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WATKINS & DONCASTER,

PHENIX
ASSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED.

FIRE OFFICE.
19 LOMBARD ST., E.C., and 57 CHARING CROSS, S.W.

ESTABLISHED 1782.
Moderate Rates. Absolute Security. Bloctrio
Ligbting Rules Supplied. Liberal Loss Settlements.

Prompt Payment of Claims.
LOSSES PAID OVER £86,000,000.

Naturalists and Manufacturers of
CABINETS AND APPARATUS
FOR ENTOMOLOGY, BIRDS' EGGS AND SKINS, AND ALL

BRANCHES OF NATURAL HISTORY.
SPECIAL SHOW-ROOM FOR CABINETS.
N.B.- For Excellence and Superiority of Cabinets and Apparatus, refer.
ences are permitted to distinguished patrons, Museums, Colleges, &c.
A LARGE STOCK OF INSECTS, BIRDS' EGGS AND SKINS,
SPECIALITY.-Objects for Nature Study, Drawing

Classes, &c.
Birds, Mammals, &c., Preserved and Mounted by First-class

Workmen true to Nature.
All Books and Publications on Natural History supplied.
36 STRAND, LONDON, W.C.

(Five Doors from Charing Cross.) Our Catalogue (96 pp.) Post free on application.

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ALBERT EDWARD JAMRACH

(Late CHARLES JAMRACH),

NATURALIST, 180 ST. GEORGE STREET EAST. Implements of Savage Warfare, Idols, Sacred Masks, Peruvian Portery,

Netsukis China, Lacquers, Gongs, Shells, and other Curios

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ATLAS OF

MICROSCOPICAL PETROGRAPHY, now being issued in Twelve Monthly Parts, each Part containing Four Fine

Hall-Tone Plates, and also Four actual Rock Sections. Subscription in advance, either Monthly, 7/- ; Quarterly, 21/»; or for the whole Series of 12 Monthly Parts & 48 Sections, £4 4s.

ROCKS, MINERALS, FOSSILS. For Collectors, Students, Technical Schools, Colleges, &c.

COLLECTIONS IN POLISHED DEAL BOXES. 25 Specimens, 5/6; 50 do., 10/6 ; 100 do., 21/-; 200 do., 42/

20 Coal Measure Rocks and Fossils, 12/6; do., larger, 15/Adapted for the Board of Education Examinations in

Geology, Physiography, and Mineralogy.
A large stock of Minerals, Rocks, Fossils and Microscopic Objects for

selection. Specimens sont on approval.
Cabinets, Geologists' Hammers, Chisels, Card Trays, Glass-capped

Boxes, Models of Crystals, &c., &c.

NEW CATALOGUE POST FREE. THOMAS D. RUSSELL, 78 Newgate St., London, E C.

LIVING SPECIMENS FOR

THE MICROSCOPE.

MARBLE REDUCED
TO QUICKLIME IN

10 MINUTES

with our NEW BLAST WARNING.

BUNSEN BURNER AND Observe that the

MIDGET FURNACE. Regulator of

We inake these in two sizes at Burner, Budy of

present, l" and ", and the prices Furnace, and

are-Burners only, 1/6 and 2/6; Hood are all dis.

complete with Furnace, 4/6 and tincily stamped in the metal

The consumption of gas is the " BREWSTER,

same as with an ordinary Bunsen, SMITH & Co.,

but the heat derived is three LONDON."

times as great, and a number of R:ware of imita

interesting experiments can be Lions that do not

performed with them, which contain the essen.

have only been possible before rial lealue of this

with very expensive furnaces. burner's success.

We are the SOLE MAKERS. IF NATURE says :-"The combination of furnace and burner is very convenient. These little furnaces are not only useful for reducing calcium carbonate to lime, but also wurk very well in fusion experiments." BREWSTER, SMITH & Co., 6 CROSS ST., FINSBURY PAVEMENT, LONDON. Makers and importers of every description of Scientific

Apparatus and Chemicals.
LABORATORIES FITTED & FURNISHED THROUGHOUT.
Our NEW CHEMICAL APPARATUS LIST post free, 1/-

Gratis to Colleges and Laboratories.

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Volvox, Spirogyra, Desmids, Diatoms, Amceba, Arcella, Actinosphærium, Vorticella, Stentor, Hydra, Fluscularia, Stephanoceros, Melicerta, and many other specimens of Pond Life. Price is. per Tube, Post Free. Helix Dumatia, Astacus, Amphioxus, Rana, Anodon, &c., for Dissection purposes.

THOMAS BOLTON, 25 BALSALL HEATH ROAD, BIRMINGHAM

MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIUN

OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

THE LABORATORY, PLYMOUTH. The following animals can always be supplied, either living us preserved by the best methods :

Sycon; Clava, Obelia, Sertularia ; Actinia, Tealia, Caryopbyllia, A.cy.
unium ; Hormiphora (preserved); Leptoplana ; Lineus, Ampbiporus,
Vereis, Apbrodite, Arenicula, Lanıce, Terebella ; Lepas, Balanas,
Gammarus, Ligia Mysis, Nebalia, Carcinus; Patella, Buccinum, Elodono,
Pectens Bugula, Crisia, Pedicellina, Holothuria, Asterias. Echipus,
Ascidia, Salpa (preserved), Scyllium, Raja, &c., &c.

For prices and more detailed lists apply to
Biological Laboratory, Plymouth.

THE DIRECTOR.

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NOTICE.-Advertisements and business letters for Nature should be addressed to the Publishers; Editorial
Communications to the Editor. The telegraphic address of Nature is Phusis,” LONDON.
SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE."

CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS.
£ s. d. TO ALL PLACES ABROAD:- E s. d.

6 s. d.

6 s. d. 8 0 Yearly

*Three Lines in Column

6 Quarter Page, or Half
Per Line after
Half-yearly
O 14 6

a Column
One Sixteenth Page,or Eighth Col. 10
Quarterly
One Eighth Page, or Quarter

Half a Page, or a Column 3
Column
0 16 6 | Whole Page

6 6 0
• The first line being in heavy type is charged for as Two Lines
Cheques and Money Orders payable to MACMILLAN CẬ., Limited.

OFFICE: ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON. IT C,

Yearly
Hall-yearly
Quarterly

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SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS for supplying C. H. F. MÜLLER'S world

renowned FOCUS TUBES at REDUCED PRICES have been made by THE MEDICAL SUPPLY ASSOCIATION, 228 Gray's Inn Road,

London, W.C.

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Müller-Röhren No.11 0.12

With Double Regulator for Raising and Lowering
Vacuum, 24/-
Ditto without Regulator, 14/-

Large Size (170 mm. diameter) Water Cooled ... £4 5 0 New Illustrated and Descriptive List post free. WATSON'S MICROSCOPES & OBJECTS. Watson's New “Club" Microscope. An Instrument of full size of New Slide of Radlum for Microscope. Shows Scintillations s... most modern design. Especially arranged for the use of Amateurs. brilliantly, and easily managed quite new

56 Monocular, £15; Binocular, £18.

Trypanosoma Brucei (Sleeping Sickness)

40 Watson's well-known Van Heurek and Edinburgh Student's Micro

Human Spinal Cord-prepared by Golgi's method scopes have been re-modelled in the Stage and Foot, and give even

Beautiful Polyzoa-Cristatella mucedo, with Slatoblasts

30

Coelenterata-Campanularia, Obelia, Clytia, and many others, greater convenience for working than before.

each The Watson-Conrady Condenser System is of new computation, and Exquisite arranged groups composed of Diatoms. Spicules, &c is expressly designed for Photo-Micrography.

6/- to 21 0

Scales and Hairs of Insects arranged to represent Sprays, New Aplanatic Magnifiers. New Objectives. Everything Bouquets, and Vases of Flowers, always interesting and for the Microscopist.

attractive ...

716, 15/-, 21/- and 42 0

Write for Catalogue No. 3 of Micro. Objects, togetber with newly For all the above see Watson'S 158-page Catalogue of Microscopes, sent published supplementary list of Slides, giving details of recently post free.

added specimens, post free. (SPINTHARISCOPE for observing the Scintillations of Radium. The very best. Price 211SPECIALITIES:- STRUTT'S RADIUM CLOCK. Price according to quantity and quality of Radium included.

RADIUM of MAXIMUM activity in stock, also of medium and moderate activities. Send for particulars. W. WATSON & SONS, 313 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.G. ESTABLISHED 1837.

BRANCH-16 Forrest Road, Edinburgh.
HOUSE

COUNTRY

LIGHTING

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GAS PLANT. GAS ENGINE AND DYNAMO. Electric Current for 100 16-c.p. lamps can be obtained for TE PENNYWO TH of fuel per hour by using a CROSSLEY GAS ENGINE and Dynamo combined, running on a CROSSLEY SUCTION GAS PLANT.

Full particulars and testimonials on reference to CROSSLEY BROS., LTD., OPENSHAW, MANCHESTER.

THE NEW

STIGMATIC LENS.

SERIES II. F/6.
BRITISH DESIGN AND WORKMANSHIP.

Is the best All-round Lens for either Professional or Amateur use.
Each lens will give perfect definition with full aperture to the extreme corners of the plate
it is sold to cover ; with smaller stops it will cover at least two sizes larger, giving perfect sharp-
ness all over the plate, and thus becoming a wide-angle lens of the highest excellence. Either
combination may be used separately, giving foci of about if and 2 times the length of that of
the lens when used intact. The advantage of thus being able to choose the best point of view,
irrespective of distance, will be at once apparent to the artistic worker.
EQUIVALENT TO FOUR LENSES AT THE PRICE OF ONE.

Eleven Sizes are now ready, from 34 to 18 inches eq. focus.
CATALOGUE OF HIGH-CLASS CAMERAS AND LENSES, POST FREE.

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J. H. DALLMEYER, Ltd., 25 NEWMAN ST., OXFORD ST., LONDON, W.

Printed by RICHARD CLAY AND Sons, Limitev, ai 7 & bicau Street Hill, Victoria Seel, tu the City of London, and published by MacLLA

AND Co., Limited, at St. Martin's Street, London, W.C., and The MACMILLAN COMPANY, 66 Fifth Avenue, New York:— THURSDAY, March 1, tạes

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A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye."-WORDSWORTH.

No. 1845, VOL. 71]
THURSDAY, MARCH 9, 1905

[PRICE 15 CENTS Registered as a Newspaper at the General Post Office.)

[All Rights are Reserved. NEWTON & CO.'S

REYNOLDS & BRANSON, Ltd.
Chemical and Scientific Instrument Makers to His Majesty's

Government (Indian, Home, and Colonial).
LONG-RANGE LABORATORY FURNISHERS and MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS.

ELECTRIC
LANTERN.

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Single Long-range Lantern, brass front with 4g.in. condensers, and extra large front lenses 3 in. in diameter. Complete with the “New Universal" Hand-feed Arc Lamp in case, £22.

This Lantern is as efficient as any we can make for showing slides in large halls where electric current is available.

3 FLEET STREET, LONDON.

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL BENCH, illustrated above, as supplied to National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, fitted for Gas, Water

and Electricity.
Catalogue of Chemical and Physical Apparatus, 350 pp. and 1200

Ilustrations, free on application.
Designs Of BenchES AND FITTINGS TO SUIT ALL REQUIREMENTS.

14 COMMERCIAL STREET, LEEDS.

MOVING COIL

NEGRETTI & ZAMBRA'S

& CELL-TESTING VOLTMETER.

ELECTRICAL SELF-RECORDING

RAIN GAUGE.

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CKET TYPE.

Hall Nat. Size.

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Illustrated Price List and full particulars post free on

application to NEGRETTI & ZAMBRA,

38 HOLBORN VIADUOT. Branches : 45 CORNHILL, and 122 REGENT STREET,

LONDON.

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COUNTY OF LONDON.

EDUCATION ACTS, 1870 TO 1903. The London County Council invites applications for the following appointments in the Education Department :

FOUR DIVISIONAL INSPECTORS, who will have the general superintendence of large districts and give special attention to the coordination of education within their areas. Their chief duries will be to inspect pupil teachers' centres, secondary schools, training colleges, science and commercial centres, polytechnics, and all institutions for higher educa: tion aided by the Council. Candidates will be required to possess special qualifications in one of the following subjects :-(1) English language and literature ; (2) Modern languages; (3) Mathematics and Science; (4) Tech. nology (including mechanical and electrical engineering). The salary will be in each case £600 a year, rising by annual increments of £25 to a maximum salary of £800 a year.

ONE ART INSPECTOR, whose chief duties will be to inspect the art teaching in elementary and secondary schools, art schools and polytechnics. The salary will be $400 a year, rising by annual increments of £20 to a maximum salary of £500 a year.

ONE INSPECTOR of wOOD and METAL, WORK, whose chief duties will be to inspect the teaching in wood and metal work in manual training centres and elementary and secondary schools. He will also be required to inspect certain classes at poly technics. The salary will be 6400 a year, rising by annual increments of 420 to a maximum „salary of £500 a. year chief duties will be to inspecé technical classes for women (including upholstery, flower making, needlework, millinery, dressmaking and dress. cutting) in evening schools, girls' clubs and polytechnics. The salary will be 2300 a year, rising by annual increments of £20 to a maximum salary of £400 a year.

The persons appointed will be under the control of the Chief Inspector, and will be required to give their whole time to the duties of the office, and will in other respects be subject to the usual conditions attaching to the Council's service, particulars of wbich are given in the form of application.

In connection with the appointments there is no restriction with regard to sex.

Applications should be made on the official form to be obtained from the CLERK of the London County Council at the County Hall, Spring Gardens, S.W., or at the Education Offices, Victoria Embankment, W.C. The applications must be sent in not later than 10 a.m. on Saturday, April 1, 1905, addressed to the Education Offices as above, and accompanied by copies of not more than three recent testimonials.

Canvassing, either directly or indirectly, will be held to be a disqualification for appointment.

G. L. GOMME,

Clerk of the London County Council. Spring Gardens, S.W., March 2, 1905.

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UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM.

Faculties.
SCIENCE, ARTS, MEDICINE, COMMERCE.

SPECIAL SCHOOL OF MODERN LANGUAGES.
DEPARTMENT POR TRAINING OF TEACHERS.

Scbools of -
ENGINEERING, METALLURGY, MINING, BREWING,

DENTISTRY,

Leading to Degrees and Diplomas. ALL COURSES AND DEGREES ARE OPEN TO BOTH MEN AND WOMEN STUDENTS.

In the Medical School there is a separate Dissecting Room for Women with a qualified Woman Demonstrator.

Graduates of other Universities may, after two years' study or research, take a Master's Degree.

Syllabuses with all information will be sent on application to the SECRETARY

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNOLOGY. CITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON

INSTITUTE. EXAMINATIONS in TECHNOLOGY will be held from April til June 24.

All applications from Local Secretaries for Examinations in Technology must reach the offices of the department on or belore MARCH 30

Only by payment of an additional fee can applications be received after that date.

Candidates in Technology not attending any registered class should apply AT ONCE to the Secietary of the nearest Technical School or Laal Centre

It is only in very exceptional cases, when no other arrangements can be made, that applications will be entertained for the examination of candi dates at the Offices of the Department. All such applications should be addressed to the DEPARTMENT OF TECHNOLOGY, CITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE, EXHIBITION KUAD LONDON, S.W., and should be accompanied by a Posial Order for is the in addition to the amount of the fee, as given in ihe prugramme, the subject and grade of the Examination being clearly stated. TO SCIENCE, MATHEMATICAL AND

OTHER MASTERS.-Required (1) Second Mo for importe Grammar School - Mathcs. and Science. Salary, 2160 to 150 (2) Head Master for Public Institution School near London. Kogu ledge of Commercial Education necessary. Age 35 to 45, unmarried Salary, 6200, with board and private rooms.) Chemistry. Folans and some Physics, 6150 to £160. (4) Chemistry, Manhos, and Bosans, 6140. Particulars of the above and other Science ports will be see on application. Candidates seeking appoiatments auther at cace * for alter Easter are invited to apply forth with. Audres, Griffiths, Smith, Powell and Smith, Tutorial Agents (Estab. 18331, 34 Bedford Street, Strand, London.

THE SIR JOHN CASS TECHNICAL

INSTITUTE,
JEWRY STREET, ALDGATE, E.C.
A Course of Twelve Lectures and Demonstrations on

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY will be given during the Summer Term by

G. SENTER, B.Sc., Ph.D.,

Lecturer on Chemistry at

St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, The Lectures and Demonsérations will be held on Wednesday Evenings, 7-9 p.m., commencing Wednesday, March 29.

The Course is arranged fur students of Chemistry and Physics and for those engaged in Chemical and Electrical industries, who desire to obtain a knowledge of the modern developments of Physical Chemistry.

It will also be adapted to the requirements of candidates for the final B Sc. examination of London University.

A Course of Laboratory Work in connectioa with the lectures will be held on Wednesday afternoons.

A detailed Syllabus may be bad upon application at the Office of the Institute or by letter to the Principali

W. H. DAVISON, M.A., Clerk to the Governing Body

QUEEN'S COLLEGE, LONDON.

43, 45 HARLEY STREET, W. Appointments to the Arnout. Professorship of Natural Philosaply and the Professorship of Mathematics will be made for October next. Applick tions must be sent in by March 25. Should an applicant be suitable, the twu chairs might be combined. For all particulars apply to the ASSETANT SECRETARY.

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SOUTH - EASTERN

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JAMES SWIFT & SON, 81 TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD, LONDON.

SCIENCE & MATHEMATICAL TUTORS.

A List of Easter Vacancies sent.
ORELLANA

CO.,
80 Wigmore Street, Cavendish Square, London, W.

(late 44 Old Bond Street).
(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.)

AGRICULTURAL
COLLEGE, WYE, KENT.
Applications are invited for the post of BOTANIST. Commencing
salary, 6300 per annum. For details as to duties, &c., apply to the
SECRETARY.

MERCHANT VENTURERS
TECHNICAL COLLEGE, BRISTOL.
JUNIOR ASSISTANT for PHYSICS ; 6130 to £160. Particulars
obtainable from the REGISTRAR by sending a stamped addressed foolscap
envelope, not later than March 23, 1905.
FOR SALE.-The Instruments in the

Observatory of the late Mr. Edward Crossley: a 9-in. and a 45.in.
(both photo.visual object glasses) Equatorial Refractor by Cooke ; a
3-in. Transit Circle by Cooke ; a 6-in. Sextant and a 5-in. Transit
Theodolite by Troughton and Simms; Sideria! Clock by Cooke ;
Parallel-wire and Double-image Micrometers by Troughton and
Simms; Microscopes by Ross and Zeiss; Apparatus for Lectures on
Light, Polarisation, &c., by Harvey and Peak; Measuring Bars and
Rods-12 in., 40-in., 3.ft., 10-ft.-by Troughton and Simms ; Standard
Barometer by Hicks; Two Spectroscopes : Two Controlled Clocks. -

Apply to Mr J. GLEDHILL, Bermerside, Halifax.
For Sale.-Extensive Collections of British

Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Tropical Butterflies, Cabinets, &c. Correctly
nained type collections at very moderate prices.- Particulars from

A. FORD, Hillside, Sunnybill, Pokesdown, Bournemouth.
TYPE-WRITING UNDERTAKEN BY

HIGHLY EDUCATED WOMEN ACCUSTOMED TO SCIEN.
TIFIC MSS. (Classical Tripos, Intermediate Arts, Cambridge Higher
Localthorough acquaintance with Modern Languages). Research,
Revision, Translation. Scale of charges on application. The Cam.
bridge Type-writing Agency, 10 Duke Street, Adelphi, W.C.

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JON IN

(as figured). A miniature Meteorological Observatory for Scientific, Industrial and Hygienic

purposes. Invaluable for forecasting the weather.

See NATURE, April 24, 1902, page 592.

Descriptive pamphlet post free.

HOT AIR MOTORS. Easily worked by ordinary Laboratory Bunsen burner or paraffin lamp, and preferable to water motors.

A. GALLENKAMP & CO., LTD., 19 & 21 Sun St., FINSBURY SQ., LONDON, E.C.

IF YOU WANT TO SAVE TIME AND MONEY ALUMINIUM

ALUMINIUM RECTIFIERS.

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use the BLACK AUTOCOPYIST, the best duplicating apparatus on the market, producing 200 superior black copies by writing or drawing the

original on ordinary paper, using any pen.

For charging any class of cumulators, direct from alternating mains. Works on any periodicity or voltage. Action abso. lutely infallible. No moving parts. High efficiency. Requires no attention.

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Ten Sizes, from 35

Made in Four sizes, to charge

from 4 to 6 Amperes, 17s, 6d. to £8 8s.

For PARTICULARS WRITE

OR CALL.

Circulars, Price Lists, Plans, Diagrams, Specifications, Music, &c.,

reproduced equal to lithography.
Write for Specimens, &c., or call and see this useful Invention,

AUTOCOPYIST CO. (Dept. 1),
64 Queen Victoria St., London, E.C.

STEWART, LIVETT & CO., 62 Theobalds Road, London, W.

9
(FOUR MINUTES WALK FROM HOLBORN TOWN HALL)

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A SANGER-SHEPHERD Light Filter gives the Maximum of Orthochromatic effect with the Minimum of Exposure.

1o obtain Pictures true to nature with correct values of Light and Shade, Shadow Details and Cloud Effects, use a Sanger-Shepherd Light Filter. All sizes stocked-Circular and Square. Fittings and Cases

of many Patterns to suit all Cameras.

SETS OF LIGHT FILTERS

in Special Case, morocco-covered, velvet·lined, for pocket. X 5 times. For Cloud Effects and Snapshots ...

from 76 * 10 times and Gilvus. For Landscapes and Portraiture

from 10 Absolutus. For correctly copying all coloured objects ...

from 10/I Send for New Booklets, post free to readers of "Nature," or call and

see results obtained by Amateurs. SANGER-SHEPHERD & CO.

FACTORY AND OFFICE : 5, 6, 7 GRAY'S INN PASSAGE, RED LION STREET, HOLBORN, W.C,

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