an ations and experiments which he directs Jenner to make, he routine system of classification disclose the laws of nature. says, “Be as particular as you possibly can." These The answer to the claim that Bacon was the philosophic sentences express briefly and in epitome, as it were, father of modern methods of scientific investigation is that Hunter's habits of mind and his attitude towards the none of the scientific truths established by the great problems of organic life.

masters of science can be made even to appear in corr John Hunter may have lacked the power of clear exposi- spondence with Bacon's methods. Whether we look to tion, and he may have disliked routine teaching. He was, Copernicus, who preceded him, or to Kepler, Galilra, however, full and overflowing with ideas,

and Torricelli, Pascal, Gilbert, and Harvey, or to Vewton, original, to which he often found it difficult to give dis- Descartes, or Iluygens, or to Thomas Young, or to the tinct shape and utterance. In contrast with Williain chemists Black, Priestley, Scheele, and Lavoisier, we find Hunter's didactic powers, John had the suggestive, the that discovery was achieved by a method quite different constructive, the creative faculty, the faculty of discovery, from that advocated by Bacon: So dispassionate a criti of coordinating knowledge, and he had the art of stimu- of philosophy as John Grote remarks : "I have not the lating thought and calling forth effort from others. Ile smallest belief in Bacon's having reformed the inethod m taught by example rather than by precept.

discovery, believing rather that if he had had any succes Ottley, the first and one of the best of Hunter's bio- in that way, in the manner he wished, it would have been graphers, remarks that in pursuing his researches llunter most calamitous for science.' And even with regard ten strove, not like many of his more learned and less philo- the claim of Bacon to be the founder of inductive philsophical predecessors, to unravel the mysteries of nature sophy, Ellis, one of the ablest of his editors, asserts that by taking up principles a priori and seeking for facts to the nature of the act of induction is as clearly stated by support his theory, but that, on the contrary, he followed Aristotle as by any later writer, while Aristotle himselt in the strictest manner the inductive method laid down by ascribes the credit to Socrates. Perhaps the Baconian clain Bacon as the only sure though arduous road to knowledge ; has never been more convincingly reluted than by Augustus and Babington, in his Hunterian oration, remarks of him : De Morgan, at once one of the profoundest and subtles! " He had never read Bacon, but his mode of studying thinkers of the nineteenth century. Modern discoveries, nature was as strictly Baconian as if he had." Other he says, “ have not been made by large collections of facts critics and historians of Hunter's work, and not a few with subsequent discussion, separation, and resulting de Hunterian orators, have written or spoken in a similar duction of a truth thus rendered perceptible. A few facts strain. In my judgment this view is entirely erroneous have suggested an hypothesis which means a suppositor with respect to Hunter's method, and it is a complete mis- proper to explain them. The necessary results of this rup interpretation of the Baconian system. Bacon's eloquence position are worked out, and then, and not till then, other and influence undoubtedly did much to attract men to the facts are examined to see if these ulterior results are found observation and study of natural phenomena. He directed in nature. :: Wrong hypotheses rightly worked from attention to the necessity of studying the powers and forces have produced more useful results than unguided obsetsof the world as a means of subjecting the world to the ation. But this is not the Baconian plan. ... What are human mind, and so far his message was appropriate and large collections of facts for? • To make theories from opportune. The significance of that message is probably says Bacon ; 'To try ready-made theories by,' says this greater now than at the time he delivered it. The future history of discovery." belongs to the nation which understands best the forces Bacon's plan was purely mechanical. He ignored thy of nature, and which can most skilfully and economically work of the mind in the constitution of knowledge

new

He imagined that he had discovered a method by which scien. I have suggested rather than explained the development and tific truth might be determined with absolute certainty, growth of the modern knowledge of physics, chemistry, and by a mechanical mode of procedure such that all men and biology under the influence of the experimental were capable of employing it. “Our method of discover- method; but it has not been my purpose or intention to ing the sciences is," he says,

one which leaves not much offer any defence of this method. To defend the use of to sharpness and strength of wit, but nearly levels all wits experiment in physics and in chemistry would be manifestly and intellects." And this opinion is endorsed by most absurd, and I assume that in this place and before this writers of the empiricist school in complete disregard of audience it is equally unnecessary to offer an apology for the teaching of history. Those who imagine that science its use in physiology and pathology. I opine, however, requires nothing but the registering and classification of that it is within my province as Hunterian orator to anticifacis forget that the facts observed can only be connected pate the possible censure of some who would not hesitate and related by the mind, and that the laws of nature are in the sacred name of religion to traduce the memory of after all mental products from given data.

Hunter because he practised experiments in physiology. Not only did John Hunter not follow the mechanical John Hunter did employ the method of experiment. He methods of Francis Bacon, but it is the work of the mind employed it no less with zeal than with intelligence. He which is the peculiar characteristic of his method and its employed it not from idle curiosity, not from the promptchiel glory. Others could do as well as he the more ings of vainglory, or for the purposes of worldly advancemechanical part of his task-indeed, much of it was done ment; all that he had he gave to science. He employed it by others : but the suggesting, controlling, coordinating in the service of humanity and in the study of the nature nind was Hunter's, which, amidst the multiplicity of and laws of life; and the knowledge which he thereby phenomena and of data apparently conflicting, discovered acquired he transferred to the domain of medicine and unity amidst multiformity, which is the special function of surgery, and applied to the alleviation of sickness and science,

suffering among animals no less than among men. John Hunter's constant aim was to arrive at principles, I pretend not either impiously to affirm or not less and he was distrustsul of so-called facts. “ The principles impiously to deny all the purposes of infinite wisdom in of our art," he said, " are not less necessary to be under- giving man dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the stood than the principles of other sciences; unless, indeed, fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth ifre surgeon should wish to resemble the Chinese philo- upon the earth; but we do know that throughout historic sopher whose knowledge consisted only in facts. In that time man has not hesitated to capture, to subjugate, and case the science must remain unimproved until new facts to slay, beast and bird and fish, for his pleasure, his arise. In Europe philosophers reason from principles, and sustenance, and his service. Was the lordship over the thus acrount for facts before they arise.'

animals given to man only for the satisfying of his physical Hunter possessed every moral and intellectual qualifi- and sensuous needs? Is not the life more than food? Was cation necessary for useful scientific research. He had a it only with reference to man's bodily well-being that the large knowledge of facts based on an intimate acquaintance question was asked : Are ye not of much more value than with the phenomena of organic nature. He had a fertile the birds of the heaven? Does the mind need no aliment? imagination ready to suggest possible relations of those And is the veto to be applied only when animals are to be facts. He had openness of mind, and a conscientious used for the purposes of elucidating the kindly functions scientific spirit which submitted every hypothesis to the of physiology, or of disclosing the baneful secrets of test of observation and experiment. Scepticism is the first disease? condition of reasoned knowledge. Hunter was not only The vicarious suffering and sacrifice of animals for the observant, but he was rationally sceptical and critical, and service and the salvation of man have obtained throughout he himself ascribed his success as a scientific investigator the ages, and constituted the basis of the elaborate cereto the sceptical qualities of his mind. He took nothing on monial system of the ancient Israelites. In anticipation of

He was always careful to distinguish between mere the great Passover, Moses directed the Israelites each to conjecture and reality, and drew a sharp distinction between kill a lamb according to their families, and to sprinkle the actual results of an experiment physically performed its blood upon the lintel and the two side posts. and what might have been mentally anticipated.

the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and suing any subject," he says, most things come to light when He seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two as it were by accident, that is, many things arise out of side posts, the Lord will pass over the door, and will not investigation that were not at first conceived, and even suffer the destroyer to come into your houses to smite misfortunes in experiments have brought things to you.” The complete purification of one leper and his reknowledge that were not, and probably could not have ception back into society involved not only the slaughter been, previously conceived, on the other hand, I have often of three lambs, but the convalescent had to appear with devised experiments by the fireside or in my carriage, and two living clean birds, one of which was slain, while the have also conceived the result; but when I tried the experi- other, still living, was baptised in the dead bird's blood, ment, the result was different, or I found that the experi- and then allowed to fly away free. The principle of subment could not be attended with all the circumstances that stitution was actualised in the ceremony of the scapegoat. were suggested." Here, in a sentence, we note the wide At the annual Feast of Expiation, a young bullock, two «lifference between the modern and the mediæval spirit in kids, and one ram were slain ; and two goats were taken science. The alchemists performed experiments innumer- upon which lots were cast, one lot for Yahwè, the other able, but with them theory ranked above experiment, and for Azazel. The goat on which the lot fell for Yahwe Il experiment gave an unexpected result, this was forced was sacrificed for a sin offering ; but the goat upon which into an artificial conformity with the aprioristic theory. It the lot fell for Azazel was presented alive, and when the was therefore, says Lange in his History of Mate- high priest had symbolically placed upon its head the sins rialism,"

essentially directed to the production of this and transgressions of all the people, the goat was led previously anticipated result rather than to free investi- into the desert, there to become the victim of hunger and gation

thirst, and the prey of ravenous bird and beast. While Hunter was intolerant of a state of doubt in small Are these hecatombs to be regarded as of Divine origin things as in great, if by any means decision was possible, and sanction, while the inoculation of a cat or dog, or it be ever held his judgment in suspense if certainty was not may be a rat, is to be denounced as a desecration and a attainable. Like all strong characters, he cared little for violation of the purposes and will of God? Who will say systems or consistencies of opinion. He followed wherever but that in our day, as the Angel of Death passes through Truth should lead, and by his very nature was always open the land, seeing upon us the sprinkling of the immunising to new and higher knowledge. To a pupil who asked with blood, takes that for a token, and is not suffered to come surprise whether he had not the year before stated an into our houses to smite us? “ Dipt in his fellow's blood opinion on some point directly at variance with one he had the living bird went free"; and so we, dipped in blood, just put forth, he boldly replied : Very likely I did ; I aye, the blood of our fellow-man, as the annals of medical hope I grow wiser every year.". And again : “ Never ask martyrology bear witness, we enjoy a growing freedom me what I have said, or what I have written ; but if you from plague and pestilence and noisome disease, and in the will ask me what iny present opinions are I will tell you.' fulness of knowledge the measure of our freedom will be In attempting an appreciation of John Hunter's method full.

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UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

drawings; (5) design and the history of architecture as INTELLIGENCE.

supplemental to and elucidatory of the study of construction, CAMBRIDGE.-The sum of 1600l. has been recently con

It is pointed out that these subjects should be taught by tributed to the University Benefaction Fund for the endow

class work in the schools and by demonstration in the ment of a lectureship in special pathology. The collection

laboratory or lecture theatre of practical work. The of this fund is largely due to the activity of Prof. G. Sims laboratory or workshop for training in practical work is an Woodhead, and the lectureship will be known

essential feature of the scheme. The demonstrations given

as the Huddersfield lectureship, in recognition of the town which

in the laboratory should be in intimate relations with the

lectures given in the class-rooms of the schools, and the has largely supplied the capital sum. The general board will proceed shortly to elect the lecturer. Applications

course must be arranged so that the training in the class. should be sent in to the Vice-Chancellor, on or before Tues

and in the workshops proceed together. In day, March 7

moving a vote of thanks to Mr. Blomfield, Sir Arthur The general board has approved Mr. J. J. H. Teall, of

Rücker said that, if the great movement which is taking St. John's College, Director of the Geological Survey, for

place in technical education is to have a sound foundation, the degree of Sc.D.

it is absolutely necessary that it should be carried out by The Smith's prizes have been awarded to Mr. H. Bate

those who are themselves the professional members of the man for his essay on "The solution of linear differential

great professions and trades which they wish to carry to a equations by means of definite integrals," and to Mr. P. E.

point of higher education.
Marrack for his essay Absorption by matter of
Röntgen and g rays." Both the students belong to Trinity
College.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES,
Mr. F. J. M. Stratton, of Caius College, has been elected

LONDON. to an Isaac Newton studentship.

Royal Society, January 26.—“On the Drift produced in LONDON.—At the South-Western Polytechnic Miss Gladys lons by Electromagnetic Disturbances, and a Theory al Martyn has been elected to the free studentship in the Radio-activity.' By George W. Walker. Communicated physical training department. She will devote part of her by Prof. A. Gray, F.R.S. time to the scientific study of anthropometric measurements Electromagnetic

produce certain mechanical and eugenics. Mr. L. D. Coueslant, lecturer in the forces an electrically charged particle, and the engineering department of the polytechnic, has been elected equations of motion of such a particle can be formed. to be head of the mechanical and civil engineering depart. When the particle is regarded as exceedingly small and ment of the Technical Institute of Sunderland. Mr. A. J. endowed with a charge e and inertia m, which includes Makower has been elected head of the electrical engineering electrical inertia, the equations take a comparatively simple department in succession to Mr. C. F. Smith.

form. When the small viscous term due to radiation from The Fishmongers' Company has granted a of the particle is neglected the equations can be integrated in 1000l. toward the funds necessary for the incorporation of certain cases, and it is found that the continued propagation University College in the University of London. By this of waves involves an alteration of the position of the particle grant the amount still required to complete the funds necessary for incorporation is reduced to 17,000l., a total The case which suggested the general result was that is of 183,000l. having now been raised for the purpose. Dr. which the waves form an infinite simple harmonic train, A. R, Cushny, of the University of Michigan, U.S.A., has and the solution showed that while the passage of a com been appointed to the chair of pharmacology and materia plete wave restored the initial velocities of the particle, its medica in the college. Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt has position in space was altered. resigned the chair of civil engineering and surveying.

This alteration of position is not completely accounted for

by the change due to the initial velocities had there been no We learn from Science that Mrs. Goldwin Smith has

In particular, if the particle is initially at rest, the given 4oool, to Cornell University; and that by the will of passage of a complete wave restores the state of rest, but the the late Mr. E. A. Goodnough, of Worcester, gists are particle now occupies a new position in space. This curious made as follows :---5000l. to Mount Holyoke College, 3000l. result has an analogue in the case of a simple pendulum to Iowa College, 5000l. to the Huguenot Seminary in South making complete revolutions, where the elapse of a com Africa, 1000l. to Washburn College in Kansas, 2000l. to plete period restores the velocity while the angle described Drury College in Missouri.

has increased by 27. The Engineering and Mining Journal of New York pub

The continued propagation of the waves thus involves the lishes the views of Prof. H. M. Howe, the eminent American

result that the particle appears to drift through space in : metallurgist, on the vexed question whether technical schools

manner which can be completely determined when the initial serve the interests of the community better if they are parts

circumstances are given and the constants of the train et of great universities or if they are isolated institutions.

waves are known. Wisely guided association, while it need not deprive the

Similar results are found to hold for any kind of plar technical school of character and individuality, should, he

disturbances propagated in a straight line. Several para thinks, benefit the community through the broadening inter

are worked out where the disturbance is of a simple char action of the teachers of pure science and the technical

The disturbance is that in which the electric force is teachers, with their closer contact with active life. The X, with the appropriate magnetic force X,/V at right grand scale should effect great economy, not so much in

angles to X., for a time d/V succeeded by zero force for a saving salaries and in widening the use of the more expen

time d/V, and this again succeeded by electric force - I sive instruments, as in fitting work to worker, and in sup

for a time d/V, and zero force for a time d/V, after which plying more fully the eminent with work on their own plane.

the disturbance recurs. In one case where the particle is

initially at rest it appears to drift with the waves, while . Iv a paper on Architectural Education " read before a another case where the particle has a certain initial veloch mecting of the Royal Institute of British Architects at right angles to the direction of propagation it drills Monday, Mr. R. Blomfield described the report and sylla- against the waves. If radiation from the particle is nee bus prepared by the Board of Architectural Education lected, the passage of a complete pulse in which the is appointed by the institute. The following is the syllabus tegrated effect of electric force is zero involves a restoratica proposed by the board :-(1) Building materials; (2) con- of the original energy of the particle, and thus the tram struction, including (a) applied mechanics, strictly in prac- ference of the particle is accomplished without abstraction tical relation to construction, and (b) the practical methods of energy from the pulse. The expressions for the apparet of the building trades ; (3) architectural drawing, including velocity of drifting in the direction of propagation of the working and freehand drawings, solid geometry, and waves are found to depend on the squares of the charge. measured drawings of historical examples of architecture; that it is probable that an electrically neutral system will als (4) geometrical projection and rudimentary perspective, this be made to drift. of buildings, not as a means of elaborating architectural of the charged particle equal to that of radiation, a partir

waves.

acter.

on

that if the equations held up to velozio

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