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FROM STOCK radio-active substance, even a Welsbach mantle con

ON HIRE, tains sufficient Thorium to excite the very sensitive

screen of the Scintilloscope, which is far more sensi.
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PRICES. The eye sees an inexhaustible shower of stars of PUTCH BLENDE white ,

averaging 4, 8, ducing the terrific bombardment causing this beautiful display. I See NATURE, September 29, page 535.

and 16 oz. each, one inch in diam.), 1/6 per oz. Glew's Scintilloscope Superior Lens, with Extra-sensitive Pitchblende and

OR SILICIUM Polonium Screens, giving brilliant effects, Complete, 75. 6d., Post free,

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Kunzite, selected, 2/- per_gramme. Carnotite, 2/- per Radio-active supplies of every description, on Sale or Hire. Radium Aeschynit, 2/- per oz. Emanium, 30/- per decigramme. Bromide, 1,800,000 units on hire for lectures.

8parteite (see NATURE, March 31, 1904, page 523), 2/- per piece. F. HARRISON GLEW, Radiographer (Silver Medallist, Paris, 1900), Chlorophane, 2/- per piece. Samarskite, 27- per oz. 156 Clapham Road, London, S.W.

zinc Sulphide, green and yellow, 5/- per tube.
Rad. Residue, 2/- per tube. Polonium, 21/- per gram ; 11/- 1-grair.
Polonium on Bi. rod., 25/-, Willemite, 2/- per oz.
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page 185.) Radio-active Mud, 1/6 per bottle.
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Diamond chips and powder, 10/- per carat (best quality).

Euklas, Hiddenit, Wagnerit, Phosgenit. Dr. HAMPSON'S AIR-LIQUEFIER is now made to a standard pat

Bar. Plat. Cyan., for Screens, 3/- gramme, 60/- oz. Crystals, 41tern, and Dumbers are in use in University Laboratories and elsewbere in

gramme. Scroens, 9d, per square inch. various countries. The whole apparatus is neat and compact and its parts Radio-active screens, 6d. per square inch. Willemite very easily moved ; the Liquefier, without stand, being a cylinder 17 inches

screens, 6d. per square inch. Electroscopes (Special), 21/high and 8 inches in diameter.

Spinthariscopes (special), 21/-, 10/6 and 7/6. It begins to liquefy air in from 6 to 10 minutes after the admission of air Selection of Minerals in boxes, 2/6, 5/6, 10/6 and 21/-, at from 150 to 200 atmospheres pressure, making over a litre of liquid per New Zealand Vegetable Caterpillar, with a stem showing hour.

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(See NATURE, May 12. 1904, page 44.) wbich requires no filtering.

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By H. W. TURNER, Mem.A.J.E.E.,
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CONTENTS. - Introductory Considerations. Some Properties of Insu.
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deposited in Lough Foyle about the beginning of the It is stated that the Madras Government has sanctioned Christian era, the spot where the objects were sunk the establishment of an experimental garden in Malabar for having since become dry land, owing to upheaval of the investigation of pepper vine disease. the coast-line. The claim of the British Museum was, however, not sustained.

The second annual dinner of old students of the Royal In connection with this contention, Messrs. George College of Science, Ireland, will be held on St. Patrick's Coffey and R. Lloyd Praeger made sp tions into the evidence of recent geological changes, Day, Friday, March 17, at the Holborn Restaurant, London. and these they have brought forward in an essay on “The Larne Raised Beach : a Contribution to the

Prof. K. Möbius has retired from the directorship of the Neolithic History of the North of Ireland "_(Proc.

Berlin Museum of Natural History. The position has been R. Irish Acad., vol. xxv., December, 1904). To this offered to Prof. H. H. Schauinsland, director of the museum essay we are indebted for the preceding statement.

at Bremen. After dealing generally with the phenomena indicative of changes of level in Glacial and post-Glacial times,

SIR WILLIAM BROADBENT will preside at a medical conthe authors treat particularly of the post-Glacial his

ference on the teaching of hygiene and temperance, to be tory, which began with a long period of emergence,

held at the Examination Hall, Victoria Embankment, on and a land-level at least 30 feet higher than at present. Friday, March 24. The evidence obtained near Larne and Belfast tells of subsequent submergence, re-elevation (the amount of

The British Medical Journal states that Prof. E. A. which increased northward), and of a final slight Minchin, F.R.S., has undertaken to conduct-on the spotmovement of submergence in recent times that has

further investigations, under the auspices of the Royal left the surface as we now find it. The raised beach Society's Committee, into the causation of sleeping sickness of the Curran at Larne was accumulated over estuarine in the Uganda Protectorate. muds during the period of submergence, and it is of peculiar interest owing to the occurrence in it from The fifteenth German Geographentag will be held at top to base of worked flints of Neolithic type. A Danzig on June 13-15. The chief subjects of papers and detailed account, with figures of the flints, is given. discussions will be south polar exploration, vulcanology, The evidence is taken to indicate that man was on the ground during the submergence that allowed of the

coast morphology and formation of dunes, and school continued laying down of 20 feet of gravels in shallow geography. water or between tides. Moreover, the abundance of flint flakes in the surface-layers renders it probable the list of gold-producing countries. In December, 1904,

AFTER a pause of many years France has again entered that Neolithic man persisted after that movement of elevation had set in which made the top of the gravels the first gold mill in France was started at the La Lucette a land-surface. Attention is directed to further evidence antimony mine, near Laval. A 10-stamp mill is running at Whitepark Bay, east of the Giant's Causeway, and steadily, the daily production amounting to about 1 kitoagain in the neighbourhood of Portstewart, which lies gram of gold in the form of a rich concentrate. only 13 miles E.N.E. of Broighter. At Whitepark Bay, Neolithic “ black layers ” or land-surfaces occur

We learn from the Chemist and Druggist that two prizes, at various levels among the sand dunes, while near one of 5000 francs (200l.) and the other of 3000 francs (120l.), Portstewart old surfaces with Neolithic remains are have been offered by Dr. Henri de Rothschild to the Scientific found in deep wind-excavated hollows in the dunes. Society of Alimentary Hygiene, Paris, for the best treatises (see Fig. 1). This evidence proves conclusively that written in French on the rational food for man. The prizes the ground on which the gold ornaments were found

will be awarded in 1906, and the papers must be sent in by has been a land-surface, with an elevation at least as great as at present, since Neolithic times, the whole

December 31, 1905. of the movement of elevation, which formed the post- The experiments with wireless telegraphy between Glacial raised beach of the north-east of Ireland, Diamond Island and the Andamans are, says the Pioneer Mail, having been accomplished during Neolithic times.

giving most satisfactory results. A recent message transmitted from Port Blair reached Calcutta in nineteen minutes, though

it had to come over the land-lines after being received at NOTES.

Diamond Island. The president of the Royal Society, and Lord Rayleigh,

The Paris correspondent of the Times reports that a chairman of the general board of the National Physical telegram has been received from M. Jean Charcot, the Laboratory, have issued invitations to a visitation of the laboratory on Friday, March 17, when the various depart dated Puerto Madryn, March 4. It is stated that scientific

explorer in command of the French Antarctic expedition, ments will be on view and apparatus will be exhibited.

work was carried on under good conditions while wintering The thirteenth “ James Forrest " lecture of the Institution

on Wandel Island. Several parts of Graham Land hitherto of Civil Engineers will be delivered by Colonel R. E. B. unknown have been explored, and by following the coast Crompton on Monday, April 10, upon the subject of " Un continuously its outline has been determined. solved Problems in Electrical Engineering."

THE Times states that the French Ministry of Public PROF. W. J. SOLLAS, F.R.S., has been elected a member

Works has commissioned M. Jacquier to project plans for a of the Athenæum Club under the rule which empowers

railway between Chamonix and Aosta. It is considered that the annual election by the committee of nine persons “ of

the difficulty would not be so great as with the Simpson distinguished eminence in science, literature, the arts, or

tunnel ; the tunnel would be 41 miles shorter, and the rock for public services."

gives no indication of subterranean reservoirs of water. The

tunnel would commence at Chamonix, 3415 feet above sea MR. J. E. S. Moore has been appointed director of the level, and end at Entrèves (4550 feet), a distance of 8} miles. Cancer Research, which is carried out in connection with The Dora Baltea would give ample water power for the the Royal Infirmary.

boring work, and afterwards for locomotion.

The preliminary programme has been issued for the Inter- premium is awarded to Dr. Carlo Ceni, of Reggio (Emilis), national Congress of Botany to be held at Vienna in Whitsun and for miasma and contagion the full prize and a gold week, June 11-18. The formal opening of the congress medal are conferred on Dr. Adelchi Negri, of Pavia. As will take place on Monday, June 12, in the large hall of the usual, there is keen competition for the Brambilla industrial University of Vienna. A conference on the nomenclature prize, and the institution has awarded three first prizes with question will be opened on the same day, and will be con- gold medals and four second prizes with gold medals to Lomtinued on other days. The chief subject of papers on June 13 bardy manufacturers. Under the Fossati foundation an will be the development of the European Aora since the award is made to Dr. Giuseppe Pagano for a thesis on Tertiary period. On June 14 a general meeting of the cerebral localisation. The Kramer prize for an essay on botanical societies assembled for the conference will be electric traction is awarded to Giovanni Giorgi, engineer, of held, as well as a conference of agricultural botanists. The Rome, and three awards under the Ciani prize are given subjects of discussion for the scientific meetings on June 14 for books on modern Italy. will be (1) the present condition of the theory of the assimilation of carbonic acid, and (2) regeneration. Among the

The following list of prize subjects now issued by the papers to be read on Friday, June 16, may be mentioned

Lombardy Institution for 1905 and following years includes one by Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., on the fern-like seed-plants

the announcements made last year. Institution prizes, for of the Carboniferous flora. The organising committee has

1905, on the ophiolitic formations of the Apennines; for arranged for excursions before, during, and after the

1906, on modern psychiatry. Cagnola prizes, for 1905, on congress, and these will afford visitors an opportunity of

phenomena of catalysis ; for 1906, on pathology of supralearning to know botanically interesting regions under the

renal capsules. Fossati prizes (open to Italian subjects), for guidance of specialists. In connection with the conference,

1905, on our present knowledge of neurology; for 1906, on too, an international botanical exhibition has been arranged,

visual centres of higher vertebrates; for 1907, on nuclei of and will take place in the orangery of the Imperial Chateau

cranial nerves; for 1908, on the central nervous system. at Schönbrunn. Full particulars of the conference can be

Kramer prize, for 1905, on the resistance of cement obtained by intending visitors on application to the general

structures. Secco Comneno prize for a discovery on the secretary, Dr. A. Zahlbruckner, I., Burgring, Vienna.

virus of rabies. In addition, the triennial medals, Cagnola,

Brambilla, Pizzamiglio, Tommasoni, Zanetti, and Ciani A SHORT time ago we chronicled the death of Prof. Emilio prizes are offered under the usual conditions, which have Villari, of Naples. Some interesting biographical details been referred to in previous years in the columns of NATURL. relating to this well-known physicist have now been published by Prof. A. Rồiti in the Memorie of the Italian Spectro

In the West India Committee Circular, Mr. Kenrick scopists' Society (Catania, December, 1904) and the Atti of Gibbons suggests that mosquitoes are largely destroyed in the Lincei Academy, xiv. (i), 1. As in the case of the late

Barbadoes by swarms of small fish, locally known as Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, there can be no doubt that Villari's

" millions," which prey on the larve. death was largely due to overwork, a result in both instances brought about by the great amount of teaching work which

In the February number of the Zoologist Mr. E. Bern these physicists were required to undertake in their pro

groth, of Tammerfors, Finland, gives a list of generic fessorial duties, and which, when combined with research zoological names not included in the supplement to tite work, left them no time for rest. From his birth, in 1836,

“ Index Zoologicus " compiled by Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse Villari suffered from epilepsy, and, partly in consequence of

and published in 1902. While the number of names in the this, his early education was obtained at private schools.

latter is about 250, no less than about 300 are recorded by He graduated in medicine at Pisa. In 1860 he taught in the

Mr. Bergroth, all dating before 1901. medical school of Naples; the next year he returned to Some months ago Schaudinn published some interesting Pisa as professor of physics and chemistry; in 1864 he observations on the development of trypanosome formis from studied in the laboratory of Magnus at Berlin. From 1865 | Halteridium, a protozoan blood parasite of birds. Novy and to 1871 he occupied chairs at Florence; he was then, by

MacNeal now criticise Schaudinn's work, and ascribe his competition, appointed to the chair at Bologna, which he

results to a double infection with Trypanosoma and Halheld until 1889, when he went to Naples. His duties at the teridium, and not to the development of the former from the latter place involved the conducting of three separate Uni

latter. versity courses of lectures, and it is not surprising that in the session 1902–3 he broke down under the stress of work, We have received the Transactions of the Epidemiological and after a long and painful illness died on August 20 of Society for the session 1903-4 (vol. xxiii.). It contains a last year. In the forty years from 1865 to 1904, Villari pro- paper by Prof. Simpson on the epidemiology of plague, in duced a long series of papers, which might advantageously which he shows that the domestic animals and birds may be collected and published in a volume. His most recent contract plague by feeding on plague-infected offal, and work refers to the properties of air and gases which have important discussions on sleeping sickness, the etiology of been rendered radio-active by Röntgen rays, and to which scurvy, industrial anthrax, and enteric fever and cholera in he gave the name " aria ixata," or, literally, “X'd air." | Hamburg, together with an obituary notice of the late He was an honorary member of our Royal Institution and Sir John Simon. the Physical Society of London, and for some time previous to his death was president of the Lincei Academy.

Some interesting notes on the habits of Satterer's bat

(Myotis nattereri) are contributed by Mr. T. A. Coward to The usual prize announcements of the Royal Lombardy the Zoologist for February. From these it appears that in Institution are given in the Rendiconti, xxxviii., 1. The certain habits this bat is to some extent intermediate between triennial gold medal for industry is awarded to Messrs. other members of the Vespertilionidæ and the horse-shoe Vermot and Rejna for carriage springs and axles. The bats (Rhinolophidae). It has, for instance, the habit of Cagnola prizes for velocity of kathode rays, steering of turning in the air, characteristic of the latter. Again, balloons and prevention of forgery, as well as several other whereas in the horseshoe-bats the short tail is carried bent prizes, remain unawarded, while for cure of pellagra a over the back, while in most British Vespertilionidæ this appendage is usually carried beneath the body, in Natterer's that for 1902, except in the case of purely rainfall stations, bat, despite the fact of its being used as a pouch to contain where there is a decrease of 31. This is partly due to the the insect-food, it is borne extended in the line of the body. fact that owing to severe drought many farmers have had

to trek with the remains of their cattle to adjoining terriTo the complex subject of nuclear changes is devoted the greater portion of the February issue of the Quarterly

tories, leaving their homesteads entirely unoccupied. The Journal of Microscopical Science, Messrs. Farmer and Moore

report contains useful monthly and yearly average rainfall discussing the “ maiotic ” phase (reduction divisions) in

data, for districts, over Cape Colony for the ten-year period animals and plants in the first article, while in the second

1894-1903. Prof. Farmer and Miss Shove describe the structure and

Prof. H. HERGESELL, president of the International Aërodevelopment of the somatic and heterotype chromosomes of

nautical Committee, has favoured us with a summary of the Tradescantia. The term “ maiotic ” phase is a new one,

monthly ascents made during the last six months of the proposed to cover the whole series of changes formerly

year 1904 for the exploration of the upper air by means of known as heterotype and homotype; as being derived from

manned and unmanned balloons and kites. The average welwois (reduction) its orthography should apparently be * miotic." Of the other two articles, one, by Messrs. Moore

number of ascents per month was eighteen, and some re

markable altitudes were attained by the unmanned balloons, and Robinson, describes the behaviour of the nucleolus in the spermatogenesis of Periplaneta, while the other, by ing 10,000 metres, the extremes being 24,970 metres, at

seven of them exceeding 15,000 metres, and eighteen exceedMr. G. Wagner, is devoted to certain movements and reactions of Hydra.

Strassburg, and 19,750 metres, at Pavlovsk, both in the

month of September. Special mention may be made of some FROM a letter which Mr. P. Olsson-Seffer has written to important kite ascents from the yacht of the Prince of Science, we learn that a Danish botanist, Mr. M. P. Porsild, Monaco last autumn, during which a height of 4510 metres has sought the help of his Government in founding an was attained to the north-west of the Canary Islands, and Arctic laboratory, which it is proposed to establish near 4360 metres south of the Azores. We hope shortly to refer Godhavn (lat. 69° 15' N.), on Disko Island, North Green- to some valuable results obtained from the discussion of land. Such a laboratory would be the first institution of these observations in the region of the trade winds. its kind for investigating Arctic problems, and would form

We have received a copy of the fifth edition of Jelinek's a counterpart in the cold regions to the tropical stations at

excellent “ Instructions for taking Meteorological ObservaBuitenzorg and Ceylon. The power of plants to withstand

tions," issued under the superintendence of Dr. J. M. intense cold, and their nutrition under the peculiar conditions

Pernter, the present able director of the Austrian Meteorof light, will probably be among the earliest researches.

ological Service. The first two editions (1869 and 1876) were Mr. J. H. Maiden has contributed to the Proceedings of written by Dr. Jelinek, the third and fourth (1894 and 1893) the Linnean Society of New South Wales (August, 1904) an

were revised by Dr. J. Hann, who is justly recognised as account of the plants collected by Mrs. David on Funafuti,

the foremost of living meteorologists. Not forgetting the exone of the Ellice group of coral islands. The list agrees very

cellent meteorological instructions issued in Russia by the late closely with those of collections made on similar islands,

Dr. H. Wild, in France by M. Angot, and in Germany by Dr. notably Samoa, Fiji and Keeling Islands, and consists of van Bebber, nor the useful handbooks of smaller pretensions fifty flowering plants representing thirty-three orders. The by Dr. Scott (late of the Meteorological Office) and Mr. native names are very similar to the Samoan. Although the Marriott (Royal Meteorological Society), we can have no plants include various edible products, such as the almonds

hesitation in asserting that the work now under notice is of Terminalia Catappa, the sword-bean, and fruits of Pan- second to none among works of a similar kind. It is danus, the islanders subsist chiefly on taro and bananas.

thoroughly up-to-date, and contains all that is necessary to

be known in connection with the recent considerable adThe second part of Prof. E. C. Jeffery's treatise on the vances made by the introduction and more general use of comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Coniferales claims various self-recording instruments, and with the more attention not only for the facts which he has observed in systematic observations of clouds. It contains good repreexamining various genera of the Abietineæ, but more

ore sentations of eight of the principal forms of clouds, reproespecially on account of the deductions which, evolved from duced from the International Cloud Atlas, and 37 other the consideration of certain formulated canons of comparative illustrations, with sound advice in the choice of necessary anatomy, by their evident consistency go far to establish instruments and the establishment of stations of all classes, the validity of these canons. It is possible to trace in the whether first-order observatories or stations intended to Abietineæ a sequence from forms such as Tsuga and record merely rainfall and temperature. Any observers in (edrus, in which resin-canals are absent from the wood of our own country who may be conversant with the German all normal stem parts, through certain species of Abies, in language would, we think, be much interested by a careful which the resin-canals occur only in the wood of the re- perusal of this very instructive work. productive axis, to Picea, Larix, and Pinus, where they are formed normally in the wood of the vegetative axis. Among

The current number of the Fortnightly Review contains

an article by M. A. Santos-Dumont on " The Future of the former, resin-canals are freely produced in the vegetative shoots as a result of injury. From these and other facts Air-Ships.” The difficulties against which the nagivator Prof. Jeffery concludes that the Abietineæ are a very ancient

of the air has to contend are explained, and the means order, older than the Cupressineæ, and by the possession adopted by various aëronauts to overcome these obstacles of a double leaf-trace are allied to the Cordaitales. The

are described. The two great obstacles to ballooning, M. treatise forms the first number of vol. vi. of the Memoirs of Santos-Dumont points out, are contraction and expansion. the Boston Society of Natural History.

To counteract contraction ballast must be thrown out, to

compensate for expansion, gas must be allowed to escape. We have received the report of the Meteorological Com- The skill of the aeronaut of a spherical balloon consists in mission of Cape Colony for the year 1903. A comparison of maintaining his desired altitude with the greatest economy the number of ordinary stations shows a fair increase over of gas and ballast. But in any case repeated contractions

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