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ISENTHAL & CO.,
CO., TOWNSON & MERCER,

,

85 MORTIMER STREET, LONDON, W. Contractors to the Admiralty, Ilir, India, 2- Colonial Offices. &-c.

34 CAMOMILE STREET, E.C.

THE STEREOSCOPIC COMPANY'S

C. E. MÜLLER, ORME & CO.'S
NEW RESISTANCE ARTIST'S REFLEX
GLASS

CAMERA.

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excels Jena Glass in its power to stand

sudden variations of temperature.

The finest possible instru-
ment for all practical
purposes, embodying every
scientific requirement.

N.B. - The official test at the Charlottenburg Institute showed that with this glass the alkali dissoived by 100 c.c. of distilled water is id ti milligrammes as compared with 1 milligrammes dissolved from Jena glass under the same conditions.

IT IS AS CHEAP AS THE COMMON

BOHEMIAN GLASS.

MAY BE HAD IN

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The Ideal Camera for
BIRD PHOTOGRAPHY, NATURAL HISTORY
SUBJECTS, PORTRAIT AND FIGURE STUDIES,

ARCHITECTURAL & GENERAL WORK.
Write for full particulars from.
106 & 108 REGENT STREET, W.,

or 54 CHEAPSIDE, E.C.

Es'ABLISHET OVER 60 YEARS,

Printed by RICHARD CLAY AND, Sons, LIMFD), at 7 & 8 bread Street Hill, Queen Victoria Street, in the City o London, and published by MACal LAN

AND Co., LIMITED, at St. Marun's Street, London, W.C., and THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, 66 Fifth Avenue, New York.-THURSDAY, Feb 23, 1993.

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| WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye.”—WORDSWORTH.

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[PRICE 15 CENTS

NO. 1844, VOL. 71) THURSDAY, MARCH 2, 1905.
Registered as a Newspaper at the General Post Office.)

(All Rights are Reserved.

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Das Zeisswerk
und die Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung in Jena.

V
A

a

Ihre wissenschaftliche, technische und soziale Entwickelung

und Bedeutung
für weitere Kreise dargestellt

von Felix Auerbach.
The above Lantern has a clear base board and is fitted with

Zweite vermehrte Auflage. 5-in. Condensers.

Mit 86 Abbildungen im Text. NEWTON & CO., 3 FLEET ST.,

Preis: brosch. 2 Mark, geb. 2 Mark 50 Pf.

LONDON.
THE NEW

NEGRETTI & ZAMBRA'S

SELF-RECORDING
JS

METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS.

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"LONDON'

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MICROSCOPE,

With Eye-piece į inch, 1 incb
Obiect · glasses, in Mahogany

Case,
£5 12s. 6d.

THE NEW PATTERN COMBINED BARO-THERMOGRAPH.
Double Nose-piece, 9/- extra.

The above instrument combines in one apparatus the Recording Baro-
Focussing Substage, 14/6 extra.

meter and Recording Thermometer, giving thus on one and the same chart
continuous records of the atmospheric pressure and temperature for seven
days.

VERY SUITABLE FOR PRESENTATION.
R. & J. BECK, Ltd., Illustrated Price List of Self-Recording Meteorological Instruments,

or “Special” Hlustrated List of Scientific goods suitable for
68 CORNHILL,

Presents, Post Free to all parts of the World.

38 HOLBORN VIADUCT, E.C. LONDON. Branches-45 CORNHILL, and 122 REGENT STREET.

COLLEGE.

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1

UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM. BIRKBECK faculties.

BREAMS BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, E.C. SCIENCE, ARTS, MEDICINE, COMMERCE.

FACULTY OF SCIENCE.
SPECIAL SCHOOL OF MODERN LANGUAGES.

DAY AND EVENING COURSES.
DEPARTMENT FOR TRAINING OF TEACHERS.

JJ. E. MACKENZIE, Ph.D., D.Sc.
Scbools of-

Chemistry

H. KEN, Ph.D. BA., B.Sc. ENGINEERING, METALLURGY, MINING, BREWING,

(ALBERT GRIPPITH, DSc. Physics ...

D. OWEN, B A., B.Sc.
DENTISTRY

18. W CLACK, B.Sc.

E. H. SMAKT, M.A.
Leading to Degrees and Diplomas.

Mathematics

... {

W. G. BIRT, BA, B.Sc.

A. B. RENDIN, M.A., !). ALL COURSES AND DEGREES ARE OPEN TO BOTH MEN AND WOMEN Botany

F. E P-ITACIK, Ph.D., B.SC. STUDENTS.

Zoology ..

H. W. UNTHANX, b. a., R.Sc. In the Medical School there is a separate Dissecting Room for Women Geology & Mineralogy Geo. F HARRIS, F.G.S. with a qualified Woman Demonstrator,

Assaying, Metallurgy & Mining. Geo. PATCHIN, A.R.S.M. Graduates of other Universities may, after two years' study or research, take a Master's Degree.

RESEARCH in Chemistry and Physics in well-equipped laboratones.

French, German, Spanish, Russian, Dutch, & Itallan Classes, Syllabuses witb all information will be sent on application to the SECRETARY.

EVENING CLASSES also in Biology, Physiol.gy, Practical Geometry. Building and Machine Construction, Steam, Tbeoretical and Arple a

Mechanics, Land and Quantity Surveying, and Estimating
At the SOUTH-WESTERN

Calendar 6d. (post free 8d.), on application to the SECRETARY.
SOUTH-WESTERN POLYTECHNIC,
Manresa Road, Chelsea, S.W., Day College Courses of thirty bours
per week will be conducted in preparation for the London University

TUITION
Degrees of B.Sc in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, in Chemié.

BY try, Physics and the Natural Sciences. The composition fee for the Session of three terms, 1904-1905, is £15. These Courses are recog;

CORRESPONDENCE. nised for "Internal Students of the University, and consist of lecture and laboratory instruction. The Courses are conducted by : - For Matriculation, B.A , Scholarships, and Professional Preliminaries MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, W. W. F. Pullen; EIEC. Tuition in Latin, Greek, French, German, Italian. Mathematics, Mechanics TRICAL ENGINEERING, A. J. Makower; CHEMISTRY, J. B. Physics, Chemistry, P-ychology. Logic, Political Economy. Bjok keewng Coleman, J. C. ('rocker, and F. H. Lowe; MATHEMATICS and The Staff includes Graduatesir Oxford, Cambridge, London, and Koyal PHYSICS, S. Skinner, w. H. Eccles, J. Lister and L. Lownds; Universi ies.- Address Mr. J. CHARIESTON, B.A , Burlington Curie pond BOTANY, H. B. Lacey and T. G. Hill; GEOLOGY, A. J. Maslen ence College, Clapham Cummon, London, S.W. In the evenings similar Courses will be conducted, but at £2 per Session. Also TECHNICAL DAY COURSES of three years' duration are arranged as a preparation for the Engineering, Elec

(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.) trical and Chemical and Metallurgical professions. The Laboratories SOUTH - EASTERN AGRICULTURAL and Workshop are open for RESEARCH under the direction of the Principal and the Heads of Departments.

COLLEGE, WYE, KENT. Further particulars may be obtained on application to the Secretary,

Applications are invited for the post of BOTANIST. Commenera

salary, £300 per annum. For details as to duties. &c, apply to the who will send either the Day College Prospectus and Calendar or the

SECRETARY. Evening Class Prospectus for 3d. The Prospectuses may be had at the Office for id.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE, LONDON.

43, 45 HARLEY STREET, W. BEDFORD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN.

Appointments to the Arnout Professorship of Natural Philo. pohy.od (UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.)

the Professorship of Mathematics will be made for October nest. Applica

tions must be sent in by March 25. Should an applicant be suitable, the YORK PLACE, BAKER STREET, W.

twi) chairs might be combined. For all particulars apply to the ASSIST 45T

SECRETARY. ENTRANCE SCHOLARSHIPS. Two Entrance Scholarships, each tenable for three years at Bedford TO SCIENCE, MATHEMATICAL AND College for Women, will be offered for competition in June, 1905.

OTHER MASTERS.-Required (1) Second Master for importa:: DEPARTMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN

Grammar Scbool - Matbcs. and Science. Salary, 2160 to £ik TEACHING

(2) Head Master for Public Institution School near Loadon. Know

ledge of Commercial Education necessary. Age 35 10 45. unmanied Students are admitted to the Training Course in October and January.

Salary, £200, with board and private rooms. (3) Chemis ry, Botany The Course includes full preparation for the examinations for the Teaching

and some Physics, £150 to £160. (4) Chemistry, Mathes. and Hatan. Diplomas granted by the Universities of London and Cambridge, held

6140. Particulars of the above and other Science posts will be sent annually in December.

on application. Candidates seeking appointments en her at once or A Course of Lectures on School Hygiene is held on Friday afternoons.

for after Easter are invited to apply forthwith. Address, (iXIFFITHS, Full particulars on application to the PRINCIPAL.

Smuth, Powell & SMITH, Tutorial Agents (Estab. 1833), 34 Bedlor

Street, Strand, London. NATURAL SCIENCE SCHOLARSHIP. Laboratory Assistant requires employment KEBLE COLLEGE, OXFORD.

about Easter; nearly three years' experience in public chrol. Good

character and testimonials. –“H. B.," c/o NATURE, SI. Alanin s A SCHOLARSHIP of the annual value of £60, together with Laboratory Ste:t, W.C. Fees, not exceeding £20 per annum, will be awarded at this Cillege in March, 1905.

CONCHOLOGY.-An unusually good oppor. The Examination commences Tuesday, March 14. Subjects : Chemistry or Biology, with Elementary Mechanics and Physics

tunity in purchase. ne of the finest collections of shells (marine, land for all Candidates, and Elementary Chrinistry for those wh offer Biology.

and to sil). Pinked • pecimens trom Goodall, Johnson, Argent Evans For full particulars apply to Dr. HATCHETT JACKSON, Keble College,

and Gwalkin; in good cabinets (mahogany and pine). Classified and Oxford.

early all named and trayed in their families. Apply " R.,“ Seld rell,

Poole.
GUY'S HOSPITAL.

For Sale.-Extensive Collections of British ENTRANCE SCHOLARSHIPS IN SEPTEMBER, 1995.

Lepidoptera, Cleoptera, Tropical Butterflies, Cabinets, &c. Cortedly

nained type collections at very moderate prices. -Particulars troue Five Open Scholarships, Three (6150, 463 and 650) in Science, a d Two A. Ford, Hillside, Sunnybill, Pokesdown, Boumennouth. (£100 and £ 50) in Ants.

Particulars and Copies of Examination Papers on application to the
DEAN, Guy's Hospital, London Bridge, S.E.

For Sale, "Annals of Botany." Vols. I. to

XVIII., unbound. - Dr. Wilson, University, St. Andrews.
GUY'S HOSPITAL.

TYPE-WRITING UNDERTAKEN BY
PRELIMINARY SCIENTIFIC (M.B. Lond.).

HIGHLY EDUCATED WOMEN ACCUSTOMED TO SCIEN.

TIFIC MSS. (Classical Tripos, Intermediate Arts, Cambaidge Higher Classes are held throughout the year Special instruction is given for the Lacal, thorough roquaintance with Modern Languages. Research, July Examination.

Revision, Translation. Scale of charges on application. The CamFee 10 guineas.

bridge Type woning Agency, 10 Duke Street, Adelphi, WC.

Sales by Auction. IMPORTANT COLLECTION OF LEPIDOPTERA. TUESDAY, MARCH 14, AND WEDNESDAY, MARCH 15,

AT ONE O'CLOCK.

Under-timed

MR. J. C. STEVENS will offer at his

Rooms, 38 King Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C., the FIRST PORTION (unless previously disposed of by Private Treaty) of the unrivalled COLLECTION OF BRITISH LEPIDOPTERA formed by the late PHILIP B. MASON, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.C.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S., &c., of Trent House, Burton-on-Trent, comprising Long and Superb Series of most of the Rare and Extinct Species-fine Varieties and Local Forms in the best state of Preservation ; also many Valuable and Historic Specimens and Types from the Hayworth and other Col. lections, together with the first-rate Standish and other Cabinets in

which they are contained. On view the Morday prior and mornings of Sale. Catalogues, ready a week prior to Sale, post free on application.

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IMPORTANT SALE OF BIRDS' EGGS. MR. J. C. STEVENS has received instruc

rions to OFFER for SALE on THURSDAY, MARCH 16, the FOURTH and FINAL PORTION of the COLLECTION of BIRDS' EGGS formed by HEATLEY NOBLE, E«q. The Sale will include one of the finest Specimens of the GREAT AUK'S EGG ever offered, together with such rarities as White's, Siberian, and Black. throated Thrush-Waxwing-Scarlet and Pine Grosbeak-Nutcracker - Needle-tailed Swilt-Honey Buzzard-Golden Eagle-Iceland and Jyr Falcon-Snow Goose - Pectoral and Marsh Sandpiper-Greensbank

- Dusky Redshank-Pomathorine Skua, &c. Catalogues, in course of preparation, may be had on application to Mr. J. C STEVENS, 38 King Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C.

Pyro-Metol

Developer makes a fresh solution which is so constituted as to produce good printing negatives from surprisingly short exposures.

Sold by all chemists and dealers Per carton to make 22 to 44 ounces, 1/

New booklet gratis

LANTERN and

MICROSCOPICAL SLIDES

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In all branches of NATURAL HISTORY, from 6/- per dozen.

Over 20,000 in Stock (As supplied to the Principal Universities, Technical Schools, &c.)

Send for Catalogues to the actual preparers.

FLATTERS & GARNETT, Ltd., Dealers in everything Microscopical, 48 Deansgate, Manchester.

LABORATORIES : 16 & 18 CHURCH ROAD, LONGSICHT, M/C. N.B.-Special Series of 48 Microscopical Slides for Students of Botany, in box, 21/- net. Book of Original Diagrams illustrating this Series, 1/- net.

LANTERNS. MICROSCOPES, NATURE STUDY appliances, &c. PROTO- MICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS. LEACH'S LANTERN MICROSCOPE. Speciality. LANTERN SLIDE- from Negatives, Book Illustrations, &c.

Correspondence invited.

SANGER - SHEPHERD

COLOUR OUTFITS

FOR SALE.-The Instruments in the

Observatory of the late Mr. Edward Crossley : a 9-in. and a 45-in. (both photo visual object glasses) Equatorial Refractor by Cooke ; a 34 in Transit Circle by Cooke ; a 61-in. Sextant and a s-in. Transit Theodolite by Troughton and Simms; Siderial Clock by Cooke ; Parallel-wire and Doubl--image Micrometers by Troughton and Simms; Microscopes by Ross and Zeiss; Apparatus for Lectures on Light, Polarisation, &c., by Harvey and Peak; Measuring Bars and Rods-12 in., 40-in., 3.st., 10-ft.-by Troughton and Simms; Standard Barometer by Hicks; Two Spectroscopes; Two Controlled Clocks. Apply to Mr J. GLEDHILL, Bermerside, Halifax.

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FOR SALE, 30 moving coil ammeters and voltmeters. 6 moving coil reflecting and pointer galvanometers. 8 hot wire ammeters and voltmeters, 50 electromagnetic ammeters and voltmeters. 60 dynamos and motors, direct and alternating current. 40 ironclad regulating rheostats. 20 transformers and choking coils. 10 inc'uction coils, 10-inch spark.

3 mercury jet breaks. Standard condensers, Wheatstone bridges, static machines,

switches, cables, &c., by various makers, at low prices. G. BOWRON, 57 EDGWARE RD., LONDON, W.

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SONOMETER

THE NEW "STUDENT'S”
STANDARD BAROMETER.

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VERTICAL TYPE.

Two wires can be loaded independently by weights, and in each case the lower end of the vibrating length can be unclamped and reclamped while the wire is under tension, frictional error being thus completely eliminated from the estimation of the stretching force.

For one wire an intermediate bridge is provided, which can be moved and clamped; for the other wire a narrow-edged felt damper, also capable of being moved and clamped.

(Rd. No. 420,297.). This Instrument has been designed to meet the requirements of Students and others who find the need of a Barometer which will give exact readings, and cost but a moderate sum.

It appeals especially to Colleges and Schools for Demonstration purposes.

The construction is on that of the well-known" Fortis" principle. The level of the cistern mercury is reducible to zero, in exactly the same manner as in the more expensive forms.

The diameter of the mercurial column is '25 inch, and affords a bold, well-defined reading. The scales, by means of the double vernier, are capable of being read to 'or inch and '1 millimetre. It is mounted on a wellpolished, solid mahogany board, with plates for attach. ment to wall, opal glass reflectors for reading off, and screws for vertical adjustment.

The metal portions are all well bronzed and lacquered, and the scales are silvered brass.

Ve confidently recommend this Instrument for use as a " Standard in Colleges and Schools, private Observatories, and by Gas and other Engineers. Price, complete, mounted as illustrated,

£3 7 6 each, or may be had with one scale (either inches or millimetres), and with thermometer on other scale, at sabe price.

I Nature says :-"Provides an accurate instrement at & moderate cost.'

FULL SIZE STANDARD BAROMETER of same design, bore o'5" diameter, inches and milimetre scales, verniers reading to o'002 inch and o'r m'n, on polished mahogany board with brackets and opal glass reflectors, £7 10 0 Sole Manufacturers and Proprietors of the

Registered Design. PASTORELLI & RAPKIN, LTO.

46 HATTON GARDEN, LONDON, E.C. WHOLESALE MAKERS OF ALL KINDS OF METEOROLOCICAL INSTRUMENTS.

Contractors to H.M. Government. Estd. 1750 Telegrams," Rapkin, London." Telephone, 1981 Holbore

Price £4 10 0.

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REYNOLDS & BRANSON, LTD, W.H. SMITH & SON'S &

LIBRARY

Sole authorised makers of the STROUD & RENDELL
LANTERN, as made by us for the leading Universities.

SCIENCE

AND

NEW SCIENCE LANTERN for 1905. 186 STRAND, LONDON, W.C.,

and at the A reliable Lantern for all purposes, made entirely of Copper

and Polished Brass. It presents a very attractive appearance. RAILWAY BOOKSTALLS, The optical parts are carefully selected, and of superior quality.

to which the books are forwarded The open stage is well suited for shewing apparatus.

to subscribers' orders carriage free. IT EMBRACES ALL THE MOST IMPORTANT BOOKS,

BIOGRAPHIES AND MEMOIRS, TRAVEL AND SPORT, PRICE

With
HISTORY, THEOLOGY,

SOCIOLOGY, 4 in Condenser NATURAL HISTORY, LITERATURE AND ART, POETRY £4 10s.

and Compound

AND ESSAYS, TOPOGRAPHY, FICTION, REVIEWS,

AND MISCELLANEOUS WORKS. LANTERN

Objective. ONLY.

6" or 9" focus. NEWEST & BEST BOOKS ADDED AS PUBLISHED

Over 800 Branches to which Subscribers may be transferred.
NERNST BURNER, extra, from 19/6.

Terms and Particulars on application.
LIME-LIGHT BURNER, extra, from 7/6.
ARC LAMP, extra, from 30/-

Many Thousands of SURPLUS LIBRARY BOOKS
Delivery froin Stock.

and VALUABLE NEW REMAINDERS OFFERED

AT GREATLY REDUCED PRICES. The above Lantern can be supplied fitted complete as a

Works of Standard Interest in all branches of General STROUD & RENDELL LANTERN, all in Metal or Wood, Literature, suitable for Students, Institutions, Libraries, complete with Prisms, £8.

Presents, &c., Carriage Free to any of the Railway

Bookstalls. Write for Particulars, also Catalogue of Lantern Slides. MONTHLY CATALOCUE (150 PACES) FREE ON APPLICATION.

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14 Commercial Street, LEEDS. FAB. 186 STRAND, LONDON, W.C.

,

OFFICE:

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