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ducts on the blood-pressure of animals and man, and country, and served as a standard for th on the improvement of blood-pressure apparatus for extent of scientific training rendered pos physiological and clinical observation on man. He changes then taking place in physiologica will shortly also be engaged with Dr. Samuel Rideal laboratories. In writing this book E in investigating the influence of various gases on the rendered an important service not only to blood-pressure in man. Some of this work has already but also to medical education. found expression in this term's course of lectures by In 1895 began a series of researches ba Sir Lauder Brunton. Mr. G. P. Mudge is engaged Weber-Fechner law, the electrical respon in work which will bear on the theory of transmission retina to the stimulus of light, the med of acquired characters. The laboratory is, in fact, not sponse of muscle to electrical stimulation, only a consistent school making its influence rapidly response of medullated nerve to electrical felt in work of a particular character, but also a leading to the general conclusion that wh laboratory offering highly appreciated advantages to plot physical cause along an abscissa, independent workers.

logical effect along ordinates, an S-shaped The laboratory owes no small share of the fact result. of its existence and present energetic life to the The foregoing experiments involved an director, Dr. Augustus Waller. His prescience and of the electrical response of nerve under th alertness, and the confidence felt by the authorities of anæsthetics, and led to the systematice and by his colleagues and friends in a scheme which of nerve to gauge the activity of a large had obviously enchained the full measure of his reagents, a method having been devised personal interest, must in this connection remain the nerve at regular intervals and recordin accountable for many things. The value of his services tive variation by photography: is best assessed after a consideration of the inde- Three mainly important conclusions res fatigable years which he has spent in fruitful this method of work—that CO, is evolve furtherance of the science of physiology. His first during tetanisation, that the inexhaustibilit paper, a contribution to the study of cardiac and vas- and retina is due to an extremely rapid dis cular innervation, was published from Ludwig's and reintegration in their tissues, that th laboratory, in 1878. His remaining contributions, anæsthetics on nerve may be taken as a many and all well known, have been published as their effect on the human subject, and the a consequence of work carried out within London therefore be employed for studying the limit itself; and with the scientific life of this city of chloroform dosage. The important fact Dr. Waller has been identified since 1879. "The that safe anæsthesia requires the continuou graphic record of the propagation rate of the pulse tration of a mixture of chloroform and wave,” “The recurrent pulse," Measurements of average percentage of 1.5-not below i per the length of systole and diastole with different pulse above 2 per 100. Many of the facts of ph, frequencies,” are titles of some of these earlier interest made known by these researches papers, reminding us of our indebtedness to Dr. found in a course of lectures delivered by Waller for valuable contributions to our knowledge at the Royal Institution, and published in of the circulation. In 1881 he secured the thanks the title of “Animal Electricity.” Short, of all workers upon the phenomena of the central from technicalities as it is, this book is un nervous system by his contributions to the study of permanent, and, as a classic, needs no comm tendon-reflex. In 1881 he devised and first made use The “Characteristic of Nerve," " Veratri, of the method, now generally adopted, for the photo- Protoveratrine," are titles of other papers of graphic record of electrical currents. His work upon and physiological interest. electrotonic currents in the nerves of the human body, From a study of the electrical response of carried out with the assistance of Dr. De Watteville, ball (retina) to the admission and exclusion 1882, forms one of the foundation-stones of the art Dr. Waller passed to a consideration of its of electro-therapeutics. This and his subsequent to electrical stimulation. This very mark record of the electrical changes accompanying the vigorous response he named the retinal blaze, beat of the human heart, 1887, serve to render the led to a general study of the “ blaze-currents first decade of Dr. Waller's experimental work ever eyeball and of other living plant and animal memorable in the annals of " Animal Electricity," the importance of this phenomenon as an exac and were made the basis of two ceremonies of critical measure of the processes occurring in mutual honour. Dr. Waller was invited to Berlin tissues can scarcely be overestimated. As a si by Du Bois-Reymond to demonstrate the electrical life, its observation (e.g. for vitality of seeds) changes due to the heart-beat, and the Academy of of practical advantage. Science at Bologna—the birthplace of animal elec- Within recent years Dr. Waller's energies har tricity-presented him with the award of the Premio been largely directed towards the problems con Aldini sul Galvanismo. The Academy of Science of with chloroform anæsthesia, and the apparatu Paris also showed its recognition of the interest of signed and inspired by him promises to lead no these observations by its award of the Prix Montyon. to a further knowledge of the subject, but also to

In 1885, Dr. Waller laid a basis for the study of the lamentable waste of human life so often “ fatigue,” by recording his discovery of the site of by faulty and inaccurate methods of chlor peripheral fatigue. He again facilitated the study of administration. this phenomenon by the invention and use of the The little that has been said may serve to “dynamograph, ” and contributed important papers that in this Institution and its officers the line upon the “ Sense of Effort." In these papers Dr. has already much upon which it may be Waller dealt with matters on the border-line between gratulated. It is surprising to examine the fin physiology and psychology, and here also is placed basis upon which this scheme has already other work of his of admitted importance upon carried to such a pitch of usefulness. Whe colour contrast, hearing, weight discrimination, the scheme was first mooted, in March, 1901, 110 functional attributes of the cerebral cortex. In 1891, were available for its support. The only asse Dr. ll'aller published his “ Text-book of Human the promise made by the foremost physiolog Physiology.” This book marked an era in the London to deliver courses of lectures, methods of physiology classes throughout the l emolument, upon the branches of physiolog

were

most

which they

conversant. The Senate vironment are so different from those which take place favoured the scheme, and Sir Walter Palmer, by a at lower levels as to raise great hopes that persistent timely gift of 20001., rendered available the space researches in such Alpine laboratories may carry us which the Senate had assigned for the laboratory. far towards solving the intricate problems of the The University supported the scheme with a grant relation of chemical and physical changes of living of zool., and has since provided an annual grant of substance to the energies of life. It may be added 400l. for five years, conditional upon the acquisition that such researches may be expected to explain, and of 600l. per annum from other sources. Upon this so to afford practical guidance as to the beneficial annual subsidy of 1000l., it is estimated that the sanitary effects of life at high altitudes on many present activity of the laboratory can be sustained. diseases. So far the support obtained from outside sources, the Most of the memoirs, as might be expected, record zoool. required for the five years, 1904–1909, is studies on the respiratory exchange and on the conrepresented by 2000l. subscribed by Mr. G. W. Palmer | dition of the blood at the high altitude as compared and Mr. A. Palmer. The sum asked for has there with what is. found at an ordinary low level; and in fore not yet been collected; when collected, it should some of them the effects of artificially lowering barobe noted, it will not serve to maintain the laboratory metric pressure at Turin are compared with the effects upon a scale commensurate with its activity and of the natural low pressure on Monte Rosa, accompromise. Thus the estimated expenditure of '1000l. panied as the latter is with other conditions. All per annum includes no provision for the honoraria these are of great interest to the physiologist, and to of lecturers, or for additional assistants, or for him chiefly; but one memoir may perhaps attract the research scholarships. The sum of 30,000l., it is attention of the general reader, and that is the one estimated, would suffice for the accomplishment of by Mosso and Galeotti on the physiological effects of this greater object.

alcohol at high altitudes. These observers found that a dose of alcohol, 40 c.c. of absolute alcohol

adequately diluted, which at Turin brought about a THE MONTE ROSA AND COL D'OLEN

condition bordering on drunkenness produced, on INTERNATIONAL LABORATORIES.

Monte Rosa, so far as subjective sensations were con

cerned, hardly any effect at all. I may add that the SOM OME time ago (NATURE, April 17, 1902, vol. Ixv. present volume does not record all the observations

P. 568) I directed the attention of the readers of inade in the expeditions of 1903, a second volume NATURE to the international laboratory, the Capanna being about to appear shortly: Nor are physiological Regina Margherita, which had been established on researches the only ones which have been carried out; the Gnifetti peak of Monte Rosa by Prof. Mosso, important meteorological and physical inquiries have of Turin, through the generous aid of the Regina also been conducted. Madre of Italy. Already much valuable work has been done in that laboratory, and if this has been In spite of every effort to make the accommodation chiefly of a physiological kind, though provision at the Gnifetti laboratory as complete as possible in is made in the laboratory for physical and meteor- the circumstances, those circumstances offer many ological as well as other investigations, the reason is obstacles to continued successful observations. The to be sought partly in the fact that Prof. Mosso is period during which study is possible is short, and a physiologist

, partly in the special interest attaching the hardships of living and working at such a high to the physiological problems presented by living altitude are such as cannot easily be borne by many beings at high altitudes.

persons otherwise capable of carrying out fruitful inIn August and September, 1903, two physiological vestigations. Hence Prof. Mosso conceived the idea expeditions were carried out at the Capanna Regina of establishing in connection with the Gnifetti laborMargherita, one under the direction of Prof. Zuntz, atory a supplementary laboratory at a lower but of Berlin, the other by Prof. Mosso, several observers still high level, where work could be carried on in taking part in each. The records of some of (not of connection with the higher laboratory, but under all) the results obtained in these two expeditions are easier conditions, and for a longer period of the year. now brought together by Prof. Mosso in a volume Visitors to the southern slopes of the Monte Rosa of some 300 pages, elegantly bound in such a way group probably know well the little wooden inn at as to be easily itself carried to high altitudes, and the Col d'Olen at the height of about 3000 metres, appropriately dedicated to that Mæcenas of science reached by a long but easy walk or mule ride from M. Ernest Solvay, who has so freely given back to Alagna, and most admirably kept by the well known science of the good things which science has given enterprising hotel proprietors Guglielmina. From it to him.

one may, when the air is clear, see afar off the Duomo I do not propose, in this notice, to deal in detail of Milan, while at one's feet alongside the path to with the twenty-one memoirs which make up the Gressonay lies an Alpine garden which Kew may volume. One, that by Durig and Zuntz, is given in envy, brilliant in late summer with sheets of gentian German; all the others, though written by Italian and other lovely flowers. Close by the inn, Prof. observers, with that generous abnegation of their own Mosso has secured a plot of ground on which he is tongue which it is to be hoped will not be considered building the new laboratory; this he hopes to have necessary for them in the coming years, appear in finished next autumn, but it will not be ready for French. I may here perhaps be allowed to express actual use until the summer of 1906. my regret that no memoir by any English observer, It is to be a laboratory fully equipped for researches either in his own or any other language, is to be in physiology, meteorology, physics, and botany; but found among them. All of them treat, more or less in addition to this it will have sixteen comfortable directly, with one or other of the many problems of bedrooms, so that sixteen workers carrying on investimetabolism which are presented by life at such a high gations will have each a bedroom to himself; and if altitude as 4560 metres. At that height the responses the number of observers should happen at any time which internal chemical, metabolic, processes and the to exceed sixteen, accommodation can be obtained at expenditure of energy make to changes in the en- the inn close by. At such altitudes success in investi

1 Laboratoire Scientifique Internatior al du Monte Rosa. Travaux de gation is largely dependent on personal comfort, inl'année 1903. Publiés par A. Mosso. (Turin: Loescher, 1904.)

cluding suitable food; and probably there are not a

1

few to whom research at the high Gnifetti labor- be on a safe basis, and especially that an annual inatory would be impossible, but who could do solid come should be provided sufficient to ensure at the work at a somewhat lower level provided that the life laboratory adequate service and assistance, which, as was not too rough, and especially if they had no fear might be expected from the circumstances, have to be of being hampered by indigestion caused by too rude well paid. The existence of such a laboratory offers or monotonous a diet. For these especially is the unusual opportunities for investigation, not only to Col d'Olen Laboratory intended; and unless things those who are interested in the general problems of have altered sadly in the last few years, such need physiology, of meteorology, and of the physics of the have no fear for their stomachs. I still have a vivid earth, but also to the perhaps larger class who desire recollection of a stay at the inn at Col d'Olen during a wider and more exact knowledge of the manifold which the efforts of a talented cook produced results fascinating phenomena of the High Alps. Is it too which would have satisfied tastes of a far higher much to hope that Prof. Mosso will find no great epicurean level than my own.

difficulty in obtaining the further funds which be The new laboratory, like the old, is •to be carried needs?

M. FOSTER. out as an international institution. It received warm support from the International Physiological Congress at Turin in 1901, and again at Brussels this year. NEOLITHIC DEPOSITS IN THE NORTH-EAST After the plan of the Stazione Zoologica at Naples, its

OF IRELAND. maintenance is to be provided by subsidies which will THE give the right to occupy working places. Already the Ireland attracted a considerable amount of public Italian Ministry of Instruction has secured accom- interest during the year 1903, in consequence of the

[graphic]

Fig. 1.– Wind excavated Pit in Portstewart Sand-dunes, showing “black-layers." From Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, December, 14 modation for two investigators, the Italian Alpine | lawsuit, known as the “Gold Ornaments Case" Club for one, and the German Government for two. (Attorney-General v. the Trustees of the British M. Solvay, who has otherwise been a lavish bene- Museum). A golden boat, collar, and other objects factor to the whole enterprise, has taken two places were found in ploughing at Broighter, on the exterfor Belgium, and, through the generosity of Dr. sive flat that stretches around Limavady Junction .. Ludwig Mond, our own Royal Society has the right county Londonderry. They were buried eighteen of nominating two investigators. The undertaking, inches deep in stiff clay soil, at a spot which is four therefore, is well on the way to success; but much feet above ordinary high-water mark. The British remains yet to be done. Prof. Mosso informs me Museum authorities rested their claim to the retention that though he has obtained 70,000 lire, he still of the objects in part on the theory that the ornament needs some 50,000 lire in order that everything should in question constituted a votive offering, which ws

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