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laid-a pure white egg, deposited in a nest which consists of EXPEDITION.1

a few angular fragments of stone raked together on a

bare ledge of the cliff. AFTER getting free from the winter quarters in the

While at Buenos Aires Mr. Bruce arranged for the South Orkneys on November 23, 1903, the Scotia left Argentine Government to take over and continue the for the Falkland Islands and Buenos Aires to get into com. meteorological and magnetic observatory at Scotia Bay, munication with home and obtain a fresh stock of coals and South Orkneys. On January 21, 1904, the Scotia left

Buenos Aires with three Argentine men of science on board in addition to her own staff, and on February 22 they were left on the South Orkneys under the leadership of Mr. Mossman, who had consented to remain for a further period of twelve months.

This season the distribution of the pack ice was

very different from that of the previous year. Almost no ice was met with near the Orkneys, and very little until reaching the Antarctic circle in about 32° W. long. In the beginning of March the previous year's southern record, and also that of Ross in 1843, was passed, but in 72° 18' S. 17° 59' W. a sudden change of conditions was met with. The water suddenly shallowed from about 2500 fathoms to 1131, and at the same time land was reported ahead. Steaming towards this we found a lofty ice-barrier stretching in a north-easterly and south-westerly direction, effectually barring further progress to the south. Close, heavy pack ice prevented a nearer approach than two miles. This barrier was traced for a distance of 150 miles to

the south-west. In 73° 30' S. 21° 30' Fig. 1.-Gough Island, showing hanging valley truncated by shore cliff.

W., a depth of 159 fathoms was met with, the barrier being then two and a half

miles off. In 74° 1' S. 22° 0' W., the provisions. During the ship's absence a party of six men Scotia was nipped by the ice in a heavy N.E. gale, and was was left at Scoria Bay under the charge of Mr. R. C. preparing to spend the winter there; but on March 13 the Mossman to carry on the systematic meteorological, mag- floe broke up and the ship was released. During the six netic, and biological work.

days' imprisonment collections of the marine fauna were got Perhaps the most interesting discovery made by the from a depth of 161 fathoms, and a splendid view was obsummer party was the egg of the Cape pigeon (Daption tained of the inland ice. Although no actual bare rock was



[graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]

seen, there can be no doubt we were really on the edge of the Antarctic continent-off“ Coats Land,' as it has been named after Mr. James Coats, jun., and Major Andrew Coats, the two chief subscribers to the expedition. In this connection we quote the words of Mr. Bruce :-“I have been asked by several if I am sure that this great icebarrier was really part of the Antarctic continent. I have THE EARLY HISTORY OF SEED-BEARING no hesitation in saying 'yes,' and my reasons are these : PLANTS, AS RECORDED IN THE CARBONIAll our soundings between 60° and 70° S. were 2500 to 2700

FEROUS FLORA.' fathoms. In 72° S. they shoaled to about 2300, fifty miles from the barrier. Thirty-five miles from the barrier they A LARGE number of the fern-like

fronds of Carboniferous shoaled to 1400 and 1200 fathoms, and two miles from the

age, including many whole genera, as Neuropteris. barrier to 160 fathoms. This alone should answer the Alethopteris, Callipteris, Linopteris, &c., have never been question in the way which I have done. Secondly, from found to offer any satisfactory indications of a fern-like the vertical cliff of ice 100 to 150 feet in height which

fructification. Some suspicion was thus awakened that such bordered the ocean, the ice rose high inland in undulating fronds may have belonged to plants other than true ferns. slopes and faded away in height and distance into the sky.

Positive evidence first came from the anatomical side. It was impossible to estimate the height of this field of The vegetative structure of Lyginodendron Oldhamiamas ice—the true inland ice of Antarctica-but probably it was

completely worked out, chiefly by Williamson, and proved to many thousands of feet. Thirdly, seals and birds, which present a combination of filicinean characters with these toi up till now had become few in numbers, were seen in cycadaceous gymnosperms. Similar results were attard myriads-penguins, especially emperors, many petrels, and in other genera, as Heterangium. Medullosa, Calamopitos terns swarming in every direction—the inhabitants of the and Protopitys, and hence the class Cycadofilices was founded beaches and rocky cliffs of some actual land not very far

to embrace these apparently intermediate forms, Decisive distant."

evidence as to the fructification was first obtained in 1913. After the escape from the ice the Scotia turned north- when it was shown by Prof. F. W. Oliver, in collaboracion eastwards to continue the oceanographical survey of the

with the lecturer, that the seed Lagenostoma Lomaxi agreed Weddell Sea, and had some very successful deep-sea

so closely in certain structural features with the anciana trawling in high southern latitudes--one haul in 71° 22' S. Lyginodendron Oldhamium as to leave no doubt that the one 16° 34' W. (1410 fathoms) yielding more than sixty species belonged to the other. Observations on other Lagenostomas of animals. Ross's reported deep of 4000 fathoms no bottom support this conclusion and show that the seeds were borne was shown conclusively not to exist, the whole Weddell Sea

on modified (ronds. It thus appears that the family Lygine

dendræ consisted of seed-bearing plants, allied to the cycads, but I taining filicinean characters their foliage was of a sphenopteroid Uy

In another extensive family that of the Neuropterideæ, præcises analogous conclusions have been reached. Here, too, the anatomical evidences indicated a position intermediate between ferns and eyesda In the case of Neuropteris hétrophylla it has been proved by Mr. Kidston that large seeds, referred by him to the genus Rhabdocarpus of Goeppert and Berger, were borne on the frond. There are reasons Tor believing that Trigonocarpon was the seed of Alethopteris, and M. Grand'Eury, on the ground of extensive

observations on the distribution or Fig. 3.-Weddell Seal-off Coats Land.

fronds and seeds, is led to conclul

that the Neuropteridea generalls being apparently an almost level plain submerged between were seed-bearing plants, of cycadean affinity. 2400 and 2700 fathoms.

It has been proposed to group these fern-like seed-plants, Pursuing a track northwards along the meridian of which in Carboniferous times probably exceeded the ferns 10° W., although encountering very heavy weather between themselves in number, under the name Pieridospermer. 45° and 55° S. lat., some very interesting soundings were Their relation to the fern-phylum is evident from many obtained demonstrating the extension of the mid-Atlantic points in their structure, apart from the relatively un. ridge southwards as far as 52° S. lat. The diatom ooze important external characters. band extends between 48° and 58° S. ; to the south of this is Other seed-bearing plants of the Carboniferous tora bure blue-mud, the detritus of the Antarctic ice-sheets, to the long been known, notably the Cordaiteze, great trres with north, globigerina ooze.

large simple leaves, totally different from the PtendoOn April 22 a landing was effected with considerable spermeæ in habit, and with little indication of fern-like difficulty on Gough Island, a previously unexplored outlier structure. The fructifications also are of a more advanred of the Tristan da Cunha group. This apparently entirely character than those of the pteridosperms. In the structure volcanic island is richly clad with vegetation, but the ex- of the seeds, however, and in some anatomical points, a tremely precipitous nature of the ground prevented any certain affinity, though a distant one, with that family is extensive survey being made, though two new species of suggested. It is probable that the Cordaiteze ultimately plants were obtained-a Cotula and an Asplenium ; and sprang from the same stock as the Pteridospermea, though amongst the birds two entirely distinct and new species of at a very remote period. On the other hand, there is reason finches. Shallow water collections were got off the shore : to believe that the Coniferæ, appearing at the clase of the by means of the dredge and trap. Between Gough Island Palæozoic period, were related to the Cordaitea. It is thus and Cape Town several soundings were taken between the indicated as probable that the gymnosperms generally were parallels of 399 and 40°.

in a wide sense, of monophyletic origin, as having been ultimately derived from a common stock allied to the ferns;

in a narrower sense they may be termed polyphyletic, 25 On February 8 of the present year, the Argentine sloop having sprung from this common stock at different points Uruguay returned to Buenos Aires from the South Ork- Althougn, as now know, certain of the Palxozir neys, having brought back safely Mr. Mossman and his lycopods had likewise attained to the production of a seedparty, and landed a fresh staff there. The station is being like fructification, there is at present no satisfactory evidence continued for meteorological and magnetic work, and a for connecting the members of this phylum with any of the complete outfit of self-recording magnetic instruments has groups of seed-bearing plants which have come down to cu been installed. This work is in connection with the own day. systematic magnetic survey of Argentina which is at pre- 1 Abstract of the Wilde Lecture delivered before the Manchester Literary sent being undertaken.

and Philosophical Society on February 28 by Dr. D. H. Scott, FRS



FORESTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. ing and tempering the effect of cold, dry winds, but also in

increasing the available supply of moisture in the soil. We have lately received five publications from the United The bulletin is practically a condensed volume on sylvi

States Bureau of Forestry, viz. Bulletins Nos. 46, culture. It shows the most suitable species for western 32 and 53, together with Circulars Nos. 30 and 31. Bulletin Kansas, and the site, soil, method of planting and subseSc. 46 is entitled " The Basket Willow," by Mr. William quent treatment, together with the rate of growth and F. Hubbard. The author has evidently made a special possible returns, are all gone into in a most thorough and

workmanlike fashion. Plate iv. in the bulletin shows a row of Russian mulberry, and illustrates how the proper treatment of this species might be turned to the greatest use by the farmer. The above row extends more than 20 rods, and contains 200 trees 3 inches in diameter and 20 feet in height. Its total value, if converted into posts and stakes, would amount to 36.40 dollars, and, as the author remarks, a well-cared-for plantation at this place would evidently be a profitable investment.

Bulletin No. 53, entitled “The Chestnut in Southern Maryland,” is by Mr. Raphael Zon. This species is evidently of great commercial importance in Maryland. It is apparently used principally for railway ties and telephone poles. As the result of his investigations, the author has arrived at the conclusion that pure coppice is the sylvicultural system to which the chestnut is best suited. Among other things, the report brings out clearly the difference between trees grown from seed and those from the stool. It is interesting to note that coppiced trees have thicker bark than trees from seed. The author further finds, from careful measurements and observations, that coppiced trees grow faster than seed trees during the first twenty years, and finally vield better and earlier returns than trees from seed. The illustrations reproduced show the interesting fact observed by the author that the furrows in the bark of coppice chestnut are straight, while those in the bark of chestnut from seed show the characteristic spiral twist. The report also contains many tables, showing the rate of growth and dimensions of trees from seed and coppice at

various ages. Fig. 1.-Twisted Furrows in Bark of Chestnut from Seed.

Circular No. 30, by Mr. Gifford Pinchot, is a description

of an exhibit of forest planting in woodlots at the Louisiana study of willow cultivation from every conceivable point of

Purchase Exposition. The exhibit is intended to illustrate view. At the outset, he gives the general history of willow

the different methods of planting with different species and culture, together with the distribution and characteristics

mixtures suitable for the different parts of the United of the willow. This is followed by a most interesting account of willow-growing in the United States from its commencement down to the present time. The present practice is fully described, and much valuable advice is given, showing where improvements can be made on the existing methods of planting and tending the willow holts, choice of species, harvesting, cutting, sorting and packing the rods. The paragraphs which deal with expenditure and returns in American willow culture should go a long way to encourage and increase the development of what i is at the present time a somewhat neglected industry in the United States.

The Bureau of Forestry is actively engaged in carrying out field experiments which are yielding, and will yield in the future, information of the utmost importance to willowgrowers. The bulletin is not entirely confined to willowgrowing in the United States, as the author gives a most interesting account of the development of scientific willowculture in Europe, which he adds as an object lesson for the guidance of the American cultivator. The manufacture ol willow ware in the United States is an important feature of the bulletin, which is replete with suggestions for both grower and basket-maker. 'A chapter on insects injurious to the basket-willow has been added, by Mr. F. H. Chittenden. A useful appendix at the end of the bulletin gives the production and consumption of willow in the l'nited States.

Forest planting in western Kansas, by Mr. Royal R. Kellogg. constitutes Bulletin No. 52. The object of the paper is to show the species of tree best adapted for western

Fig. 2.--Sraight Furrows in Bark of Copp'ce Chestnut. Kansas, and the methods of treatment which have proved most successful. It seems, from the nature of the climate, that forestry on large areas is impracticable, but neverthe- States. There are in all forty-eight plots, representing less, with an intelligent selection of species and a proper different regions to which the various mixtures and density method of treatment, it may be possible to raise sufficient of planting are best adapted. This should form a valuable timber to exercise a marked effect upon the landscape, and guide to sylviculturists all over the United States. to supply wood for domestic purposes. Among other Circular No. 31, by the same author, is a description of things, the bulletin shows the enormous importance and a forest nursery exhibit at the above exposition. The influence tree-growth has on agriculture, not only in break- suitable form of bed, different methods of sowing


various kinds of shelter screens are described. The different regions of the world, with a consideration of the coniferous and deciduous nurseries are for obvious reasons influence of their physical features. A more detailed knowtreated separately.

ledge of the geography of a selected region (for 1905 and This batch of literature gives some idea of the value of 1906, Europe). (3) Economic and Commercial Geography the work which the United States Bureau of Forestry is The economic growth of the different regions of the world, doing, and, on the whole, its value to the country cannot and the main lines of commerce and communication by land be over-estimated.

and sea in past and present times. A more detailed knowledge of a selected region (for 1905 and 1906. Europe),

(4) Cartography.—The construction and use of maps. A PROGRESSIVE BUDDHISM.1

general knowledge of the methods of exploratory surveying :

plane tabling, latitudes 'and azimuths by the sun, latitude THE handsomely got-up, and well-printed review, Buddhism and azimuth traverses, route traverses and compass sketch is an interesting sign of the times.

ing. Heights by barometer and boiling-point thermometer. community is apparently realising that it is advisable, so far The candidate will be examined orally and practically on as possible, to bring itself into line with modern develop

maps and on the ordinary surveying instruments ments, and to the monthly periodicals appearing in Ceylon,

candidate who can produce a sketch made by himself of a Japan, and (strange to say) San Francisco, has now added

route traversed by compass, and checked by observations this quarterly journal appearing in Burma.

for latitude and azimuth with the necessary computations The present venture is edited by Ananda Maitreya, the

will be examined thereon and will receive special credit for name, in religion, of a Scotchman who has entered the Buddhist Order ; and he has secured the cooperation for this good workin(5) History of Geographical Discovery. The

outlines of the history of geographical discovery, with special number not only of Indian, Burmese, and Sinhalese, but also

questions on a selected region or period (for 1905 and 1906. of American and English writers. In the editor's article on “ The New. Civilisation," he principal races of mankind, their migrations and present

The Fifteenth Century). (6) Elements of Ethnology.-The maintains that the new civilisation which is beginning, in a

distribution. way that no ancient civilisation did, to permeate mankind should be heartily welcomed by Buddhists as being based on

LONDON.–At the annual meeting of University College that conception of the inviolable sequence of cause and effect, on February 22, the following resolution, moved by Lord of the reign of law, which was, indeed, the main tenet in the

Reay, on behalf of the council, was unanimously adopted :teaching of the Buddha. And he ventures on a glowing That the Bill now submitted, entitled "A Bill for Transprophesy of what the future of humanity will be when this ferring University College, London, to the University of conception of law, claimed by him as a special mark of

London and for other matters connected therewith and for Buddhist teaching, shall have worked out its effect in the Amending the University of London Act, 1898," be and the daily lives of men by an increased deference to knowledge,

same is hereby approved subject to such additions, alteraand to the men of knowledge, by the growth of a spirit of

tions, and variations as Parliament may think fit to make wide toleration and humanity. The courageous optimism

therein. of this article is in striking contrast with ideas usually held about Buddhist teaching ; but it is interesting to see how DR. MICHELE CANTONE, of Pavia, is to succeed Prof. E. thoroughly the party represented by this newest Buddhist Villari as professor of physics and director of the physical journal is in sympathy with the teachings and the spirit of laboratory at Naples. At Göttingen, Prof. F. Dolezalek has science.

been appointed head of the department of physical and Dr. Paul Carus, of Chicago, follows with an article on electrical chemistry. Dr. H. Kneser has been appointed " The Philosophy of Buddhism," in which he claims that the professor of mathematics at Breslau. Dr. Ludwig Claise latest, as well as the earliest, Buddhism, rests upon the be- late professor of chemistry at Kiel, has been appointed lief in a universal reign of law, and on the idea that nothing honorary professor at Berlin, and Dr. Karl Stöckl professor is but everything becomes. Mr. Chandra Das has an in

of mathematics and physics at Passau. teresting historical paper on the foundation of Lhassa, and

In his last report President Eliot recommends, says Mr. Tau Seng Ko another on the introduction of Buddhism into Burma, each of them writing with special expert know

Science, the collection of 500,000l. as an endowment for the ledge of his subject. There are shorter articles by other college of Harvard University, and it is said that the alumins writers, paragraphs of notes and news, and some scholarly

are making efforts to collect this sum before the next conreviews. The journal would be useful to those who desire

mencement day. The class of 1880 expects to contribuir to follow the tendencies in the forward movement among the

20,000l, on the occasion of its twenty-fifth anniversary. Buddhist communities; whether it is entitled to speak for all

From the same source we learn that Mr. Andrew Carnrgir Buddhists is another matter.

has given to the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ar Tror 25,000i. toward rebuilding the main building which was

burned last June. He has also given 20,0001. to Tulis UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

College for the erection of a library building.

The committee appointed by the Prince of Wales, 25

president of King Edward's Hospital Fund, to inquire inta CAMBRIDGE.-Mr. A. W. Hill, of King's College, has

the financial relations between the hospitals and medica been appointed University lecturer in botany until Michael- schools has now issued its report. The committee has formel mas, 1909.

it is to be noted with satisfaction, the opinion that a broad The degree of Sc.D. honoris causa is to be conferred on

line of distinction ought to be drawn between the per Prof. E. B. Tylor, of Oxford, at a congregation held to-day.

liminary and intermediate studies of a medical student on At the same congregation Mr. J. W. Willis, director of the

one hand, and the final studies on the other; and that whils Botanical Gardens, Peradeniya, Ceylon, will proceed by the final studies can be pursued with advantage only wittum proxy to the same degree.

the walls of a hospital, the earlier scientific studies har Mr. C. Shearer, advanced student of Trinity College, has no real relation with a hospital, and are pursued mor been re-nominated to the university table at the zoological

properly in an institution of university character. Tto station at Naples.

committee expresses satisfaction that the statutes of the The Board of Geographical Studies has published the

University of London direct the Senate to " use its ber following schedule for the special examination in geography endeavours whenever practicable to secure such como and for part i. of the examination for the diploma in courses of instruction for internal medical students in it geography :-(1) Physical Geography.-Form and motions

preliminary and intermediate portion of their studies un of the earth. Elementary climatology and oceanography, appointed or recognised teachers' at one or more centres. Typical forms of land configuration, their distribution and

To do this effectively will mean a great expenditure, and modes of formation. (2) Historical and Political Geography, the Senate of the university is appealing for funds in - The historical development and political partition of the assist it in carrying out the work. The conclusies 1 "Buddhism." An Illustrated Quarterly Review. Vol. i., No. 4

arrived at by the committee appointed by the Prince of Wales Pp. xxii+r7o. (Rangoon : Hauthrawaddy Press, 1904.)

should prove of advantage both to the hospitals and to the




I'50 1'54

university. The hospital should be a school only in the two spots, and was found to persist at other parts of the sense of being a school of applied science where general round bladder. principles of science are applied to a specific technical Employing Waller's A. B. C. method, in which a threepurpose. But if the medical student is to be no longer way switch is employed so that the anode and kathode of the provided with instruction in scientific fundamentals at the exciting current can be separately interrogated, it is found hospitals, there must be forthcoming-if London is to remain that the blaze at each pole is post-kathodic or antidrome. a great medical and surgical centre-funds enough to pro- The blaze lasts about two minutes; it is often diphasic or vide other institutions where this teaching may be given. triphasic; a single break shock with coil at 5000 – (Berne University College and King's College have long done work scale) gave +0.0125 volt, then -0.0110, then +0.0010. of this kind, but the accommodation which they are able The bladder was washed out and filled with salt soluto provide is quite inadequate for the instruction of the tion, and the same effect obtained ; a piece was snipped off students of all the hospitals, and other colleges are required and electrodes applied to mucous and serous surfaces, and where general education of a university standard may be still antidrome blaze obtained, though there was a tendency obtained.

to exhibit the usual mucous to serous blaze.

The simplicity of structure of the gall bladder-a sphere

having a single row of columnar epithelium on the mucous SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

interior surounded by layers of smooth muscle fibre cells—

may account for the large and definite blaze-currents obLONDON.

tained, but why the cells should exhibit negative polarisation, Royal Society, January 26.—" On the Comparison of the antidrome rather than homodrome or positive polarisation, Platinum Scale of Temperature with the Normal Scale at is not yet apparent. Temperatures between 444° and – 190° C., with Notes on Constant Temperatures below the Melting-point of Ice." Entomological Society. February 1.-Mr. F. Merrifield, By Prol. Morris W. Travers, F.R.S., and A. G. C. Gwyer. president, in the chair.-Exhibitions : -Specimens of Oligota

The authors conclude that, as might be expected, it is granaria found in a granary at Holborn, the only other possible to apply the parabolic formula of Callendar and localities reported hitherto being Shoe Lane, London, and Griffiths to the re-calculation of the differences between the Scarborough: H. St. J. Donisthorpe.--An Erycinid platinum scale of temperature and the scale of the gas butterfly Mesosemia eumene

pinned in its natural ihermometer, though the range through which it is ap- position of rest to show its resemblance to the head of a plicable, and value of the constant o. precludes the possi- small mammal, such as a mouse : W. J. Kaye.--A variety bility of employing it except for interpolation. A standard

of the female of Lycaena melanops named by him scale of temperature, based on Callendar's three fixed points,

wheeleri : Dr. T. A. Chapman. As using standard wire, and taking 1.5 for the value of a

aberration it was interesting, but it was of value as would lead to absurd results at low temperatures; and the showing that the position in the genus for long accorded converse may be said of the authors' own observations. The to the species, whether by accident or design, close to the results referred to in this paper may be summed up as

Arion-Euphemus group, was correct. The considerable exfollows :

tension of the blue in this specimen showed up certain black Nature of gas thermometer.

spots on the upper surface of both upper and lower wings, Observer.


strictly similar to these characteristics of the ArionConstant pressure air (0° to 444") Callendar and Griffiths Constant volume nitrogen(-23°104459 Chappuis and Harker

Euphemus group.-A living & H. defoliaria, taken as late Constant volume nitrogen standard

as February 1, at rest on north side of oak-tree, and another ised by constant pressure air at 444

taken January 28 in the same wood at Bexley. A (500 10 1000)

I'51-1'49 Constant volume hydrogen (- 190° to

Notodonta ziczac x N. dromedarius, with two 34') Travers and Gwyer

hybrids, the colour of the hybrids being that of drome

darius, while the markings were those of ziczac : F. February 2.-“ On the 'Blaze-currents' of the Gall

Enock.-A living specimen of Acridium aegyptium, L., Bladder of the Frog." By Alice M. Waller. Communicated found in a cauliflower in Bloomsbury, and probably imby Dr. Augustus D. Waller, F.R.S. (From the Physi-ported from Italy: 0. E. Janson.-Two specimens of ological Research Laboratory of the University of London.) Malachius barnvillei, Puton, captured by Mr. Thouless at This investigation was made in continuation of Dr.

Hunstanton, Norfolk, in June, 1899, a recent addition to Waller's work on blaze-currents. A blaze-current, as defined the British list : G. C. Champion.-0 and specimens of by Dr. Waller in previous communications to the Royal Machimus rusticus, Mg., a rare Asilid, taken in cop. at Society and in his lectures on the signs of life, is a current Freshwater, Isle of Wight, on August 13, 1903 : H. W. of action, an electric current aroused in living tissues by Andrews.-A $ example of Panorpa cognata taken at stimulus; the term “ blaze" has reference to the vitality of

Byfleet Canal on August 23, 1904: W. J. Lucas. The the tissue, to a chemical exchange going on within it; a insect occurs at Folkestone, and is said to be found in the muscle at rest is smouldering, a muscle in action is blazing. New Forest. It is a little difficult at times to identify the Dr. Waller's apparatus and method of work were employed ; alone, but Mr. K. J. Morton also had identified the specimen the apparatus consists essentially of a keyboard containing exhibited as P. cognata. For comparison he also exhibited four keys, opening respectively to an induction coil, a com- 99 of P. communis and P. germanica.---Papers :--A pensator, the object to be studied, and a galvanometer or revision of the genus Criocephalus, with notes on the electrometer. Any accidental current in the object is com- habits of Asemum striatum and Criocephalus ferus : Dr. D. pensated so that the galvanometer key can be opened Sharp, F.R.S., and T. G. Smith.—Another entomological without altering the zero, then the object is stimulated by a excursion to Spain (with descriptions of two new species of single break induction shock, the galvanometer key is Hemiptera by Dr. O. M. Reuter) : Dr. T. A. Chapman opened, and the after-effect observed.

and G. C. Champion.-On the matrivorous habit of the As seen in previous work by this method, the direction of species of Heterogynis, Ramb., and on the pupal suspenblaze-current varies in different living objects or tissues, e.g. sion of Thais : Dr. T. A. Chapman.-Notes on New in a plant the blaze-current is either post-anodic or homo. Zealand Lepidoptera : E. Meyrick, F.R.S. drome or it runs from younger to older tissue, in the crystalline lens from anterior to posterior surface, in skin from within Zoological Society, February 7.-Mr. Howard Saunders, outwards. The tissues and organs of the frog were systematic- vice-president, in the chair.--A second collection of fishes ally examined, and it was found that the liver gave responses made by Mr. S. L. Hinde in the Kenya District of East either antidrome or from surface to hilum, and the gall Africa : G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. Examples of five bladder gave surprisingly large electrical variations, as much species were contained in the collection, three of which as 1/10 volt, always antidrome, in a way that one is accus- were new to science.-On some points in the anatomy of a tomed to regard as due to polarisation currents in non- theriodont reptile : Dr. R. Broom.-Field-notes on the living matter. These polarisation currents were proved to mammals of Southern Cameroons and the Benito : G. L. be physiological by their abolition on submitting the organ Bates.-A collection of Heterocera from the Fiji Islands : to strong chloroform, boiling or electrocution by tetanisa- G. T. Bethune-Baker. Of the species enumerated eleven tion, The effect is local, it can be destroyed by tetanus at were new to science.-A contribution to the knowledge of

Harker ...


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