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must mean the loss of the last lot of ballast, and repeated thermometer in the shade out of doors registered - 50 F. expansions must result in the loss of so much gas that and indoors 62° F., Prof. Buller found that a spark hali the balloon sinks eventually to earth. The latest plan pro- an inch long could be obtained between his finger and an posed to overcome this weakness is described at length in earth-connected iron pipe after sliding his feet smartly for the article. Steam circulating in a long aluminium worm twenty paces along the maple-wood floor of his laboratory. will be used to heat the gas of the balloon, and contraction in the chemical laboratory calcium chloride may be exwill mean merely the condensation of so much steam into posed to the air for some weeks without showing the least water, while expansion will be brought about by its recon- apparent signs of deliquescence. In order to demonstrate version into steam. The difficulty consists in preventing the deliquescence of this substance to the students, the proany loss of water, and M. Santos-Dumont explains how he fessor of chemistry is obliged to use a damp-chamber. proposes to effect this. The successful use, at an early

No. 2 of vol. ii. of Le Radium contains an account by date, of air-ships in Arctic exploration is predicted, and

M. J. Danne of the deposits of pyromorphite containing the part that air-ships will take in the warfare of the future is outlined.

radium which have recently been discovered at Issy-l'Evêque

(Saone et Loire), and the first part of a study of phosphorWe have received from Messrs. A. Gallenkamp and Co. escence by M. L. Matout. A description is also given by specimens of some new spectrum tubes which

we have

Dr. Robert Abbe, of St. Luke's Hospital, New York, of tested with very satisfactory results. The tubes, three in several cures of external tumours and cancerous growthis number, contained argon, helium, and a mixture of argon which were effected by means of radium. and helium, and the trial showed that they are a great advance on any other forms that have previously been ex

An investigation of the effect of temperature on the amined. For spectroscopic work they should be of the magnetisation of steel, nickel and cobalt by Prof. H. Nagaoka greatest service, for the exceeding brilliancy of the gases,

and S. Kusakabe constitutes article 9 of vol. xix, of the when only a small coil, with or without a iar in circuit, is Journal of Science of the University of Tokio. The most used, will render them particularly useful in research work. | interesting results were obtained with cobalt and with The tubes themselves are of rather novel construction, the tungsten-steel. The former is characterised by undergoing main point being the insertion of a short capillary tube in

several remarkable changes of magnetisation as the a tube of larger dimensions, the latter being connected temperature is raised, whilst with tungsten-steel, between the with two other tubes fixed at right angles, and containing temperature of disappearance of magnetism on heating and the electrodes. The current passing from one electrode to that of its reappearance on cooling, there exist at least five the other has to pass through the capillary, and the gas corrugations in the curve of magnetisation in a constant in this space is rendered very brilliant. When placed end on

field. When once the magnetisation has disappeared it to the slit of a spectroscope, the bulb end of the tube con- cannot be recovered until the temperature has been lowered taining the capillary being on the slit side, a method first by about 240° C., and the cooling curve again exhibits adopted by Monkhoven to obtain the maximum of brilliancy peculiar sinuosities. In addition to these peculiarities, of the illuminated gas on the slit, the result is a brilliant tungsten-steel shows a very pronounced recalescence at concentration of light which can be examined with large 660° C., this temperature practically coinciding with that dispersion. The tubes are strong, compact, and well made, at which magnetism reappears in the cooling metal. and can be strongly recommended both for student and

IN No. 3 of vol. vi. of the Physikalische Zeitschrift research use.

Messrs. Elster and Geitel describe further investigations of Prof. A. H. R. BULLER, writing from the University of the highly radio-active muds from the thermal springs of Manitoba, describes some striking electrical effects due to Nauheim and Baden. These sediments are completely the dryness of the atmosphere at Winnipeg. The air soluble in hydrochloric acid, and on adding dilute sulphuric during the winter months contains so little water-vapour acid to the solution, a precipitate of radio-barium sulphate is that bodies charged with electricity lose their charges re- obtained having an activity many times as great as that of latively slowly. When the thermometer is low, ranging as an equal quantity of the original mud. The oxides preit often does for a week or more at a time from oo to cipitated by ammonia from the filtrate of the barium

- 40° F., very little friction, such, for instance, as may sulphate are also radio-active, the character of the emanabe produced by walking along a carpet, causes a person tion indicating the presence of thorium, although this subto become charged with sufficient electricity to produce a stance could not be separated by chemical methods. Prof. visible and audible spark on touching an iron bedpost, the G. Vicentini and M. Levi de Zara, in the Atti of the radiator, the gas-tap, or any other conductor. It is a

Royal Venetian Institute (vol. Ixiv., ii., 95), also deal with favourite amusement of some children to take sparks from the question of radio-active sediments. The radio-activity each other's noses after running about a carpeted room. In of the mud and of the incrustation formed by the thermal the Manitoba Hotel, now burnt down, there was a ball-springs of Battaglia, Abano, Montegrotto and the Lake of room with some iron pillars in it. Prof. Buller was told | Lispida has been measured. The Cittadella spring at Monte by a trustworthy eye-witness that after a dance dancers on

grotto is particularly noteworthy on account of the high several occasions have been “ severely stung" by accident

value of its radio-activity and of the fact that this appears ally coming into contact with one of the pillars. Many ladies

to be due to radium only. The air in the vicinity of the have considerable difficulty in combing their hair ; for during springs was in all cases found to contain notable quantities the process it becomes so charged with electricity that it

of a radio-active emanation. stands out in the most astonishing manner. Even the short hair of a man, when being combed, often crackles, The latest addition to the Philosophische Bibliothek pub “ stands on end,” and in the dark produces a display of lished by the Dürrischen Buchhandlung, Leipzig, is a sparks. It is quite easy to light the gas with a spark translation of Spinoza's “ Ethics," with an introduction and from the finger when matches are not handy by merely notes, by Dr. Otto Baensch. The volume is No. oz of the shuffling a few paces over the carpet and then holding a series of philosophical manuals in which it is published, finger to the burner. On February 6, at i p.m., when a and its price is three marks.

We have received from Mr. A. C. Cossor, of Farringdon- observations of December 31, 1904, January 17 and 27, 1905. road, E.C., an illustrated catalogue of Röntgen ray tubes,

When the observational values were compared with the places electrical instruments and fittings, and small electric lamps calculated from these elements, the agreement was found for all purposes. The catalogue should be of interest to

to be satisfactory, and it seems probable that the comet

is moving in an elliptical orbit with a period of about physicists, medical men and others interested in high 7.3 years. An ephemeris based upon these elements and vacuum work.

extending to March 31 is given, and shows that on March 1

the comet will be only 0.27 as bright as at the time of The fourth part of the second volume of “ The Fauna and discovery, when it was variously estimated as being of the Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes : tenth or eleventh magnitude. being the Account of the Work carried on and of the Ccl. Comet 1904 d was observed on January 28, and the oblections made by an Expedition during the years 1899 and

servation showed that the orbit published in Bulletin No. 67 1900," edited by Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, has been pub

needs very little correction. From the comet's appearance

on that date it is evident that this object will soon be beyond lished by the Cambridge University Press. This part con- the reach of all but the most powerful telescopes.

An tains reports on the Alcyonaria of the Maldives by Prof. ephemeris extending to April 3 is given. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S.; on marine crustaceans by Major

Observations of comet 1904 a were made with the 12-inch Alcock, F.R.S., and Prof. H. Coutière ; on hydroids by refractor by Messrs. Maddrill and Aitken during the period Mr. L. A. Borradaile ; on Rhynchota by Mr. W. L. Distant'; June 21-September 4, 1904, and the results are given in the and notes on parasites by Mr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S.

same circular. A footnote by Dr. Aitken states that the

comet was still visible in the 12-inch telescope on January Messrs. TEUBNER, of Leipzig, have just issued a fifth

26, and an observation made on that date showed that Prof. edition of Schlömilch's “Uebungsbuch zum Studium der

Nijland's ephemeris is very nearly exact. höheren Analysis," part i., of which the first edition appeared

THE GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY AT VICTORIA.-We have in 1868, and a second edition of Dr. A. Föppl's “ Einführung director of the Victoria (Australia) Observatory for the years

received the annual reports of the board of visitors and the in die Maxwell'sche Theorie der Elektrizität,” the first ending March 31, 1903, and 1904. edition of which appeared in 1894. Of these, the former, The reports show that the routine work connected with which in England would be called a “treatise on the cal- the meridian observations, the time service, the meteorculus," has been revised by Prof. E. Naetsch, of Dresden, ological, magnetic, and seismological observations, and and several new paragraphs on transformation of coordinates

instrument testing was carried out as usual. have been added. The work of editing Dr. Föppl's treatise

On the later date the taking of the catalogue plates for

the astrographic chart, to the number of 1149, had been has been undertaken by Dr. M. Abraham, who is preparing completed, whilst satisfactory progress had also been made a second volume dealing with “ theory of electromagnetic with the other sections of the work. The measurement of radiations."

both the Sydney and the Melbourne plates is being carried out at Melbourne, and on March 31, 1904, 239 Sydney plates

containing 137,812 stars, and 522 Melbourne plates containOUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

ing 151,343 stars, had been completely measured. A new JUPITER'S SEVENTH SATELLITE.Circular 74 from the Kiel

measuring machine designed by Mr. H. C. Russell was Centralstelle confirms the telegram received last week con

finished, and its fitness was being investigated when the

report was issued. cerning the discovery of a seventh satellite to Jupiter. It contains a message from Prof. Campbell in which he

The director, Mr. P. Baracchi, states that the work of states that the object was discovered by Prof. Perrine, using

measuring the magnetograph curves and reducing all the

magnetic observations made since 1868 is progressing satisthe Crossley reflector. The position previously given, viz. factorily, and that he hopes the results will be published position angle =62°, distance from Jupiter 21', was that within the next two or three years. occupied by the satellite on February 25.6 (G.M.T.). The apparent motion was direct, and the orbit is considerably

OBSERVATIONS OF SATURN'S SATELLITES.–The results of a inclined to the ecliptic. This latest satellite has been under

series of observations of the relative positions of the seven observation, with the Crossley reflector, since January 2,

inner satellites of Saturn are published in Bulletin No. 68 but no particulars of the observations, other than those for

of the Lick Observatory. The observations were made by January 25, are given in the circular.

Prof. Hussey with the 36-inch refractor between August 3 LONGITUDE OBSERVATIONS OF Points on Mars.- Bulletin and distance of the satellite in regard to one of the other

and December 2, 1904, and in each case the position angle No. 14 from the Lowell Observatory contains the results of satellites are given. the longitude determinations of nearly sixty features on the surface of Mars made at Flagstaff during 1903. For each

Bright Meteors.--Mr. R. L. Jones, writing from 3 King's point the times of the several observations and the resulting Bench Walk, Temple, E.C., refers to three bright meteors longitudes are given, and these are followed by the mean observed on the nights of February 27 and 28. All the three value for the longitude and its probable error; the mean appear to have started from the constellation Monoceros, and value for the latitude of each point is also given.

to have tracked thence in a north-westerly direction. A The longitudes were determined by noting the time of brilliant meteor was also seen at 12.10 a.m. on March 1, its transit of each marking across the micrometer thread when brightness far exceeding that of Venus. the latter was placed parallel to the position angle of the polar axis, as given in Mr. Crommelin's ephemeris, and passing through the polar cap. As the thread obliterated the markings it became easier in practice to record the time at which THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF THE UNITED the marking and the cap were equidistant from the thread.

STATES. Mr. Lowell has allotted a number to the result of each determination showing the relative weight to be attached | THE report for the year ending June 30, 1904, on the to the value obtained.

magnetic survey of the United States and its out

lying territories has lately been issued by the authorities OBSERVATIONS OF Comets.—The comets 1904 e (Borrelly), of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and contains a long list 1904 d (Giacobini), and 1904 a (Brooks) have been regularly of field observations of the magnetic elements made with observed, at Lick, by Dr. R. G. Aitken, and the results are the usual completeness, supported by results obtained in published in No. 69 of the Lick Observatory Bulletins. five fixed observatories. Two of the latter are at Porto

Observations of comet 1904 e were made during the end Rico and Honolulu respectively. of December and the beginning of January, and two sets The new feature in the present report is that the survey of parabolic elements were computed from the results. has been extended to the neighbouring seas both on the Subsequent observations did not confirm these, and conse- Atlantic and Pacific sides of North America, and it records quently Dr. Aitken computed elliptic elements from his the successful observation at sea of thirty-four values of

the Dip, and thirty-two of the Intensity, with fifty-two of of the Sydney Museum, who has published an illustrated the Declination.

account of their nesting habits in the Records of the Aus The observations of the Declination were made with tralian Museum for December last (vol. v. No. 5). Ur. the ship's standard compass in the process of “ swinging." Waite has obligingly sent us a copy of his original photoThose for Dip and Intensity at the same time with the graph of the nest, which is herewith reproduced. Lloyd-Creak (shortly L.-C.) dip circle, an instrument origin- Mr. Waite states that he received these fish early in April ally designed for sea observations of those elements, but last year, and that the male almost immediately proceeded which in field work on land has also been found to give to blow bubbles, which it produced by rising periodically to results hardly inferior to those of the specially designed the surface and taking in gulps of air. A circular mais land instruments. The degree of accuracy hitherto obtained of mucus-clad bubbles, about 3 inches in diameter, was soon at sea as compared with land observations with the same produced; and in course of time several other layers were instrument is also given.

formed, whích resulted in the final production of a langt The accompanying illustration shows the L.-C. circle dome-shaped structure, as shown in the photograph. The mounted for observations on land and fitted on top with an structure was completed on the third day, when the female arrangement proposed by the U.S. C. Survey for observing commenced to lay her eggs, which were received between the the Declination, but which also serves the purpose of pectoral and ventral fins as they were extruded, and were then placing the circle in the magnetic meridian. At sea the suffered to sink slowly in the water. Here they were colcircle is mounted on a gimbal stand with the declination lected by the expectant male, decked in his resplendent breedfitting removed, as the angle between the direction of the ing colours, and placed, after being coated with mucus, ship's head and the magnetic meridian is then obtained below the mass of bubbles, to which they adhered. From from the ship's standard compass.

three to seven eggs are extracted at a time, and the process A detailed description of the L.-C. circle is given in the is continued until there are from one hundred and fifty to

two hundred. When the laying is over, the female is kept away from the nest to prevent her devouring the eggs, which are carefully tended by the male, being constantly moved and from time to time re-coated with slime.

On the third day the eggs hatched, the larvæ remaining beneath the shelter of the bubbles. From time to time some fell off, when they were immediately replaced by the watchful male, but in a day or two the numbers which became de


Fig. 1.- Nest of the Fighting Fish. About two-thirds natural size

From a photograph by Mr. Waite. tached were too many for him to secure, although he free quently had seven or eight in his mouth at once. Some were. however, recovered from the bottom of the tank and returned to the shelter of the nest, but many were devoured by the female. Eventually all the lar. æ died, and, althougt: the fishes bred on two other occasions, none of the offspring wet reared.

Fig. 1.-Lloyd-Creak Dip Circle, mounted for Observations on Land.

report with the methods adopted for observing therewith at sea in the U.S. surveying vessels, which are, however, SOME RECENT WORK OF THE U.S. GEO. not specially adapted to the work. A wood-built vessel, LOGICAL SURVEY IN THE I'ESTERN specially designed and devoted to magnetic work as a STATES. primary object, is required to obtain the full value from this instrument, and it is therefore pleasant to record that If it be possible for envy to lurk in the breast of the the magnetic survey of the North Pacific Ocean in such a

scientific worker, then surely might we look for it vessel will be commenced this year by the United States.

in the geologist of these islands when he regards the lot of his fellow-worker across the Atlantic. In the breadth

of field open to research, in the freshness of the land, and THE NEST OF THE FIGHTING FISH.

in the public support accorded to his labours, the geologist

of the present day in the United States may justly claim IN most, if not in all, the members of the group of Oriental preeminence. In the four memoirs before us, a

fishes typified by the so-called climbing perch (Anabas random selection from the recent publications of the C.S. scandens), the males take charge of the eggs as they are ex- 1 “Zinc and Lead Deposits of Northern Arkansas." By G. L. Adass tracted from the females and place them in a “nest of and others. Pp. 118; with 17 plates and 6 figures. mucus-covered bubbles, which they have previously pre

"The Copper Deposits of the Encampment District, Wyoming" By pared. A well-known representative of the family is the

A. C. Spencer. Pp. 107 ; with 2 plates (maps) and 49 figures

"Economic Resources of the Northern Black Hills." By J. D. Irvisg ** fighting fish " (Betta pugnax), which takes its name from and others. Pp. 222; with 20 plates and 16 figures. the circumstance that a semi-domesticated breed is kept by “A Geological Reconnaissance across the Bitterroot Range and Cles the Siamese for the sake of the sport offered by the combats

water Mountains in Montana and Idaho." By W. Lindgren. Pp. 123 of the males. Of this fish living specimens from Pinang

with 15 plates and 8 figures.

Being " Profesional Papers" Nos. 24, 25, 26 and 27 of the U.S. Goshave recertly been in the possession of Mr. E. H. Waite, logical Survey. (Washington, 1904.)

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Geological Survey, all these stimulants are conspicuous. termed “crush-conglomerate." These breccias have perThe memoir on the Bitterroot Range alone deals with an mitted the percolation of the ore-bearing solutions, and area of about 12,000 square miles, respecting which our are sometimes enriched by metalliferous deposits, though scientific knowledge has been hitherto of the scantiest; usually only in the vicinity of the nearly vertical fissures while the other three, though professedly more limited in which appear to have formed the principal channels of the scope, treat in detail of areas ranging from about 450 mineralised waters. It is suggested that the ores repreto 560 square miles which may be taken as selected sent the concentration of minerals originally disseminated illustrations of parts of the vast region west of the in the country rock, and more especially in the Mississippi.

Mississippian (Carboniferous) limestones, this concentration Of course, it is not area only that counts in geology; having been effected by waters which, after circulating and in considering the magnificent distances of the Great through the upper belt of weathered rock, have passed West, we may take heart in that our own shreds of land downward to the “ belt of cementation." have not been carved out of some wide monotonous tract The next memoir carries us some 700 miles north-westcovered by a single formation within which it might be ward, to the southern border of Wyoming, and to a the fate of an ardent geologist of limited means to find geological province of utterly different character. “The himself hopelessly tethered! It is, indeed, fortunate that Copper Deposits of the Encampment District," by A. C. in the geological map of the world the British Isles Spencer, describes a hilly region on the Continental Divide, lie, as it were, athwart the index.

ranging in altitude from about 6650 feet to 11,007 feet, It is less easy to find consolation when we compare occupied for the most part by a complex mass of preeven the most presentable of our British geological publi- Cambrian rocks, broken into and altered by igneous cations with these beautifully printed and liberally illus- intrusions, with Mesozoic formations lying upon the flanks trated memoirs, wherein the native asperities of the of the ancient massif as foot hills and dipping away technical treatise are so smoothed and adorned that they beneath the surrounding prairie. The pre-Cambrian group are hardly perceptible. Take, for example.... but comparisons are proverbially odious, and, moreover, the one in mind has been frequently made, with no good result, so let it pass!

It is noteworthy that all four treatises give the results of investigations which, although essentially scientific in scope, have centred around the economic resources of the specified districts. In all cases, also, the prospector and miner, working more or less at haphazard, had made considerable progress in developing the metalliferous deposits before the advent of the geologist, whose function has been to explain the general principles deducible from the discoveries already made, and to indicate the lines along which further exploration may proceed with the best chance of success. This is the proper course, for it is not until the average " practical man ” begins to feel the need for professional advice that he is likely to pay much heed to such advice if it be proffered him. Fig. 1.- Trapper Peak, showing gradual slope of Gneiss Zone to the left and Glacial Amphitheatre All the memoirs, and more especially

in Granite at certre. that on the northern Black Hills, give full descriptions and many illustrations of the includes hornblende-schists derived from bedded volcanic principal mine-workings, to which we need not further rocks, limestones and shales, quartzite and slate, and a refer.

thick conglomerate, with intrusions of quartz-diorites, First on our list stands the description of the zinc and granites, and gabbros in great variety. The structure of lead deposits of northern Arkansas, by G. 1. Adams, the sedimentary rocks of this group is interpreted as a assisted by A. H. Purdue and E. F. Burchard, with synclinorium, striking east and west, with its component a palæontological appendix on the correlation of the strata dipping invariably to the south. With respect to formations by E. 0. Ulrich. Though occurring mainly the conglomerate, it is noted that though locally almost at a lower stratigraphical position, these metalliferous de- unchanged from its original condition, it is more frequently posits appear to be very similar in mode of occurrence metamorphosed, and that this metamorphism, both and in character of vein-stuff to the lead-ores of the mechanical and chemical, has often been carried so far Carboniserous Limestone of the north of England. that the contained boulders and pebbles have been mashed

The principal locus of the deposits is in " the Yellville into disc-like plates, and the rocks, by re-crystallisation, formation," a dolomitic limestone of Ordovician age ; but converted into a gneiss the origin of which would be They also range upward, less abundantly, into Lower entirely indeterminate except through the study of its Carboniferous Limestones. The Silurian system appears to gradual passage from the unaltered condition. Certain he absent from the district described, and the Devonian mineral transformations described in the gabbros are is represented only by impersistent sandstone and shale, of assigned to dynamic pressures insufficient to inaugurate which the maximum thickness does not exceed 40 feet. The actual crushing, and also unaccompanied by a notable region has been little disturbed ; igneous rocks are absent ; degree of hydration. The copper-ores which constitute and the Ordovician rocks still maintain their nearly hori- the chief mineral wealth of the district occur under diverse zontal position. Nevertheless, there has been in some | conditions, which are carefully described and classified. places much differential movement among the strata, prob- It is believed that a large part, though not all, of the ably as the result of compressive forces, whereby the metalliferous deposits had their original source in thinner and more brittle beds have been brecciated and the the gabbros, of which eighteen samples, representing fragments made to rotate or to shear past each other, various phases of the rock, were tested in the laboratory producing the structure that in this country has been of the survey, and in each case vielded traces of copper.

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In the richest lodes the ores appear to have been con- The last memoir of our series, which takes us again centrated by ascending solutions.

900 miles to the westward, is the description of a groIn the third memoir we are transported some 500 miles logical reconnaissance across the Bitterroot Range and north-eastward to consider the economic resources of the Clearwater Mountains in Montana and Idaho, by northern Black Hills of South Dakota. A brief sketch Waldemar Lindgren, and is in some respects the most of the general geology of the district is given in part i. instructive of the series; but unfortunately we have no (28 pages) by T. A. Jaggar, jun., and the rest of the space in which to do it justice. It deals with a vast tract volume, forming part ii., by J. D. Irving and S. F. of mountainous country, for the most part exceedingly Emmons, deals fully with the economic resources. The difficult to traverse, and as yet very imperfectly explored. A dome-like structure of the Black Hills, with their laccolitic huge“ batholith " of granite or quartz-monzonite 300 miles intrusions of igneous rock, is already well known.“ They in length from north to south, and 50 to 100 miles in rise like an island in the midst of the Great Plains, with width, occupies the central part of this region, and has culminating peaks of pre-Cambrian granite intrusive in been locally pressed and deformed, especially along its Algonkian schists, and these same schists and granite eastern margin, into gneiss. Sedimentary rocks are commay be followed outward from the centre of the Hills paratively restricted in their range, and the age of most to an encircling escarpment of Palæozoic rocks dipping of those which are exposed is doubtful, as no well defined away on the northern, southern, and eastern sides, and fossils have been found; but it is believed that, along mantling over the schists to form an extensive forested with complexes of pre-Cambrian age, the Triassic, Carbonlimestone plateau on the west. The limestones have been iferous, and possibly older Palæozoic systems are reprecrushed in places into “ pseudo-conglomerates, and Dr. sented. In the west the country is overspread by the Jaggar suggests a similar origin for many supposed con- great Columbia River lavas of Tertiary age. The physioglomerates or intraformational breccias that have been graphic features of the region are of extreme interest, and described in other parts of the continent.

are carefully discussed. It is shown that the Clearwater The picture of the region presented in the first few Mountains had already acquired a sharply accentuated pages of part i. is remarkably clear and impressive. topography before the outpouring of the Columbia River The Cambrian series of shales, quartzite, sandstone, and basalts, and that the lower portions of the principal valleys

were flooded and dammed by the
lava-flows. The most important
structural feature of the region, how-
ever, is the great fault by which the
Bitterroot Mountains have been ele
vated on the west and the Bitterroot
valley carried down on the east. This
fault-plane is described as being re-
markably flat, though apparently
normal. It is supposed to represent
a twofold movement, by which the
foot-wall has been raised and the
hanging wall depressed. It indicates
a vertical movement of from 4000 to
6000 feet, and the horizontal com-
ponent is estimated to be at least
two miles. The schistose belt of the
granite underlies this plane, and the
structure is considered to be an out-
come of the disturbance. Move-
ment appears to have continued

G. W. L. FIG. 2.-- Upper Valley of Mill Creek, Bitterroot Range, looking East from Main Divide. Notice

pronounced U-shape of Valley narrowing toward the lower part. The prevailing rock is granite. thin limestones, 200-400 feet thick, which rest in bold

ANTHROPOLOGICAL NOTES. unconformity upon the upturned edges of the Algonkian schists, include

their base irregular A N interesting paper by A. L. Kroeber on the types of glomerate, evidently an ancient beach-deposit. This

Indian culture in California is to be found in vol. Ü. basal Cambrian conglomerate contains detrital gold, of the Publications of the University of Californiaderived from the erosion of auriferous lodes in the American Archæology and Ethnology, 1904.' EthnoAlgonkian rocks, and, according to the present authors, logically, California is characterised by the absence of agrihas been further enriched by later infiltration. It thus culture and pottery, by the total absence of totemism or constitutes in favoured localities a gold-producing ore gentile organisation, by an unusually simple and loose second only in importance to the lodes in the underlying social organisation in which wealth plays a rather im. Algonkians. The last-mentioned lodes are usually fissured portant part, by the very rude development of all arts belts of rock along which the precious metal, accompanied except basketry, by the lack of realism in art, by a sligby by other minerals, has been more or less irregularly de- development of fetishism and by the conspicuous lack of posited by permeating solutions. Another important source symbolism and ritualism, by the predominance among of gold is described under the heading of “Refractory ceremonials of mourning and initiation rites, and by a con Siliceous Ores." These ores represent the replacement of siderable development of true conceptions of creation in portions of the Cambrian dolomitised limestones by silica mythology. The natives are of an uowarlike nature, and and other minerals, including gold, that appear to have lack intensity and pride. It will therefore be seen that in been carried upward in solution by waters ascending along almost every instance the Californian Indians are among vertical joints. These waters, when checked by a com- the least characteristic of the Indians of North America, paratively impervious bed, tended to spread out laterally being lacking in the typical qualities of that race, and along the dolomites, which were partially dissolved and thus they are the most generalised of the peoples of that replaced by other substances. This part of the memoir is continent. In the same volume Dr. Kroeber gives an illustrated with some beautiful plates of microscopic slides. account of the languages of the coast of California south Besides gold, the district has yielded ores of silver-lead, of San Francisco. wolframite, and a little copper, with some traces of tin. Drs. A. Bloch and P. Vigier have re-examined the hair



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