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THE EVOLUTION THEORY.
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By AUGUST WEISMANN,
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Professor of Zoology in the University of Freiburg.
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THURSDAY, MARCH 9, 1905.

because, on the evidence he was able to adduce, man differed less in point of structure from the family of anthropoids than the anthropoids from the family

of the Old World monkeys. Further, Huxley reTHE ORIGIN OF MAN.

garded the chimpanzee and gorilla as the animal Morphology and Anthropology. A Handbook for forms most nearly related to man. In these two reStudents. By W. L. H. Duckworth, M.A. Pp.

spects Darwin agreed with Huxley. In the classifixxvii +546. (Cambridge: University Press, 1904.) | cation adopted by Mr. Duckworth, man retains the Price 155. net.

position assigned to him by Huxley. Mr. DuckStudies from the Anthropological Laboratory, the

worth's style in producing evidence and conflicting Anatomy School, Cambridge. By W. L. H. Duck

theories is open, frank, and impartial, but in setting worth, M.A. Pp. 5+291. (Cambridge: Uni

forth his conclusions he is so eminently non-committal versity Press, 1904.) Price ios. net.

that it is difficult to cite a passage which concisely "HE publication of Mr. Duckworth's text-book for

expresses his conception of the exact position which

man holds with regard to other families of Primates. vague terms, “Morphology and Anthropology,” On p. 226 the following passage occurs :marks the culmination of the remarkable movement

“ But initiated by the publication of Huxley's “Man's

single example among the larger

Simiidæ can be pointed out with confidence, as Place in Nature ” in 1863, and quickened in 1871. embodying the characters of the human ancestor at by the appearance of Darwin's “ Descent of Man.”

the simian stage of evolution more completely than At the commencement of this movement the subject any other, though there is a slight margin of evidence of man's origin had its abode in the divinity schools; in favour of the Chimpanzee, rather than the Gorilla it was taught by theologians; the opening chapters or the Orang-utan." of Genesis constituted the accepted text-book; now, Thus it will be seen that the matter of man's in 1905, the subject is assigned to the anthropological | zoological position remains where Huxley left it. laboratory; the lecturer on physical anthropology is Huxley had an incomparable faculty of drawing its custodian, and the text-book is the work now

just conclusions from limited data, but few men who under review.

are experts on this matter will agree that Mr. DuckIn a clearly written introductory chapter Mr. Duck- worth has utilised the evidence at his disposal to worth defines the subject-matter of his book as an the fullest extent possible. inquiry into (1) man's zoological position; (2) the Nor has the evidence which has accumulated in nature of his ancestry. That such a work is needed the last thirty-three years permitted Mr. Duckworth there can be no doubt. Ever since Darwin and to make a more definite statement as to the ancestral Huxley gave this subject a legitimate place in the chain or phylogenetic path of man than was made hands of biologists, experts have been busy as ants, by Darwin in his first edition of the “ Descent of seeking, collecting, and storing facts in the tome Man" in 1871. upon tome that annually come to crowd our bookshelves. The embryological history of man, anthro

“ The Simiadæ,” wrote Darwin, " then branched poid and ape have become known; important addi- into two great stems, the New World and Old World

Monkeys; from the latter, at a remote period, Man tions have been made to the geological record; our the Wonder and Glory of the l'niverse proceeded ” knowledge of the structure of the Primates has in. (vol. i., p. 213, ist ed.). creased twenty-fold; all the additional evidence of

Mr. Duckworth's conclusions in this matter are thirty years thus lay at Mr. Duckworth's disposal awaiting systematisation. He has every qualification summed up at p. 542 as follows :for the task; he has devoted many years to examin- • But while it is shown that the Hominidæ have ing and extending the evidence on which our con- in their evolution passed through a stage which is ception of man's origin rests. “ Studies from the better reproduced by the Simiidæ (anthropoids) than Anthropological Laboratory," the second work in by any other of the Primates, it is practically certain cluded in this review, containing thirty-six papers

that the modern Simiidæ did not themselves figure

in the ancestry of man and that they are themselves dealing with various aspects of primatology, specialised in a high degree, more specialised in many guarantee his industry and first-hand knowledge. ways than the Hominidæ and more specialised than He has the advantage, too, of having at his disposal their own ancestors. As Klaatsch puts it, the the great anthropological collections accumulated by ancestors of the modern Simiidæ were more anthroProf. Macalister, and free access to one of the best poid than the actual Simiidæ, just as the ancestor of libraries of the world.

the Hominidæ was more pithecoid than modern Man.

And the balance of evidence indicates that the line It is natural to expect that Mr. Duckworth, having of human ancestry would, were the material still so much udditional evidence at his command, available, be traceable down to the lowest Primates is able to define man's position in the animal (Lemuroidea) and even to the lowest Mammals. kingdom with a greater degree of precision than Moreover, it is undeniable that the Hominidæ have was possible at the time when Huxley and Darwin retained in hand and foot some features of an early wrote. Huxley, it will be remembered, restored man

ancestor, from which they have departed less in type

than have the (modern) Čercopithecidæ and Simiidæ. to the position originally assigned to him by Linnæus,

But detailed information on these points is still lacknamely, that of a family in the order of Primates, I ing."

man

Leaving out of account the oracular statement quoted existence mask those of the other. Yet Mr. Duckfrom Klaatsch, there can be no question that Mr. worth makes the important fact stand out that the Duckworth's inference as to man's line of ancestors intra-uterine life of man is exactly similar, so far as is much less definite than that of Darwin, and we yet know, to that of the anthropoids, and in that, certainly, in the opinion of many well qualified to while it resembles in most points the lower Primates, judge, less in keeping with the evidence at our dis- yet differs from all other mammals. posal. What the peculiar primitive characters of the It must be admitted that Mr. Duckworth's task human hand and foot may be the writer cannot guess, was not an easy one ; yet no essential or important but it is certain that there are numerous characters in contribution has been passed unnoticed by him. His the human hand and foot which can be accounted statements are clear and impartial; he has even a for only on the supposition that at one time they kindly word to say for some notions, such as the were used functionally as are now the hands and temporary fissures of the brain, which most feet of anthropoids. Mr. Duckworth states his anatomists, in common with himself, now regard opinion guardedly, but it is evident from the state- as post-mortem artefacts. In another edition, which ment just quoted that he believes the line of ancestors this work is certain to attain, the statements made that connect modern man with a primitive lemuroid in the following sentence (p. 201) will require some (Eocene) stock is extinct and unknown, and that this amendment :line of ancestry runs an independent and parallel course to the ancestral stock of the anthropoids. tissue) as derived neither from the chorion-entoderm

"Selenka thus regards the syncytium (a peculiar Now man shares with the chimpanzee and gorilla (Kollmann), nor from the submucous uterine decidual some three hundred structural features which are not connective tissue cells (Minot, “Human Embrypossessed by any lemuroid form of which we have ology,' pp. 13 and 375) nor from the fatal ectoany knowledge, nor can the common possession of derm (Robinson, Hunterian Lectures,' Journal of these characters be accounted for except on the sup

Anatomy and Physiology, vol. xxxviii. p. 493), but position that man and these two anthropoids are

from the epithelial lining of the uterus." derived from a common stock. A full investigation Mr. Duckworth unwittingly does the late Prol. of the evidence will show that Darwin was not far Selenka a double injustice; in the first place he from the truth when he supposed that the gorilla, reproduces an acknowledged modification (Fig. 148. the chimpanzee, and man have their origin from a P. 203) of a figure by Selenka, in which the syncytium common stock. Modern

differs from the is made to appear as a continuation of the lining Miocene anthropoid Dryopithecus in structure no epithelium of the uterus, whereas in Selenka's figure

than does the modern horse from its it is clearly shown not to be continuous; secondly, Miocene ancestor. In Dryopithecus, characters Selenka ("Studien ueber Entwickelungsgeschichte," are recognisable which link it with the gibbon Heft viii., pp. 190, 193) expressly states that he is

the one hand and the chimpanzee on the uncertain of the origin of the syncytium, but that the other. Palæopithecus, a Pliocene anthropoid, in the evidence is rather in favour of its origin from the characters of its teeth and jaw, which are the only cells of the uterine glands. Expert opinion regards parts yet found, links the chimpanzee to the orang. it as settled that the syncytium does not so arise, The modern gibbon differs in an incredibly small but springs from the ectoderm of the embryo, 1 degree from its Miocene ancestor, and shares many conclusion which seemed to Selenka nor improbable characters in common with the great anthropoids, He does Kollmann also an injustice, for in his textman, the Old World monkeys, and New World | book (p. 201) that author expressly states that it arises monkeys, and is by far the most generalised form of from the lining epithelium of the uterus-the opinion higher Primate now extant, in spite of many adaptive ascribed by Mr. Duckworth to Selenka. Nor will features. In short, the evidence points to the common Minot acknowledge the opinion ascribed to him. for origin of man and the great anthropoids from a on p. 322 of a text-book on human embryology gibbon (Hylobatian) stock; this in turn, with he states that he is convinced that the syncytium is monkeys, must be traced to a lemuroid origin. derived from the embryonic (chorionic) ectoderm, the

Mr. Duckworth deals very justly with the evidence opinion here ascribed to Prof. Robinson. Nor will yielded by embryological investigation. Thirty years Prof. Robinson be willing to accept priority for th: ago, when it was believed that the embryo recapitu- theory of the ectodermal origin of the syncytium ; lated its ancestral stages in utero, it was thought probably Hubrecht has the greatest claim to be that the history of man could be written when his accounted the pioneer in this matter. development became known. Palæontology is It would not be just to close this review without good but Embryology is better,” wrote Kitchen acknowledging the number of original facts and Parker, but now we know, and Mr. Duckworth fresh opinions that mark the pages of this work. states the case fully, that the embryological phases | The opening chapters are perhaps too condensed; thare so obscure that they can only be construed by long lists of characters enumerated are rather apt to the help of comparative anatomy and palæontology. lead to mental dyspepsia even in the pages of s It has come to be recognised that every mammal is text-book, and one misses a statement of their func. adapted to two separate lives—an intra-uterine life tional meaning, which would greatly assist the and an independent life; the features of the one memory in ranking them together. The chapters on

more

on

to

the

says the

be

the cerebral organisation are specially well done, and The pupil then draws the required conclusion :contain the best exposition yet published of our know- That is as if each element consisted only of equal ledge of that part of the Primate organisation. pieces, just as all francs or marks are equal among Special prominence is deservedly given

themselves.” “Yes," answers the teacher; “ that is brilliant work of Prof. Elliot Smith. There can be the picture which has represented the state of affairs no doubt, too, that this work will lead to a renewed to men's minds for long. It is supposed that each vigour in the search for evidence bearing on the element consists of minute particles, named atoms, origin and relationships of the higher Primates. and so on. When the boy asks, “ Is all this true?”

A. K. the teacher replies, “No one has seen an atom, nor

weighed one. This is therefore a hypothesis, but a

very convenient one, because the various applications CHEMISTRY FOR YOUTHS: VRS. MARCET of the laws of combining proportions can be better REDEVIL'A.

realised (merken) when the picture of atoms is simple Die Schule der Chemie. By W. Ostwald. Zweiter and clear.” “ But we can do without it! Teil-Die Chemie der Wichtigsten Elemente und pupil. Certainly,” says the teacher.

“But just as Verbindungen. Pp.

viii + 292.

(Brunswick : you found it easier to count on your fingers than in Vieweg and Son.) Price 7.20 marks.

your head, so it is easier to think of atoms, than of A BOLTa year ago, the first volume of Prof. Ost- the abstract and general laws of combination.” So wald's dialogues on chemistry was noticed in

we have to teach by means of atoms. Indeed, few these columns. We have now the second volume,

of us would go further, especially in these later days, written in as lively a strain as the first, and conveying when even atoms are failing us. The hypothesis is, the author's views, which bid fair to become in the however, ignored a little later, when it is stated that main everybody else's views, as regards the presentation “ the rule has been made never to write fractional of the elementary facts of chemistry. It would be wrong parts of combining weights." The doctrine of the to say that in this volume, consisting of 292 pages,

indivisibility of atoms would appeal more readily to a there is more system; but in it we come to a dis- young mind. Yet in fairness, it must cussion of chemical facts and theories which are

acknowledged that the writer makes the pupil suggest generally treated in school text-books. The pupil is that each chemical symbol stands for an atom, and introduced to chlorine, its preparation and properties; acknowledges, in the mouth of the teacher, that “the its behaviour with water; acids and bases, and atomic theory can be easily grasped (“ etwas sehr elements; combining weights, and multiple propor- eingängliches hat "). tions; the atomic hypothesis, and the laws of volume When electrolysis is discussed, the author's combination; electrolysis and salts. Chlorine is ingenuity in devising analogies is at its best. The again considered as regards its compounds with pupil has difficulty in picturing a positive and a oxygen, and then follow bromine and iodine; sulphur negative current going in opposite directions through and its compounds; nitrogen, ammonia, phosphorus, the same wire. He is reminded of waves crossing and so on through the commoner elements and their each other in a pond, and of the upper and under parts compounds.

of a driving-belt travelling in opposite directions. Throughout the volume we find neat remarks which Heats of combustion, discussed under the heading sustain interest, at least, when it is glanced through, “ carbon," are measured in kilojoules, instead of for I do not think that anyone who is already a calories. This is perhaps logical, but it appears to chemist will read the volume as carefully as he the reviewer that the older unit might have been may have read the first volume. For example, on retained until a later stage. It is easy to make the the first page is an aphorism, too often neglected, reduction when required; and it is easier to realise but none the less true :-“When much has been heat as heat than as work, at first, at least. learnt, time must be given for digestion.” In While acknowledging that the subject of chemistry English “ cramming doesn't pay in the long run." is here well treated, and that the author has main

Everyone knows that Prof. Ostwald does not hold | tained his lively style and faculty of lucid presentby the atomic theory. Yet he does not escape from ment, it may be questioned whether this method of it. His presentation of it is, however, ingenious, as discussing chemistry should have precedence over the indeed are all his methods. Discussing the facts of ordinary text-book. A youth who advances so far as multiple proportion he gives the following illustra- | to grasp the contents of volume I., will, I think, tire tion:

of the plan of question and answer. Yet perhaps " Think of a collection of coins, where German

there are some who prefer to take their food, as they marks, English shillings, French francs, Russian do medicine, in spoonfuls, and to whom the form roubles, and other coins are to be found. You can of dialogue has its attractions. In old days “ Pleasant combine these coins in twos and threes; each com- Pages” was widely read, and no doubt conveyed bination, however, has the value of the sum of the valuable lessons. And at any rate, teachers of individual value of the coins, and you cannot obtain chemistry may learn much from this volume in hints any other values, combine them as you . Similarly, no other compounds can be formed but those

as to how best to present the very numerous facts obtained by bringing the elements together according of the science to their students, whose digestive to their combining weights."

powers are as a rule limited.

W. R.

FLORAL MORPHOLOGY.

statements, and, as a rule, gives the arguments, but

leaves it to the student to form his own conclusions. Praktikum für morphologische und systematische There are several allusions to the rules of botanical Botanik. By Dr. Karl Schumann. Pp. viii +610.

nomenclature adopted in various countries, and the (Jena : Gustav Fischer, 1904.) Price 13 marks. author inclines towards English practice in the matter; THE HE morphology of the flower, although an but the instances which he quotes, e.g. Succisa

important item in the curriculum of the advanced pratensis and Ampelopsis hederacea, are not the names student of botany, is not infrequently compressed into adopted in the Kew lists for the plants in question. a period quite insufficient for obtaining a knowledge Mention is made of the botanical congress which will of more than a few cohorts or families. But the be held in Vienna this year, when the subject will be relegation of this branch of botany to an uncertain again under discussion. stage is easily explained, since, as a course for train- It has hitherto been a difficulty to obtain a thoroughly ing students, and this is the first object of a scientific trustworthy and full presentation on the subject of curriculum, floral morphology does not offer the same floral morphology except in Eichler's " Blutendiascope as vegetative anatomy or physiology. Never- gramme "—copies of which are few and expensive theless, the art of dis vering all the essential points so that teachers and students will do well to note this of a flower is by no means easily acquired, while the book, since it contains a number of careful analyses ability to distinguish between critical genera and of every-day types with a particularly clear 'account of orders requires intuition, based upon experience and inflorescences and bracts, and it may therefore be used practice.

for reference to confirm or correct the deductions based Dr. Schumann has prepared his book, in the first upon personal examination. The illustrations were instance, for botanists who are dependent upon their drawn by Dr. Schumann's daughter, and these, like own unaided efforts, thereby providing for that large the descriptions, may well be taken as models which class of enthusiasts who can only devote their leisure the student should emulate. time to botany; but he had also in view the much higher object of leading those who use his book on

SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS OF LAWN TENNIS. to the plane, if not to the work, of systematists, and the final chapters deal with determination of species Lawn Tennis. By J. Parmly Paret. Edited by and the essentials of floral monographs.

Caspar Whitney. American Sportsman's Library. The book contains two courses, of which the first

Pp. xiv + 419. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., is the easier, but it includes certain types, such as

1904.) Price 8s. 6d. net. Phaseolus and Iris, which require some experience to

Great Lawn Tennis Players : their Methods explain thoroughly; the arrangement is according to illustrated. By George W. Beldam and P. A. the order of flowering. There are approximately 130 Vaile. Pp. xxix + 403. (London: Macmillan and types of flowers, most of them common varieties, or Co., Ltd., 1905.) Price 12s. 6d. net. easily obtainable, and these represent about 80 orders,

IN

N the first of the above books we have an exwhich are, for the greater part, indigenous to Europe. cellently illustrated and interesting volume There is a natural tendency to form a misleading con- dealing with the early history, development, and ception of the importance of those orders which pre present condition of lawn tennis, the author having ponderate in the flora of one's own country, and for produced a treatise which will be heartily welcomed this reason it would have been advantageous to include by all lovers of this healthy game. representatives of more exotic orders, but since the The author quite rightly deals only with the play aim of the author has been to present specific instances of those who have attained a very high order of of floral variation and not systematic types, the choice execution, and past masters as regards the seems to be very suitable. The keynote to the book manipulation of a rapidly moving ball. A plan of lies in the author's inspiring enthusiasm for the study campaign, quick decision, and still quicker action on of foliar and floral morphology, and those who use the part of the player are necessary for success, and the book will regret that Dr. Schumann did not when these are accompanied by accuracy of execulive to see it completed. To Dr. Max Gürke was tion, steadiness, easiness of style, and good condi. entrusted the responsibility of completing the book and tion, greater achievement is attained. Modern lawn of seeing it through the press. The discussion of each tennis is undoubtedly a combination of skill and type includes general foliar arrangement, branching, science of a high order, and the reader will find inflorescence, floral parts, and methods of pollin- described in these pages the different ways in which ation, and each chapter has been made self-complete; well-known players employ these fundamental in addition the author has contrived in a number of desiderata. By an ingenious application of photocases to derive from the specimen an illustration of graphy it has been possible to record the start, stroke, some special theoretical point; thus the examination and finish of individual strokes on one plate, to of the pine and fir cones introduces phyllotaxis, the illustrate the positions of the body, hand, wrist, and balsam flower leads to the consideration of empirical racket during the movement. Many illustrations of diagrams, and the origin of double flowers is discussed this kind are given, serving as valuable guides fa in the case of the chrysanthemum. In dealing with correct action. Numerous other snapshots of posi. questions for which different explanations have been tions of play taken singly or on three plates with offered, Dr. Schumann has carefully avoided dogmatic brief intervals form a special feature of this volume.

are

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