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ments, was found to be practically independent of the not disdained its assistance in his work on breeding and voltage between o and 8 volts. When once a magnetic field heredity. had been applied, of sufficient strength to stop all the slow- The point of previous letters is not that the writers had moving electrons, a large increase in its value had no effect no aptitude for Greek, but that they found it useless o on the magnitude of the positive charge. I think these ex- them in the studies to which they devoted their life. German periments undoubtedly show that the a particles do carry is indispensable; soon we shall have to read Russian tro, a positive charge, and that the previous failures to detect and if a man is to keep abreast of his subject be must mor this charge were due to the masking action of the large only read German, but read it with ease, so great is the number of slow-moving electrons emitted from the plates. bulk of literature to be got through. Arbitrarily to compel

Observations were made under different experimental con- a boy to learn Greek, which, if he does not appreciate it, wie ditions, and with very concordant results. In one set of be perfectly useless to him, when he might be learning experiments a weight of 0.19 mg. of radium bromide was German, which, whether he likes it or not, is indispensible used, spread on a glass plate, which was covered with a for the full pursuit of his scientific studies, seems to be one thin'sheet of aluminium foil; in the other 0.48 mg., spread of the cruellest conceivable tyrannies of pedantic folly. Conld on an aluminium plate. The saturation current due to the there be greater intellectual waste, and could any means latter plate, measured between parallel plates 3.5 cm, apart be designed more likely to defeat the end for which it is by means of a galvanometer, was found to be 7.8 x 10-s designed? Compulsion and education are terms as opposed amperes. It is possible that the failure of Prof. Thomson philosophically as they are etymologically; let the student to detect the positive charge carried by the a rays from be encouraged to work at the subjects he has really at hrarı radio-tellurium was due to the smallness the effect to be and he will proceed from one success to another, and may measured ; for with the plate of radio-tellurium in my pos- even find his training in natural science leading him to the session, the current was only about 1/40 of the above value. higher things in Greek literature.

Since the film of radium bromide is so thin that all the But since the most natural classification of candidate a particles escape from its surface, it is easy to deduce from would seem to be into those having a tendency to exact the observed charge from a known weight of radium the thought-who will naturally gravitate towards mathematics, total number of a particles expelled per second from one and those with a love of art—who will naturally aspire to gram of radium bromide. Taking into consideration that literature, and those with a little of both-who will be given half of the a particles were projected into the radium plate, over to natural science, why not allow a first class in any and assuming that the a particle carries the same charge two of the three to count as a pass? such a measure would as a gaseous ion, it was deduced that one gram of radium prove a great relief both to congenital non-mathematicians bromide emits 3:5 x 10"particles per second. Now the and non-linguists. activity of radium bromide in radio-active equilibrium is Finally, why should a want of sympathy with Greek, thu four times this minimum, and contains four products which noblest language of the noblest literature the world has emit a particles at the same rate. It is thus probable that known, be imputed to those who think that it is too good a one gram of radium bromide in radio-active equilibrium thing to be wrested to injurious purposes?

X. emits 1.4 X 10' particles per second. I had previously deduced (loc. cit.), from indirect data, the value about If Mr. Bateson's case is that of hundreds, I make bold to J:1 X 10", so that the theoretical and experimental numbers say the case of the boy who wastes hundreds of hours no are in very good agreement.

Greek grammar is that of thousands. I have also made experiments, by a special method, to We do not want to abolish compulsory Greek because it determine the total number of B particles emitted from one has no value in the market, but because, stopped where the gram of radium bromide in radio-active equilibrium, and boy who takes it no further than the Little-Go stops it, the have found a value about the same as the number of a par- ' study of Greek has no value, ninety-nine tiines out of i ticles emitted at its minimum activity. It is thus seen that hundred, in the forming of an active, living intelligence. four a particles are expelled from radium for each B par- Mathematics may have contributed nothing to the forma ticle. The number of B particles obtained by Wien was tion of Mr. Bateson's mind; it is not unlikely, though it is much smaller than this, but, in his experiments, a large deplorable. But if Mr. Bateson seriously thinks that proportion of the more slowly moving B particles was ab- elementary mathematics contributes no more than elemen sorbed in the radium itself and in the envelope enclosing it. tary Greek to the sound training of an average mind, surely

The number of a particles expelled per second from one he is curiously destitute in experience of the run of faculties gram of radium is a most important constant, for on it in a young human being. This explanation of Mr depends all calculations to determine the volume of the

Bateson's astonishing argument suggests itsell the more emanation, and of helium, the heat emission of radium, and readily, because his idea that Greek is one of the things that also the probable life of radium and the other radio- put one touch of art in the life of a dull boy, and open elements.

E. RUTHERFORD. his eyes to another world," appears absolutely grotesque. McGill University, Montreal, February 10.

The narrow (and conspicuously unintelligent) utilitarian idea of education represented by Mr. Bateson's " ist

telligent lady " must be fought with all our strength, but it Compulsory Greek at Cambridge.

cannot be fought successfully with the rusty sword of Mr

Bateson's reactionary classicism. That is a weapon whird The conclusion to be drawn from Mr. Bateson's letter will break in our hands and leave us defenceless to the seems to be that it is useless to compel candidates to get up spoiler.

A. G. TANSLEY. subjects for which they have no aptitude, or in which they New C'niversity Club, London, S.W., February 23. take no interest. The glories of " another world," whether in science or art, are reserved for those that can see them, May I be permitted to suggest, with all deference, thar and a bright boy, not to say a dull one, is unlikely to discover Mr. Bateson's statement that his knowledge of mathematics the beauties of compulsory Greek, if he happens to have a is nil" must be taken cum grano! lle is now, I believe distaste for dead languages. But is it not rather a narrow largely engaged in the business of counting chickens briors view which recognises only one new world and the entrance they are hatched. How could he do this without some to it through compulsory Greek? It is said of a great mathematics? As a matter of fact, the research in which creative mathematician that surveying his subject from a he is engaged involves mathematical conceptions of no mean high pinnacle of abstract thought, he exclaimed, And we order, yet I presume he knows something about his subject. too are poets”; but the most enthusiastic would scarcely Mr. Bateson's letter might be a good argument in favour expect this feeling to be aroused by compulsory mathematics of lowering the mathematical standard in the previous in a dull boy; it does not seem to have occurred even to an examination. But, as he uses it, it is merely an unusually exceptionally bright one.

frank example of the reasoning which is the real support Sullied, as Mr. Bateson seems to consider mathematics, by of compulsory Greek, viz., “When I was a little boy the a degrading usefulness to trade and professions," it never big boy's bullied me: now that I am a big boy myself I theless remains of essential importance to nine-tenths of our mean to take it out of the little ones!" scientific work, and most of those of us who have but little

EDWARD T. Dixov. of it sigh that we have not more. Mr. Bateson himself has Racketts, Hythe, Hants, February 24.

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A Large Indian Sea-Perch.

The meetings of the Royal Society in those days The dimensions and weight of a sea-perch caught in must have been a good deal more lively than they December last by some natiye fishermen near Diamond

are at present. Robert Hooke, the most fertile and Harbour in the River Hooghly seem to me to be worth inventive genius of his time, was then “Curator of recording.

Experiments," and brought forward at each meeting Its length is nearly seven and a half feet, its girth just either some ingenious contrivance of his own behind the shoulder is a little more than five feet nine inches, and its weight, the day after its capture, was four

some device provided by one of the members. This hundred and sixty pounds.

constant and exciting variety of practical demonstraThe fish is so old and

that its specific iden

tion would be entirely after Pepys' heart, gratifying tity must remain in doubt, but it agrees fairly well with

his spirit of curiosity and his keen desire to increase Day's description, in the “Fauna of British India,' of his knowledge in every direction. Another feature Epinephelus lanceolatus, Bloch.

of the meetings could not but gratify one of his The largest Indian sea-perch of which I can find any most characteristic proclivities--his sociability and record is the one mentioned by Russell (quoted by Day love of congenial company. The evening adjournunder Epinephelus pantherinus and malabaricus), which ments to the club-supper at the Crowne Taverne was taken at Vizagapatam in January, 1786, and measured behind the 'Change or to the Devil Taverne in seven feet in length, five feet in girth, and weighed up- Fleet Street would end off his day as he always wards of three hundred pounds. The scales of the Diamond Harbour monster are

delighted that it should end. These meetings for altered by deposit that their accretion lines are very difficult Club, the oldest extant records of which do not go

supper contained the germ of the Royal Society to follow ; but in a large scale from the shoulder I can

back further than count between 500 and 600 such lines, which are sometimes

1743

This club consists of a grouped in series of about eight, but oftener show no

limited selection of fellows of the Society who still grouping at all.

A. ALCOCK.

dine together at some restaurant on the evenings of Indian Museum, Calcutta, February 2.

the Society's meetings.

At the time of Pepys' election the Society met at Attractions of Teneriffe.

Gresham College, but a few years afterwards moved Those members of the British Association who visit South

to Arundel House. An effort was then being made Africa this year will probably desire to spend as much time in which the “i virtuosos” might hold their meetings

to raise money for the purpose of building a house as they can near their journey's end. But it is just worth mentioning that some of the oceanic islands en route have

and place their library and apparatus. Among the very special attractions. For instance, I write from

other fellows, Pepys was applied to for a subscripTeneriffe, which has igneous rocks, cinder cones, and lava

tion. Under date April 2, 1668, he writes, “with streams for the geologist; and for the botanist all zones

Lord Brouncker to the Royall Society, where they of vegetation from the subtropics to the snows. The were just done; but there I was forced to subscribe scientific literature of the island is at present more in Ger

to the building of a College and did give 401.”man than in English. A single day's excursion, 2000ft. up certainly a generous donation at that time. He into the hills by electric tram, is possible whilst the steamer evidently had some reluctance to join in the scheme, waits to coal. A week would allow of a short tour to for he thought that this canvassing for money “ may Orotava and across the mountains to Guimar, through some spoil the Society for it breeds faction and ill will, of the most interesting parts of the island.

and becomes burdensome to · some that cannot HUGH RICHARDSON.

would not do it."

The Royal Society held its annual meeting for the

election of the council and officers on St. Andrew's SIMUEL PEPYS AND THE ROYAL SOCIETY. Day, November 30-a date which is still kept sacred MAGDALENE COLLEGE, Cambridge, with for the same purpose. But some of the usages that

which the name of Samuel Pepys is indis- were formerly in vogue have disappeared. Thus solubly associated, held in

the Pepys writes on November 30, 1668, “ To Arundel college on Thursday last, his birthday, a reunion House and there I did see them choosing their which may become an annual event. Some of the Council, it being St. Andrew's Day; and I had institutions with which he was more especially con- his cross in my hat, as the rest had, and cost nected were invited to send delegates to this gather

The diarist himself had already been ing. Thus the Royal Society was represented by nearly selected to serve on the council, so well did one of its secretaries and its foreign secretary. he stand in the esteem of his fellow members. Only From the immortal Diary it appears that the first three years and a half after his admission into the proposal that Pepys, should join that Society was Society he records that “I was near being chosen made to him in the spring of the year 1662 by his of the Council, but am glad I was not, for I could friend Dr. Timothy Clerke, who offered to bring not have attended, though, above all things, I could him “into the College of Virtuosos and my Lord wish it; and do take it as a mighty respect to have Brouncker's (P.R.S.) acquaintance, and to show me been named there." some anatomy; which makes me very glad, and I At last, at the end of twenty years from the time shall endeavour it when I come to London.” Two of his entry into the Royal Society, his associates vears, however, elapsed before his election. From showed the estimation in which they held him by the minute-books of the Society it appears that he electing him President on December 1, 1684. He was unanimously elected and admitted on the same was the sixth who filled that office in the history of day (February 15, 1664)—a rapidity of procedure the society. The council minute-book shows that he which contrasts with the much more leisurely action obtained twenty-nine votes out of thirty-nine, and of the present day. He records that he “was this that he was sworn in upon December 10. The day admitted by signing a book and being taken council included at that time Sir Christopher Wren, by the hand by the President, my Lord Brunkard, Dr. Martin Lister, Robert Hooke, E. Halley, John and some words of admittance said to me. But it | Flamsteed (Astronomer Royal), John Evelyn, and Sir is a most acceptable thing to hear their discourse John Hoskyns. The difficulty which Pepys would have

their experiments. ... After this being had in attending the meetings of council appears to done they to the Crowne Taverne, behind the have still continued after his election to the presidency,

Change, and there my Lord and most of the for he was only occasionally able to be present. U'n. company to a club-supper."

fortunately, the Diary, which gives such a full and

or

his memory

at

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23.

and see

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on

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faithful record of his daily life, stops short long before wished to do. But among the distinguished men who the date of his election to the chair of the Royal during two centuries and a half have occupied the Society, so that we are without any memoranda of presidential chair there have been few more entitled his own regarding what took place during his tenure to kindly remembrance than Samuel Pepys. of the office. The minute-books of the Society, how

ARCH. GEKIE ever, furnish some interesting particulars.

One of the undertakings of the Royal Society during the time that Pepys presided over its business COMPULSORY GREEK AT CAMBRIDGE. was the publication of the elaborately illustrated work of Francis Willughby, the “ Historia Piscium.” IT is earnestly to be desired that every member of It was a somewhat costly production, so that several the Senate who is on the side of the Studies and members of the Society agreed to subscribe for one Examinations Syndicate will record his vote in favour or more plates, which were to be supplied at the cost of their proposals on either Fridayor Saturday, of one guinea each. Pepys far surpassed all other March 3 and 4, between the hours of 1-3 p.m. or subscribers in his generosity, seeing that he paid for 5-7 p.m. no fewer than sixty plates. The book is appropriately The proposals of the syndicate have been in many dedicated to him, and when it was ready for issue places misrepresented. The committee which is the council, to mark its appreciation of his assist- opposing them heads its manifestoes " Defence of ance (June 30, 1686), “ ordered that Book of Classical Studies at Cambridge," but no one has yet Fishes, of the best paper, curiously bound in Turkey attacked these studies. It is true that the proposals leather, with an inscription of dedication therein, allow a modern language instead of either Greek or likewise five others bound also, be presented to the Latin, but every candidate must take one ancient President.” On the same occasion the following language, and whichever he elects to offer for the amusing entry was made on the minutes :-" Ordered Previous Examination he will have in the future to that the Society to encourage the measuring a Degree show a really respectable knowledge of that tongue of the Earth do give E. Halley 5ol., or fifty Books At present, as is demonstrated by the students of of Fishes (!) when he shall have measured a degree Newnham and Girton, and many others, and as letters to the satisfaction of Sir Christopher Wren, the in Nature have shown, a mere smattering of Greek President and Sir John Hoskyns.

There is no which can be "

got up." in a couple of months is record to show which alternative

the

future all that can be demanded in view of the existing state Astronomer Royal accepted.

of education in our public schools. Undoubtedly the most important event which Those who think no man can be cultivated withoccurred at the Royal Society during Pepys' term out Greek (they do not say the same about women) of office was the acceptance and publication of often forget that the Greeks, who are held to have Newton's immortal “ Principia." In the MS. been incomparable educators, dispensed entirely with journal-book of the Society under date April 28, 1686, the study of dead or foreign languages. They did it is recorded that Dr. Vincent“ presented the Society not educate their sons basis of ancient with a manuscript Treatise intituled Philosophiae languages, they educated them their own Naturalis Principia mathematica, and dedicated to language and their own literature. The Romans, the Society by Mr. Isaac Newton wherein he gives again, got on very well without studying dead a mathematical demonstration of the Copernican languages. It is true that the educated men in hypothesis, as proposed by Kepler, and makes out ancient Rome studied the Greek authors, but Greek all the phenomena of the celestial motions by the was to them a living language, and the intercourse only supposition of a gravitation towards the centre between the thinkers and the doers of classical times of the sun, decreasing as the square of the distances was at least as close as between the French and therefrom reciprocally. It was ordered that a letter | British of our own day. of thanks be wrote to Mr. Newton and that the The supporters of the present proposals are often printing of the book be refer'd to the consideration charged with encouraging undue specialisation. But of the Councell; in the mean time the book to be put what do we mean by specialisation? The term is into the hands of E. Halley, who is to make a report usually used to denote the study of one subject to thereof to the Councell.” On May 19, it was " ordered the exclusion of others. If this, definition be sound that Mr. Newton's book be printed forth with in a it is the advocates of what is called compulsory quarto of a fair letter, and that a letter be written Greek who are the culprits. A boy begins Latin, say, to hi to signifie the Societye's resolution, and to at eight or nine, and shortly afterwards takes up desire his opinion as to the print, volume, cutts and Greek, and for the next nine or ten years, at many so forth.” 'On June 30 the council ordered “that of our public schools, does comparatively little else. the President be desired to licence Mr. Newton's He has specialised to such an extent, and his book, dedicated to the Society:" Accordingly the intellect is so cramped and dulled by the process, that title-page of the famous quarto bears the licence in he not unfrequently fails to reach the low standard conspicuous print—" Imprimatur, S. Pepys, Reg. of the Previous Examination when he leaves school. Soc. Praeses, Julii 5, 1686."

Even if he has a real gift for classics he is often but Pepys held the office of president for two years, a narrow specialist. Fifty-five years ago a Mr. John and was succeeded on St. Andrew's Day, 1686, by Smith published in his “Sketches of Cantabs " an the Earl of Carbery, by whom he was named one of appreciation of the classical man of the middle of the the vice-presidents. Though not in any sense a man last century. “He seldom reads an English work, of science, he was distinguished among his con- and of the history of his native country is strangely, temporaries for his keen interest in scientific progress almost supernaturally, ignorant. Passing occurand his eager desire to acquire as much as he could rences do not affect him. He doesn't care how many of “natural knowledge. Though careful of his men are slaughtered on the banks of the Jhelum money, he could be generous where the interests of His heart is at Marathon, his sympathies with the science appealed to him. The absorbing character great Hannibal at Cannae." We have improved of his work at the Admiralty and the enthusiastic since then, but the type is not extinct. devotion with which he applied himself to it no doubt It is to be regretted that the proposals do little to prevented him from taking as active a share in the encourage science. It must distinctly be understood business of the Royal Society as he would have that the alternative to Greek or Latin is not science, but French or German. The papers on experimental into Latin, and even some whole. tales are similarly mechanics and other parts of elementary physics, and translated. A synopsis is given at the end of the the paper on elementary inorganic chemistry are, with volume of each of the hundred and forty-six tales, a three other papers, alternatives of which two must feature that will prove of great use to the student. be taken.

There are one origin-myth and three or four cultureThe case for additional recognition of science has | myths; a large number of the stories refer to an inbeen put so well by a distinguished naturalist who dividual called Nihançan, whose doings were frewas a member of the syndicate, and one of the three quently of a reprehensible nature. No. I of vol. vii. who did not sign the report, that we cannot do better of the same series contains a collection of forty folk. than quote his words. “The real substitute for Greek, tales of the Osage by Dr. Dorsey, who admits that this and the only worthy substitute as it seemed to him, was collection does not adequately represent the traditions science. If they are not to meet art let them at least of the tribe. The Osage are of Siouan stock, and are meet truth. Let the boys know the place man had now degenerating rapidly, as they are very lazy and in nature. It seemed to him shocking that they much addicted to drink; further, the use of the peyote, should turn out hundreds of men every year who or mescal, among them is rapidly increasing, and for had not the faintest idea of what was going on in these reasons there was great difficulty in engaging nature, in combustion or chemical decomposition, the attention of the old men for any length of time. and who knew nothing of the relation of man to the In No. 20,“ The Rabbit and the Picture," we have a animal world."

tar-baby episode. An abstract is given of each tale. The present issue does not lie between the friends A third collection of folk-tales by Dr. Dorsey is of science and the friends of letters. Nearly one- entitled “Traditions of the Arikara "; these were third of the classical staff at Cambridge are on the collected under the auspices of the Carnegie Instituside of reform, and amongst them are many of the tion at Washington, and the eighty-two tales conmen who have built up the present classical tripos stitute Publication 17 of that institution. The until it is amongst the biggest of the Cambridge Arikara belong to the Caddoan linguistic stock, and schools. A majority of the university professors and were formerly closely allied with the Skidi band of readers other than those in mathematics and natural | Pawnee. Like the Skidi, they constructed the earthscience are on the side of the syndicate. The head lodge, and their social organisation and religious masters are half-heartedly with the syndicate, a ceremonies in general were also similar. An examinmajority of the Head Masters' Conference and the ation of the tales shows, as might be expected, many Head Masters' Association desiring the exemption points of resemblance with those of the Skidi (cf. from Greek of candidates for honours in mathematics Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee,” by G. A. Dorsey, and science. A very large majority of the assistant Memoirs of the Am. Folk-Lore Soc., vol. viii., 1904), masters in secondary schools are in favour of the but it is apparent that the mythology of the Arikara change, and it must not be forgotten that the contains many elements not found among the Skidi; assistant masters have a far more intimate experience possibly it will be found that there are Mandan of the actual teaching of the boys than have the head affinities, but material for this comparison is not yet masters.

available. Two tales narrate the creation of the A certain number of the resident members of the earth by the Wolf and Lucky-Man, and the creation Senate have declared their intention of not voting of people by Spiders through the assistance of the Some of these are tutors and coaches, who, whil Wolf. 'The variant tales of the emergence of the agreeing with the general principles of the report. Arikara from the earth are undoubtedly original. In fear that the proposed examination will be so difficult several tales a poor boy is a culture hero; in one case that their pupils will fail to pass. Amongst the he was the son of a woman who climbed to heaven residents who intend to vote there is now a majority and married a star; his greatest work was freeing in favour of the report. If the matter rested upon the land of four destructive monsters. The Sun-Boy the Cambridge vote there is little doubt which way made long life possible after a series of contests with it would go. The result, however, rests on the vote his powerful father. Another boy, Burnt-Hands, of a large electorate of which the resident members saved his tribe from despotism and famine, and form roughly one-tenth. From the fact that the furnished by his life a perpetual example to the poor committee for supporting the proposals has issued of the Arikara of the value of honest and long-cona very long list of supporters, and from the fact that tinued effort. Some tales are rite-myths, as they refer the committee opposed to the proposals has thought to the origin of a ceremony or rite, or to incidents it more politic to publish but a short, select list, connected with a ceremony. In one tale is found an there is a strong feeling of confidence that reform interesting account of the origin of the well known may this time win. But the duty of voting cannot ring and javelin game of the plains, which is really be too strongly urged. A single vote may decide the part of the ceremonial calling of the buffalo (bison);

the tale also relates the origin of the buffalo dance.

Eleven tales relate to animals; in all of them the FOLK-TALES OF PLAINS INDIANS.

coyote plays a prominent part, always as a

trickster, and committing deeds that generally result A

NOTICEABLE addition to the literature of disastrously to himself. Several are ordinary tradi

American folk-tales has been made by two recent tions, in some of which the supernatural crops up. publications of the anthropological series of the Field Abstracts are given of all the tales. Columbian Museum Publications. Vol. v. of this Another memoiron folk-tales, entitled valuable series is devoted to the traditions of the Mythology of the Wichita," by Dr. Dorsey, forms Arapaho by Drs. G. A. Dorsey and A. L. Kroeber, Publication No. 21 of the Carnegie Institution. The collected under the auspices respectively of the Field Wichita are a small and dwindling tribe of Caddoan Columbian Museum and of the American Museum of stock who differ somewhat from the surrounding Natural History. The authors worked independently, plains tribes; both men and women tattoo, they are and in many instances collected variants of the same very moral and good natured, and their home life is tale; but they have published all as they were collected extremely well regulated. The pursuit of the bison rather than amalgamate the two versions of the one was secondary to that of agriculture, and, as among Irgend. Certain incidents in the tales are translated the Pawnee, many of their most important ceremonies

issue.

mean

" The

were concerned with the cultivation of their fields. All the details of the grass-lodges were symbolic. The social organisation was by villages, at the head of each of which was a chief and a subchief. Election to the chieftainship was never through heredity alone; it was possible for the youngest and meanest-born boy. of the village to rise to this position through bravery, generosity; and kindness. In general, the gods of the Wichita are spoken of as dreams." The sixty tales refer to the first period or Creation, the second period or transformation, and the third period or the present. A few tunes are given by F. R. Burton. Three long Wichita tales by the same indefatigable observer will be found in the Journal of American Folk-lore (vol. xv. p. 215, xvi. p. 160, xvii. p. 153). Legends of ancient time were related that the listeners might realise that evil creatures and monsters and evil spirits no longer exist; they were removed from the earth and their destructive powers taken from them by Wonderful Man, who knew that the world was changing, so that human beings might be human beings, and animals exist as animals to serve as food for man. But, above all, the value of many stories for the young lay in the lesson taught by example

told whenever the men assemble during the winter months, but never during the summer, or rather during those months when snakes are visible, for åt such times the Coyote-Star directs the Snake-Star to tell the snakes to bite those who talk about the coyote. In one group of tales there is a marriage between humans and animals, or the transformation of a man into an animal.

The first volume of the University of California Publications, American archæology and ethnology contains a study of the Hupa by Mr. P. E. Goddani The Hupa Indians occupy the beautiful lower valley of the Trinity River; so secluded was it that sixty years ago the news of the coming of the white man had not reached the inhabitants. The people seem to have lived a simple, peaceable life; their social organisation was very simple, but more information is required. A family consisted of a man, his wife or wives, his sons and their wives, the unmarried and half-married daughters and unmarried or widowed brothers and sisters of the man and of his wife. There appears to have been a classificatory system of relationship. The next social unit was the village; a man lived and died where he was bom; the women married into other villages. Each village was ruled by the richest man. There seem to have been no formalities in the government of a village or tribe. There was a deep undercurrent of religious feeling, and a great reverence for the spoken word.

The texts are word for word translations and anglicised versions of fourteen myths and tales, and thirty-seven texts relating to the dances and feasts, the majority of which are formulæ. The latter are of especial value, as it is usually so difficult to get the exact words of a magical formula. Thirty excellent heliotype plates embellish the volume.

Mr. Goddard and the university authorities are alike to be congratulated on this excellent piece of work, which augurs well for the success of the new department of the University of California.

A. C. H.

[graphic]

A NATURALIST'S JOURNAL. Fig. 1.-Hupa woman soaking acorn meal on the river shore. The meal THIS daily journal of an observant field-naturalist

is placed in a crater of sand, water is heated in the basket to the right may be heartily welcomed by every lover of by dropping hot stones into it, and the hot water is ladled out by means country life and country scenes. It is true the style of a basket.cup and poured over the meal until it loses its bitter taste.

is somewhat scrappy and staccato, but this is to a

great extent unavoidable in a work of this nature, that bravery and greatness depended solely upon and is, after all, no great drawback, although we individual effort, and that there might befall him the think it might have been somewhat modified during same longevity and good fortune as was possessed by

the revision for press. Mr. Robinson, who is the hero of the tale.

already no stranger to the reading public, has the In the handsome volume which contains the ninety good fortune to be a resident in Norfolk, the county traditions of the Skidi Pawnee collected by Dr. par excellence of redundant bird-life and of Dorsey, there are fifteen plates and some interesting

enthusiastic bird-lovers; and he is therefore practically ethnological and explanatory notes. The village was assured of a number of sympathetic readers, for every the basis of the organisation of the Skidi, no trace of

dweller in Norfolk likes to be acquainted with all tha! the clan having been found. Each village possessed

is written about his own district. a sacred bundle, and marriage was endogamous in To the general reader the most attractive feature each village. The religion of the Pawnee reached a of the book will almost certainly be the large series higher development than that of any other of the of exquisite reproductions from photographs of anima! plains tribes, and its ceremonial side was especially and plant life, taken, we infer, by the author him developed among the Skidi. Each bundle ceremony

self. Where all are of such high excellence, it is and each dance was accompanied, not only by its difficult to make a selection; and the illustration ritual, but by its tale of origin, and all of these are we present to our readers as a sample must not be regarded as personal property. Dr. Dorsey makes regarded as either better or worse than its felloas. some interesting remarks upon the ownership and

It has been chosen on account of its depicting an telling of the tales. Of these some are cosmogonic; interesting phase of bird-life. a number tell of boy heroes in which the path to re

As a rule, the author has nothing specially new to nown is due to fixity of purpose and a humble spirit. Numerous tales relate to the tricky coyote; these are

1 "The Country Day by Day." By E. K. Robinson. Pp. xix+

illustrated. (London: W. Heinemann, 1905.) Price 6s.

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