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sheets of metals. It is, however, shown by J. Precht and

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. C. Otsuki, in the Verhandlungen of the German Physical

STRUCTURE OF THE CORONA.—In an interesting paper pubSociety (vol. vii. p. 53), that hydrogen peroxide itself is lished in No. (1905) of the Revue générale des Sciences, capable of penetrating thin films of gelatin, celluloid, india- Dr. Ch. Nordmann discusses the structural details of the rubber and black paper, the peroxide being subsequently

solar corona and their causes. In the first place, he shows capable of detection by titanic acid. Metals in the form

that the incurvation of the coronal rays cannot be due solely of the thinnest sheet are, nevertheless, impervious to hydro- with the normals to the limb at the points of their pro

to the action of gravitation, for the angles which they make gen peroxide, if small holes be not present; the same is jection are far too small for this theory. true of thin films of paraffin, glass, and ebonite.

He then shows that the “ minimum corona, which ob

tains at the time when the solar surface is least disturbed Two papers dealing with the accurate measurement of simply assumes the form natural for it to assume under the coefficients of expansion are contained in the January num- action of centrifugal force, if it be granted that the partiber of the Physical Review. Mr. H. McAllister Randall cles forming the coronal streams are exactly balanced in describes the determination of the coefficient of expansion of

the solar atmosphere that is to say, if their weight is

counterbalanced by the force of the light-repulsion. At quartz between the temperatures of 36° and 500° C. by times of “ maximum,” when the solar surface in the sunmeans of Pulfrich's optical method, and shows that up to spot (i.e. equatorial) region is disturbed, the about 250° C. the expansion of quartz follows a straight-line local disturbances, and their consequent convection currents, law; between 250° and 470° C. it is necessary to include a

modify the action of the normal centrifugal forces, and thus term involving the square of the temperature, whilst at

produce the abnormal coronas observed at eclipses occurring 500° C. a sudden large increase in the expansibility becomes

during periods of maximum solar activity, which, although visible. At this temperature it is probable, as suggested by features.

of the same general form, vary greatly in their detailed Le Chatelier, that quartz undergoes a change into a second RADIANT POINT OF THE BIELID METEORS.-From a nummodification having very different physical properties from ber of observations of the Bielids made on November 21, those of the ordinary form. The second paper, by Mr.

1904, Herr K. Bohlin, of Stockholm, has calculated the H. D. Ayres, deals with the measurement by Pulfrich's

radiant point of the shower. method of the coefficients of linear expansion of the metals

The resulting position is only about 3° from y Andro aluminium and silver at temperatures between 100° and

medæ, and has the following coordinates :- 184° C.

1904 November 21.33 (Mid-European time).

26° 2' The firm of Leybolt Nachfolger in Cologne has recently

1900.

8= +43° 10' ) issued a very complete and interesting catalogue of physical

(Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3997.) apparatus and fittings sold by them. The book starts with

BRIGHTNESS OF ENCKE's COMET.-The results of a number a history of the instrument trade in Cologne during the of magnitude observations of Encke's comet, made by Herr last century. In its second section we find an account of J. Holetschek, at Vienna, during the present apparition, the construction and fittings of various chemical and are published in No. 3997 of the Astronomische Nachrichten. physical institutions. It is noteworthy, perhaps, that while

The observations covered the period November 25-December the students' laboratory, with its work tables and appliances 27, and, in the table wherein the results are shown, the

vertical diameter, the magnitudes of the nucleus, and the for experiments, figures prominently in the chemical institu- magnitudes of the whole comet are given. From the lasttions, the arrangements for practical work by the students named values we learn that on November 25 the magnitude in the physical laboratories are distinctly less complete.

of the comet was 9.0, on December 10, 6, and on December Ifter this follows the catalogue proper, filling some 800

23,

value obtained December 27 large pages, profusely illustrated and admirably arranged.

mag. = 5.0, but this is queried. The book will be most useful to the teacher, and is a

JANUARY FIREBALLS.-A note from Mr. Denning to the striking illustration of German enterprise and go. At the during the predicted dates in January was well sustained.

Observatory (No. 355) shows that the appearance of fireballs same time it is observable throughout that the apparatus On January 14 a bright object was seen by several obis intended chiefly for demonstrations and the lecture-room. servers, and on combining the records a radiant point The list of electrical measuring instruments, for example,

situated in Monoceros at 119° +3° was obtained. The is comparatively meagre, while there are not many examples height of this fireball ranged from 60 miles over Brecon to of the simpler forms of apparatus supplied to an English schcol

29 miles over Aberystwith. Two fireballs were laboratory for use by the students. It is probably the case

January 27 and one on January 29, thus corroborating the

January 28 epoch. One of those on the former date was that such apparatus is less used in Germany than here, but very bright, and was apparently stationary at 118°– 18o. though this is absent the book is full of apparatus of the In February, bright fireballs were seen on February 11, greatest value and utility.

13 and 18, the time of the apparition on the last-named date

being 7h. 15m. a.m., i.e. in daylight. A SECOND edition of Prof. Luigi de Marchi's “ Meteorologia generale” has been published by the house of

ROTATION OF JUPITER'S SATELLITES I. AND 11.--During Hoepli, of Milan. The book has been revised and en

the period January 13-20, Dr. P. Guthnick, of Bothkamp

Observatory, made a series of magnitude observations of larged.

Jupiter's first and second satellites, the period of observation A SECOND edition of the “ Rural Calendar," fully revised

covering about four revolutions of the former and two

revolutions of the latter round the planet. and enlarged, has been prepared by Dr. A. J. Ewart and

The measurements were made with a Zollner photometer published by Messrs. Davis and Moughton, Ltd., Birming. | attached to the ul-inch refractor. Plotting the values obham. The book is a helpful index to observations of tained on curves having the “ anomaly of each satellite animate nature throughout the year, and a guide to

as abscissa and the corresponding apparent magnitude as gardening and farming operations. It includes an arti- ordinate, it was seen that the period of the light-variations

coincided with that of the revolution about Jupiter, and as ficial key to the commoner wild British herbs, giving

a consequence it seems probable that the periods of revoludescription, common name, scientific name, and natural

tion and rotation are coincident in each case (Astronomische order. By using this key as plants become available, a Nachrichten, No. 4000). good knowledge of common flowers may be obtained. ORBITS OF Minor Planets.-In No. 4000 of the AstroThe price of the book is one shilling net.

nomische Nachrichten, Prof. J. Bauschinger publishes the

5.3. The

on

was

seen

on

in any

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elements of the orbits of those minor planets discovered general consonance, with exceptions, more or less striking, during 1904 of which the paths have been computed at the in a few of the years. In other words, the yield of wheat Berlin Astronomischen Recheninstitut. The list contains the

seems to depend mainly on the absence of orbits of 28 minor planets, 24 (523-549) of which are rainfall in the previous autumn, and but little on any other referred to the epoch 1904.0, and 4 (550-553) to 1905.0,

factor. and is followed by a series of remarks which name the The obvious algebraical expression for such a condition observations on which the computations were based, and the as the curves represent is a linear equation, and the equation corrections to some of the orbits as obtained from sub- which represents the relation between yield of wheat for sequent observations. A note concerning (526) NQ says England and the previous autumn rainfall is :that that object is probably identical with 1901 HA.

Yield = 39.5 bushels per acre-5/4 (previous autumn rainAn additional list of five asteroids discovered during fall in inches). November and December, 1904, and to which the per

If we call the yield obtained from the rainfall by this manent numbers 549-553 are now allotted, brings the total i equation the " computed yield," a comparison with the number discovered during last year up to thirty-two.

actual yield for the twenty-one years shows that the computed yield agrees with the actual yield within half a bushel

in seven years out of the twenty-one. In fourteen years EFFECT OF AUTUMNAL RAINFALL U'PON

the agreement is within 2 bushels; in the remaining seven WHEAT CROPS.

years the difference between computed and actual yield ex

ceeds 2 bushels. The extreme variation of yield in the BY autumn, in this note, is to be understood the period twenty-one years is 9 bushels, from 26 bushels per arre in

from the thirty-sixth the forty-eighth week, 1892 and two other years to 35 bushels per acre in 1898. both inclusive, of

represented in the Of the seven years for which the formula gives yields Weekly Weather Report of the Meteorological Office; differing from the actual by upwards of 2 bushels, išge is it

the months of September, October, and | the most conspicuous; its actual yield exceeds the computed November, approximately. The rainfall

be

yield by 4.5 bushels, ferred is the average amount in inches, for the These seven years all show anomalous seasons. Taken

to

the year,

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“ Principal Wheat Producing Districts," for the period seriatim, they are 1887, 1888, 1893, 1893, 1896, 1899, and mentioned, in successive years. The amounts are taken 1903 from the summaries of the Weekly Weather Report.

In 1888 and 1903 the crops were washed away by 10 The yield of wheat is that given for successive years in inches of rain in the summer ; 1893 is the year of phenomenal the annual summaries of the Board of Agriculture and

drought, and the crop was below the computed figure by Fisheries as the average yield in bushels per acre for

2,5 bushels.

The years 1892 and 1899 are interesting, England, since 1884, or more strictly since 1885, as that because though the amounts of rain were up to the average. is the first year for which the figures for England are given the former had eight dry weeks and the latter ten dn separately. In 1884 the figure for Great Britain, which weeks out of the thirteen included in the conventional generally differs but little from that for England, is used. autumn. They were thus dry autumns, the average amount

These are the only figures in the official publications which of rainfall being made up by a few exceptionally wet weeks. are immediately available for the purposes of comparison. The yields correspond with dry autumn values. They are The totals of rainfall for the thirteen weeks have been com- above the average and above the computed figures by some piled from the weekly amounts, otherwise the figures are 2 or 3 bushels per acre. taken as they stand in published returns. The areas referred There remain 1893 and 1896. 1895 was the rear of re to are not exactly coterminous, but they are more nearly markably cold weather, and in that year the yield sell short. so than if the rainfall values had been taken for the whole but in the following year the deficiency was made up by a of England, or the wheat yield for Great Britain.

vield as much above the computed value as the prevines When the autumn rainfall and the vields of wheat for one fell short. It would appear that in this instance the successive years from 1884 to 1904, as thus defined, are productive power not utilised in the year of the great cold plotted, the rainfall curve being inverted, i.e. rainfall being was not lost, but stored. On the other hand, it must be measured downward on the paper while yield is measured remarked that 1890 had the advantage of a specially dry upward, there is a very striking similarity between the winter. curves, so much so as to suggest that if the scales were It appears from these considerations that the dryness of suitably chosen the two curves would superpose and show autumn is the dominant element in the determination of the 1 “On a Relation between Autumnal Rainfall and the Yield of Wheat of

yield of wheat of the following year. The averages of the following Year. -Preliminary Note."

yield and of rainfall are taken over very large areas, and is

By Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S., Secretary of the Meteorological Council. Read before the Royal Society

may be taken for granted that the investigation of the on February 2.

question for more restricted areas would introduce scene

taceous.

modification in the numerical coefficients, if not in the form This contains a number of articles on caves and on underof the relation.

ground waters, on prehistoric remains from caves, on the The data for making such an investigation are not yet present subterranean flora, on contamination of waters, and in an available form. A comparison has been made between on the use of fluorescence in detecting the flow of underautumnal rainfall for “ England, East," and the average ground streams. A report on the sources of the water of vield for the counties of Cambridge, Essex, Norfolk, and Arcier, with special reference to the water-supply for the Suffolk, which shows a similar relation but a magnified town of Besançon, is contributed by Prof. E. Fournier to effect of autumnal rainfall upon the crop, and also two the same periodical (No. 38), and he concludes that the exceptional years which have not yet been investigated. supply from Arcier must at all costs be abandoned. The

subject has excited much controversy owing to the fact that the probable sources of contamination through porous and

fissured limestones are at a distance from the outlet of the GEOLOGICAL NOTES.

stream at Arcier. FROM the Geological Survey we have received a memoir In the ninth report of the periodic variations of glaciers

on the water supply of Lincolnshire from underground by Dr. H. F. Reid and M. E. Muret (Arch. des Sc. phys. sources, with records of sinkings and borings, edited by et nat. Genève, xviii., 1904), the general record is one of Mr. H. B. Woodward, with contributions by Mr. W. decrease. Whitaker, Dr. H. F. Parsons, Dr. H. R. Mill, and Mr. H. The records of the Geological Survey of India (vol. xxxi. Preston. In the introduction a description is given of the part iii.) contain an article by Mr. R. D. Oldham on the various geological formations with especial reference to the glaciation and history of the Sind Valley, Kashmir, a water-bearing strata. The bulk of the work is taken up subject illustrated by six excellent photographic views, with records of borings, among which we note particulars which exhibit features produced respectively by glaciers and of a new boring in progress at Boultham for the supply by rivers, and afford support to the view of the author of a of Lincoln ; many records from the prolific locality of diversion of the drainage since the glaciers attained their Bourn, where from one bore-hole five million gallons of greatest dimensions. water a day have been obtained ; and other records from

A report on the Jammu coal-fields has been written by Scunthorpe, Skegness, Woodhall Spa, &c. Many analyses Mr. R. R. Simpson, mining specialist to the Geological of water are given, and Dr. Mill contributes a useful Survey of India (Mem. Geol. Surv. India, Vol. xxxii. section on rainfall, with a colour-printed map.

part iv.). The coal-fields lie in a mountainous country, The Geological Survey has issued a memoir on the varying from three thousand to nine thousand feet above geology of West-Central Skye, with Soay, in explanation of sea-level, and the strike of the coal-bearing rocks does not sheet 70 of the geological map of Scotland. The memoir is conform to any of the main natural features. The prospects written by Mr. ¢. T. Clough and Mr. Alfred Harker. The of working the coal with profit are not considered good, in area is mainly occupied by the Tertiary igneous rocks of present circumstances, as the expenses would be great on the Cuillin Hills, but it includes also some Torridonian account of the inclined and broken character of the rocks, rocks, and small tracts of Trias, Lower Lias, and Cre- the possibility of landslips, and of trouble from water.

The occurrence of Cretaceous strata, probably of Otherwise a fairly good steam-coal may be obtained. L'pper Greensand age, is of especial interest. The Glacial A geological map of Cyprus, by Mr. C. V. Bellamy, has and post-Glacial accumulations, the physical features and been issued by Mr. Stanford (price 6s.). It is accompanied scenery are duly described. The memoir, in short, is in a by a key or short explanation, in which the author handy form (pp. 59, and price is.), well suited as a guide describes the physical features and the various geological on the ground, and as an introduction, as regards the formations which range from Cretaceous to Pliocene and volcanic rocks, to the larger work by Mr. Harker (lately Pleistocene. Between the Oligocene and Pliocene there is noticed in NATURE) on the Tertiary igneous rocks of Skye. a break, marked by the occurrence of basic igneous rocks,

Another memoir issued by the Geological Survey is on which have baked and altered the Oligocene (Idalian) limethe geology of the country around Bridgend, being part vi.

These igneous rocks, which comprise serpentine, of the Geology of the South Wales Coal-field," by Mr. A. variolite, gabbro, &c., form a broad belt of mountainous Strahan and Mr. T. C. Cantrill, with parts by Mr. H. B. ground in the south-central portion of the island. The Woodward and Mr. R. H. Tiddeman. The district here map, which is produced on a scale of 5) English miles to described includes the Vale of Glamorgan, for the most one inch, is printed in colours, and clearly shows the extent part an area of Lias with irregular scatterings of Drift; of the main geological divisions. It will be a useful guide an agricultural district, famed also for its Blue Lias lime, to those interested in the geology, whether from a scientific so well known in old times at Aberthaw, and now largely or practical point of view. The economic products include manufactured at Bridgend. The basement portions of the building stones, marble, pottery clay, gypsum, &c. Lias at Sutton and Southerndown, conglomeratic in char- Our knowledge of the geology of South Africa proceeds acter, are duly described, as well as the littoral portions of apace. We have received vol. vii., part iii., cf the Transthe Keuper and Rhætic Beds. A small tract of the main actions of the Geological Society of South Africa, which coalfield enters the area, bounded by Millstone Grit and contains among other articles an essay by Dr. F. H. Hatch Lower Carboniferous Rocks, and the Old Red Sandstone and Dr. G. Š. Corstorphine on the petrography of the appears in inliers. The bulk of the work is taken up with Witwatersrand conglomerates, with special reference to a description of the Keuper, Rhætic Beds and Lias, which the origin of the gold. The original explanation was that furnish many points of interest.

the Rand conglomerates were ancient placer deposits, in The fifteenth report by Prof. W. W. Watts on photo which the gold was as much a product of denudation as graphs of geological interest in the United Kingdom (Brit. the pebbles which accompany it. The authors show that Assoc., Cambridge, 1904) is of a most satisfactory character. the theory of the subsequent infiltration of the gold is most A clear profit of 130l. has been made. This shows that the in accordance with th facts. The gold is practically conwork of collecting and storing typical photographs of fined to the matrix of the conglomerate, and occurs there geological features and phenomena, and of supplying copies in crystalline particles in association with other minerals of to teachers and others in various parts of the world, has secondary origin. proved a great success, and a distinct service to geological Mr. E. Jorissen, in the same Transactions, deals with and perhaps also to geographical science. This success is some intrusive granites in the Transvaal, the Orange River due to the indefatigable energy of Prof. Watts.

Colony and in Swaziland. These old granites, mostly grey In his address to the Liverpool Geological Society, Mr. in colour, penetrate the crystalline schists which are reT. H. Cope took as his subject types of rock-flow in the garded as of Archæan age, but they do not intrude into Ceiriog valley and their analogies with river structure the Witwatersrand series. Mr. J. P. Johnson contributes (Proc, Liverpool Geol. Soc., vol. ix., part iv.). The author further notes on some pigmy stone implements from Elandspoints out the evidence of flow structures and other terres. fontein No. 1. They are regarded as scrapers belonging trial movements in igneous and metamorphic rocks, and to the Neolithic stage of culture. compares them with the known movements of water.

In his address to the South African Association for the We have received No. 37 of vol. v. of

Spelunca Advancement of Science (Johannesburg meeting, 1904), Dr. (Bulletin and Mémoires de la Société de Spéléologie). Corstorphine took for his subiect the history of strati

stones.

on

graphical investigation in South Africa, and in a table he and glacial theories of its origin. The characteristic fossils gives the groupings successively introduced by A. G. Bain, are terrestrial upland species of land snails. Even the esA. Wyley and others up to those of G. A. F. Molengraaff tremely delicate shells of snails' eggs are preserved in the and F. H. Hatch.

loess. "Natchez lies far south of the limits of glaciation, We have received from the Minister of Mines, Victoria, a and the molluscan fauna does not support the notion of a diagram, compiled and drawn up by the director of the glacial climate. The eolian theory offers the best explanaGeological Survey, Mr. E. J. Dunn, showing the yield of tion. The discovery of human remains in a deposit re gold and other statistics from 1851 to 1903. The gross garded as loess near Lansing, in Kansas, is discussed, and value of the gold is stated to be 266,945,3441. The Prof. Shimek concludes that the deposit is not loess, but a greatest yield was in 1856.

talus. Considering, again, the relations of loess to the We have received the annual progress report of the Iowan drift, the author points out that there were several Geological Survey of Western Australia for 1903, by Mr. A. periods of loess formation, inter-Glacial and post-Glacial. Gibb Maitland, Government Geologist. This includes ob- Far beyond the border of the newer drift sheets, however. servations on the Pibara and Murchison gold-fields, on the the sharp lines of distinction between the successive accu Arrino copper deposits, the Irwin River coal-field, &c., inis- mulations disappear, and there the deposits of loess probably cellaneous notes minerals, including gypsum

and represent the combined accumulation of several inter-Glacial diatomite, and notes on water supply. The report is and later drift periods. The essays are illustrated by accompanied by several maps.

pictorial views and figures of the mollusca. lo another The progress of vertebrate palæontology in Canada forms article Mr. F. J. Seaver describes and illustrates the Disthe subject of an essay by Mr. Lawrence M. Lambe (Trans. comycetes of eastern Iowa. Roy. Soc. Canada, series 2, vol. x.). As he remarks, our The “ Materials and Manufacture of Portland Cement.** knowledge of this life-history began when Sir William by Mr. E. C. Eckel, with an essay on the cement resources Logan, in 1841, discovered amphibian footprints in the of Alabama, by Mr. E. A. Smith, form the contents of Lower Coal-measures at Horton bluff in Nova Scotia. Bulletin No. 8, Geological Survey of Alabama. In that Since then remains of vertebrates have been found in rocks State there is found an extensive series of limestones capable from the Silurian to the Pleistocene, and a full list is given, of furnishing material for the manufacture of Portland together with a bibliography of the subject.

cement, while clays and shales necessary to complete the In the American Journal of Science (December, 1904) two mixture are abundant. new species of reptiles from the Titanothere Beds (Oligo- In an article on the genesis of the magnetite deposits in cene) of Dakota, are described by Mr. F. B. Loomis. These Sussex Co., New Jersey (Mining Magazine, December, are Crocodilus prenasalis and Chrysemys inornata. Some 1904), Mr. Arthur C. Spencer concludes that they are con. derived Cretaceous fossils are recorded also from the same nected in origin with intrusive dioritic pegmatites. To the strata, which form a part of the White River formation, and same magazine Mr. W. H. Heydrick contributes a paper the author is led to regard the beds as of fluviatile origin. on the physical and commercial conditions of the Kansas

The American Journal of Science for January contains an oil-fields. The area extends over more than ten thousand article on the submarine great canyon of the Hudson square miles. In 1889 the yield was 500 barrels of oil. River, by Dr. J. W. Spencer. The early work of the Coast while in ten months during 1904 the yield was more than Survey brought to light a depression extending from near four million barrels. New York to the border of the continental shelf, and A reconnaissance in Trans-Pecos Texas, by Mr. G. B. J. D. Dana was the first to recognise this feature as the Richardson (Univ. of Texas, Mineral Survey. Bulletin submerged channel of the Hudson River, formed when the No. 9), was undertaken mainly to determine the conditions continent stood at a greater altitude above the sea than it of occurrence of underground water. The author was does now. Later on, Prof. A. Linden Kohl discovered that

enabled, however, to make general observations on the sucthe channel became suddenly transformed into a canyon cessive formations from the pre-Cambrian to the Cretaceous near the continental border, reaching to a depth of 2400 feet and Quaternary, and on the occurrence of coal, salt, below the surface of the submerged plain, which was then petroleum, and sulphur. The presence of underground about 400 feet beneath sea-level. Following on to these water was found to be widespread, but in a number of observations, Dr. Spencer has pointed out that the channel

places the wells contain much gypsum and other salts. was traceable to much greater depths—the canyon section The report is accompanied by a geological map and piehaving sunk from 6000 to 7000 feet, and the valley beyond torial views. to 9000 feet. He maintains that the period of great eleva- Some account of the exploration of the Potter Creek tion coincided with the early Pleistocene. Since then there

Cave in California, is given by Mr. W. J. Sinclair (Univ has been a subsidence to somewhat below the present level, of California Publications, Amer. Archaeol. and Ethnel followed by a re-elevation of 250 feet, as seen in the shallow vol. ii., No. 1). The cave is about one mile south-east on channels of the shelf.

the United States fishery station at Baird, on the McCloud The American Journal of Science for February contains River, and it lies in a belt of carboniferous limestone at ati an important essay on the isomorphism and thermal pro- elevation of 1500 feet above sea-level, and about foo seet perties of the feldspars, by Mr. Arthur L. Day and Mr.

above the river-level at the mouth of Potter Creek. Remains E. T. Allen. To the same journal Dr. Albrecht Penck con- of various vertebrate animals were obtained from fan-like tributes an interesting article on climatic features in the

deposits of earth and stalagmite-cemented breccia, which land surface, and indicates how the features of past as well formed the floor in a large chamber, above which there as present climates may be discerned. Instances are seen

were vertical chimney-like openings. With the exception in areas that were formerly covered by ice and are now of the stalagmitic growths and fallen blocks, the entire exposed to river action. They are seen in desert regions, cave deposit was brought in through the vertical chutes as in those of the Great Salt Lake and of the Sahara,

Apart from fragments, more than 4600 determinable speri. where ancient shore lines and old river valleys have been mens were collected of dissociated limb bones, jaws, and teeth traced. In some mountain areas evidence of river action, Complete skeletons were not common. Associated parts of preceding glacial action, has been noticed. Dr. Penck points the skeletons of squirrels and wood-rats, of a snake out that a study of the oscillations in the situation of the (Crotalus), and a bat were found ; also several complete climatic belts of the earth is fraught with interest, and that limbs of Arctotherium simum, remains of Megalonyx, Masco observations on the erosional forms of rocks and on the don, Elephas primigenius, and a new genus named Eucera corresponding deposits derived from them assist in the inter- therium, a member of the cavicorn division of Artiodactyla pretation of climatic conditions.

which combines characters of several groups. Of the fifty In the Bulletin from the Laboratories of Natural History two species listed, twenty-one belong to extinct forms. No of the State University of Iowa (vol. v., No. 4) there is | human remains were found, but some very doubtful a series of papers on the loess by Prof. B. Shimek. The

' implement-like bone fragments" are described and figuret loess of Natchez and of the lower Mississippi valley is of the cave-fauna is older than the Glacial period in Calispecial interest, inasmuch as in that region loess was first fornia, and it is remarked that the 1500 foot contour marks recognised in America by Lyell in 1846. The researches approximately the present elevation of an earlier rallee of the author afford arguments against both the aqueous stage beneath which the existing cañons are trenched.

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Manual,” by W. D. Penee and M. S. Ketchum; “ Earth Hinder; Diseases of the Foot of the Horse,

by H.

Dams,” by B. Bassell, illustrated ; “ The Design of Steel Caulton Reeks; “ Artistic Anatomy of Animals,” by E. Mill Buildings, and the Calculation of Stresses in Framed Cuyer, translated by G. Haywood ; Coroners' Duties,” by Structures," by M. S. Ketchum, illustrated ; " Topographical Dr. R. H. Wellington; Pathology,” by Dr. W. D’Este Record and Sketch Book for use with Transit and Stadia,' Emery; and new editions of “ Röntgen Rays in Medical by D. L. Turner ; Cleaning and Sewerage of Cities, Work, by Dr. D. Walsh ; “ Manual of Veterinary by Prof. R. Baumeister, illustrated ; “ Field Practice of Hygiene, by Lieut.-Col. F. Smith; and “ Animal Para- Railway Location,” by W. Beahan, illustrated ; Tables sites,” by Prof. G. Neumann, translated by Dr. G. Fleming, of Logarithms of Lengths up to 50 Feet, varying by 1/16 and edited by Prof. J. Macqueen.

of an Inch," by T. W. Marshall; Economics of Road ConIn Messrs. A. and C. Black's list we notice :-“ 'The struction, by H. P. Gillette ; “ Maxwell's Theory and Metaphysics of Nature," by Carveth Read, and a Treatise Wireless Telegraphy, part i., “Maxwell's Theory and on Zoology,” edited by Dr. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., Hertzian Oscillations,” by H. Poincaré, translated by K. part v., “Mollusca.

Vreeland; part ii., “ The Principles of Wireless Telegraphy, The announcements of the Cambridge University Press by K. Vreeland ; and new editions of “Gas Engine Coninclude :--" The Lands of th

Eastern Caliphate," by struction," by H. V. A. Parsell, jun., and A: J. Weed, G. Le Strange; “ Trees, vol. iii., Inflorescences and illustrated; Gas, Gasoline and Oil Engines," by G. D. Flowers," by Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S.;“ The Origin | Hiscox, illustrated; Liquid Air and the Liquefaction of and Influence of the Thorough-bred Horse," by Prof. W. Gases,' by Dr. T. O'Conor Sloane, illustrated ; Shop Ridgeway; “ The Plague,” by Dr. W. J. Simpson; and Kinks,” by R. Grimshaw, illustrated ; “ Railway Track and ** Immunity in Infectious Diseases,” by Prof. E. Metchnikoff

, Track' work,” by E. E. R. Tratman ; City Roads and authorised English translation by F. G. Binnie, illustrated. Pavements Suited to Cities of Moderate Size," by W. P.

The list of Messrs. Cassell and Co., Ltd., contains :- Judson, illustrated. “ The Book of Photography, Practical, Theoretic, and Messrs. J. M. Dent and Co. announce :- Physiological Applied," edited by P. N. Hasluck, illustrated ; Cassell's Psychology,” by Dr. W. McDougall. Popular Gardening,” edited by W. P. Wright, illustrated ; Messrs. Duckworth and Co. promise :-“Metapsychical “ Nature's Riddles, or the Battle of the Beasts,” by Phenomena," by Dr. J. Maxwell, with prefaces by Sir Oliver W. H. Shepheard-Walwyn, illustrated : "Cassell's

Cassell's Physical Lodge and Prof. Ch. Richet, translated by Mrs. Finch. Educator," by E. Miles, illustrated ; and “ Pictorial Practical Messrs. R. Friedländer and Son (Berlin) announce :Tree and Shrub Culture, by W. P. Wright and W. Dalli- , “ Annales Mycologici,

vol.

“ Die Vögel der more, illustrated ; “ Certificate Geometry,” by W. P. Work- paläarktischen Fauna,” by Dr. E. Hartert, Heft iii. ; " Die man and A. G. Cracknell; and “General

, Elementary Vögel Islands,” by P. Hantzsch ; " Analytische Übersicht Science, part ii., Plant and Animal Life,” by W. S.

der paläarktischen Lepidopterenfamilien," by C. v. HorFurneaux.

muzaki; “ Wissenschaftl. Ergebnisse einer zoologischen Messrs. Chapman and Hall, Ltd., promise :-“ The Expedition nach dem Baikal-See 1900-2," by A. Korotneff, Principles of Heredity,” by Archdall Reid. The Clarendon

i. Lief., by W. Michaelsen, “ Die Oligochaeten"; ". MitteilPress list contains :-Schiaparelli's

ungen aus dem zoologischen Museum in Berlin, ii. Band, “ Astronomy in the Old Testament, authorised English iv. Heft, by J. Thiele, “Beitrage z. Morphologiss. Arzutranslation, with additions by the author ; “ The Faroes and liden"; Iceland,” by N. Annandale; " The Farther East," by A.

Abbildungen der in Deutschland und den angrenz

enden Gebieten vorkommenden Grundformen der OrchiLittle ; " Index Kewensis Plantarum Phanerogamarum, deen,” by W. Müller and F. Kranzlin, illustrated ; “ Das supplementum secundum, nomina et synonyma omnium Tierreich,” edited by F. E. Schulze, Lief. 21, T. R. generum et specierum ab initio anni 1896 ad finem anni 1900 Stebbing, Aphipoda," i. ; Lief. 22, H. Stichel and H. complectens, pars. i., fasc. ii ; Goebel's “

Organography Riffarth,

Heliconiidæ ”; Lief. 23, L. v. Graff,“ Turbelof Plants," authorised English translation, by Prof. I.

laria, i. Acela”; “ Catalogus Mammalium tam viventium Bayley Balfour, F.R.S., vol. ii.,,“ Special Organography"; quam fossilium," by E. L. Trouessart, Quinquennale Sup; Kruth's “Flower Pollination, authorised English trans- plementum, Anno 1904, Fasc. iii.; “ Die neue Lösungs- und lation, by Prof. J. R. Ainsworth Davis; Solereder's elektrochemische Theorie," by L. Zeschko. ** Anatomical Characters of the Dicotyledonous Orders,' Messrs. Gauthier-Villars (Paris) promise :-“ Précis de authorised English translation, by L. A. Boodle ; and “ The

Photographie générale," by E. Belin, tome ii., ApplicaMasai : their Language and Folklore," by A. C. Hollis. tions scientifiques et industrielles”; “ Traité d'Analyse," by

Messrs. Archibald Constable and Co. will publish : Prof. E. Picard, tome iv., “Equations aux Dérivées par" Leprosy and Fish Eating," by Dr. J. Hutchinson, F.R.S.; tielles "; and “Leçons de Mécanique céleste," by Prof. “ Principles of Practical Microscopy,” by Dr. A. E. Wright; H. Poincaré, tomes ii. and iii.

Physiology of the Nervous System,” by J. P. Morat, trans- Mr. Henry J. Glaisher announces :-"Mucomembranous lated and edited by Dr. H. W. Syers ; The Lymphatics,' Entercolitis, by Dr. Froussard, edited by Dr. E. Blake; by G. Delamere, P. Poirier, and B. Cunéo, translated and * The Westminster Hospital Reports, 1903-4, vol. xiv., edited by C. H. Leaf;“ Surgical Anatomy of the Lymphatic edited by Drs. E. P. Paton and P. Stewart;“ The Intestinal Glands," by C. H. Leaf; " The Prevention of Disease,” Catarrh's," by Dr. E. Blake; X-Ray Charts, by Dr. translated from the German by Dr. W. Evans; “ Steam R. J. Cowen ; “ A Short Essay on Insanity," by C. Boilers," by H. H. Powles, illustrated ; " Steam Pipes, Williams; and “Ethyl Chloride in Surgical and Dental by W. H. Booth, illustrated ; “ The Economic and Com- | Practice," by A. de Prenderville. mercial Theory of Heat Power Plants," by Prof. R. H. The announcements of Messrs. Charles Griffin and Co., Smith ; " Motor Vehicles and Motors,” by W. W. Beaumont, Ltd., are :-“ An Introduction to the Design of Beams,

iii. ;

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