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Girders, and Columns, in Machines and Structures, with The Vegetable Garden, or the Edible Vegetables, Salads
Examples in Graphic Statics, by W. H. Atherton, illus- and Herbs Cultivated in Europe and America,'' by W.
trated; " Smoke Abatement,'? by W. Nicholson, illustrated ; Robinson
and new editions of “ Electrical Practice in Collieries," by Messrs. George Newnes, Ltd., promise :- Reptile Litt."
D. Burns, illustrated ; “ The Principles and Construction of by W. P. Pycraft.
Pumping Machinery (Steam and Water Pressure)," by H. Messrs. Oliver and Boyd (Edinburgh) direct attention to :-
Davey, illustrated ; The Metallurgy of Steel," by F. W. " Structural and Field Geology for Beginners in Geology
Harbord, illustrated ; Gas, Oil, and Air Engines," by and Students of Mining, Civil Engineering. gricultuin
B. Donkin, illustrated ; and “ Properties of Matter”

Public Health, &c.," by Prof. J. Geikie, F.R.S., illustratés of " A Text-Book of Physics ''), by Profs. J. H. Poynting, Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons give notice of :-** The Cake F.R.S., and J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., illustrated.

for Physical Culture, by H. 1. Haniok. illu. Mr. Heinemann directs attention to :-" Publications of an trated ; " The Jordan Valley and Petra," by Prat American Archæological Expedition to Syria in 1899-1900, W. Libbey and Rev. F. E. Hoskins, illustraver: part iv., Semitic Inscriptions,” by Dr. E. Littmann, illus- / - Physical Regeneration," by J. Cantlie, illustrat:d ; ** Thor trated.

Trees of North-Eastern America, with introdu tiun to Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton's list includes :-“ Nerves V. L. Britton; and new editions of “ The Shrubs ol Vortt. in Order, or the Maintenance of Health,” by Dr. A. T. Eastern America," by C. S. Newhall, illustratiet: Schofield ; "Modern Electricity,” by J. H. and K. J. Hora; Introduction to Vertebrate Embryology bas-d on the Stone “Woodmyth and Fable,” by E. Thompson Seton; The of the Frog and the Chick,” by Dr. A. M. Reese, illus. Lure of the Labrador Wild, a Story of the Exploring Ex-trated ; " Materia Medica for Nurses, bi 1 L. Dock: pedition conducted by Leonidas Hubbard, jun.,

by D.

and Thinking, Feeling. Doing," by Dr. E. W. Scripture, Wallace; and “ The New Knowledge, a Simple Explanation illustrated. of the New Physics and the New Chemistry in their Relation The list of the Walter Scott Publishing Co. includes to the New Theory of Matter," by Prof. R. K. Duncan. 'Diet and Hygiene for Infants, by Dr. F. H. Aldestin.

Mr. U. Hoepli (Milan) announces :—“ Contribuzioni alla Messrs. Swan Sonnenschein and Co., Ltd., anni unceStoria della Botanica," by O. Penzig; and “ La Flora * The History of Philosophy," by Dr. J. E. Erdmann, fiitto Legnosa del Sottoceneri," by A. Bettelini.

German edition, revised by W'. B. Erdmann, an English In Messrs. Longmans and Co.'s list we notice :-"A abridgment, translated and edited by W. S. Heuybi Systematic Course of Practical Organic Chemistry, by Student's Text Book of Zcology, by A. Sedgwak L. G. Radcliffe; “ Elementary Steam Engineering, by F.R.S., vol. ii. illustrated; "The Races of South H. W. Metcalfe, illustrated; and “ An Atlas of Derma- Africa : their Migrations and Invasions, showing th: tology," by Dr. M. Dockrell ; “ A Common Humoral Factor Intrusion of the Stronger Races into Hunting Ground of Disease, and its Bearing on the Practice of Medicine," of the Ancient Abatura Bushmen, the buriginal by Dr. F. Hare, 2 vols. ; " Ice or Water, another Appeal to Cave Dwellers of the Country". by... w Stow Induction from the Scholastic Methods of Modern Geology, illustrated ; Physiological Psychology,' translation by Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.R.S.

of the fifth and wholly re-written (1902-3) ($11:247 Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., direct attention to :- edition, by Prof. E. B. Titchener, vol. ii., illustrated, and " The Life History of British Flowering Plants, by Lord new editions of Introduction to the Study of Organic Avebury, F.R.S. ; The Historical Relations of Medicine Chemistry," by J. Wade : Sanatoria for Consumpt. and Surgery,” being the address delivered at the St. Louis in Various parts of the World,” by F. R. Walters, illus Exhibition by Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S.; “ Tribes trated; and Handbook of Systematic Botany." by Dr E. of the Malay Peninsula,” by W. W'. Skeat, illustrated ; " A Warming, edited by Prof. M. C. Potter, illustrared. Treatise on Chemistry,” by Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S., and The list of the University Tutorial Press, Lid., vir: Prof. C. Schorlemmer, F.R.S., I., “The Non-Metallic prises :- Chemistry, First Stage, Theoretical Organi Elements,” revised by Drs. H. G. Coman and A. Harden : by Dr. R. A. Lyster ; Chemistry, Junior," by R. H. “ Stonehenge Astronomically Considered," by Sir Norman

die ;

Technical Electricity," by Prof. H. T. Davidya Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., illustrated ; " The Theory of and R. W. Hutchinson ; Magnetism and Electricin Light," by Dr. C. E. Curry , “ Magnetism and Electricity School, by Dr. R. H. Jude : Practical Physics.*? for Students," by H. E. Hadley; " Lectures on the Phil- W. R. Bower; “ Properties of Matter," by C. ]. I.. Wag. osophy of Kant, and other Lectures and Essays,” by the late staff : Elementary Science of Common Life (Chemistrs. Prof. H. Sidgwick ; “ Philosophical Studies, by D. G. by W. T. Boone ; Physiography, Section Onr "; * :Ritchie, edited by Prof. R. Latta; and a new edition of metry, Junior," by W. P. Workman and 1. G. Crackneli; “ A Handbook of Metallurgy," by C. Schnabl, translated Geometry, Preliminary (Part i., Junior Geometry." ** and edited by Prof. H. Louis.

the same authors; “ Geometry. Theoretical and I'ractical Messrs. Masson and Co. (Paris) promise :-“ Traité de by the same authors; Scholarship Geometry," by Wip Chimie minérale," edited by H. Moissan, tome ii., fasc. i. ; Workman and A. G. Cracknell ; Scholarship Elementan tome iv., fasc. i. ; " Le Chauffage des Habitations, par Science, Section i."; Scholarship Elementary Science Circulation d'Air chaud, de Vapeur ou d'Eau chaude," by R. Section ii., (a) Chemistry, (b) Astronomy. (c) Biolog Périssé ; Le Chauffage électrique, by Lévylier ; Les and new editions of " Chemical Analysis, " by Drs. W Moulins à Vent, by Prof. Hérisson : Le Vinaigre," by Briggs and R. W. Stewart : Light, Text-Book of," M Astrue ; " Procédés de Commande mécanique par l'Électri- Dr. R. W Stewart: “Inorganic Chemistry. Second Stage cité, by Capt. Frilley; and “L'Industrie de l'Or," by (Theoretical), by Dr. G. H. Bailey; and The Spw L. M. Granderye.

Matriculation Physics : Heat, Light, und Sound," by Dr Messrs. Methuen and Co. announce :- Archæology and R. I. Stowart. False Antiquities,” by Dr. R. Munro.

Mr. T. Fisher l'nwin announces :-" Travels of Mr. John Murray's list includes :- Lhasa and its Naturalist in Northern Europe," by J. 1. Harvie-Brown Mysteries, by Lieut.-Col. L. A. Waddell, C.B., illus- Siberia, a Record of Travel, Exploration, and Climbing trated ; Our Sudan, its Pyramids and Progress," by by S. Turner : “ The Ige of the Earth, and other relogic J. Ward ; An Expedition into the Central Tian Shan, Studies," by Prof. 1. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ; and " liardenir: carried out in the Years 1902-1903," by Dr. G. Merzbacher. for the Million," by A. Pink. illustrated ; An Account of the Rothamsted Experiments,'? Messrs. W. Wesley and Son promise :- An authorisan' by A. D. Hall; "Recent Development in Biological English edition of the " Atlas of Emission Sperira od * Science," by W. B. Hardy, F.R.S. ; " Descartes : his Life of the Elements," by Prof. A. Hagenbach and H. Kur" and Times," by E. S. Haldane, illustrated ; “ Artillery and translated by Dr. .1. S. King. Explosives, essav's and lectures written and delivered at The following are Messrs. Whittaker and Co.'s announ: various times, by Sir A. Noble, K.C.B., F.R.S., illustrated ; ments :-“ Steam Turbines," by H. M. Hobart and I " Growth and Spread of Culture," by Prof. E. B. Tylor, Stevens: “ Armature Construction, by H. 11. Habar E.R.S., illustrated ; and new editions of Marine Boilers, Concrete-Steel, a Treatise on the Theory and Practice their Construction and Working,” dealing more especially Reinforced Concrete ('onstruction," by W.Noble Twel with tubulous boilers, based on the first edition of the work trees;

Practical Wireless Telegraphy and Telephon by M. L. E. Bertin, edited by L. S. Robertson, illustrated ; Prof. Mazzotto, translated by S. R. Bottone and

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editions of :-- Electricity in its Application to Telegraphy, experimental science again been demonstrated, but its beneby T. E. Herbert; " Central Station Electricity Supply,” by ficial effects on the progress of Ireland's industries and A. Gas and C. H. Yearnan : “ The Alternating-Current agriculture have been made clear. Notwithstanding the Circuit and Motor," by W. P. Maycock; and Radium, success which naturally has followed the introduction of by S. R. Bottone.

practical instruction in scientific principles into Irish elementary schools, the Treasury has refused to renew the

small grant required to meet the necessary expenditure, and UNITERSIT] IND EDUCATIONAL the work of organising science instruction in the schools, INTELLIGENCE.

after four years-is being stopped. It is difficult indeed to

understand so retrograde a policy. The incompleteness of CAMBRIDGE.-An Arnold Gerstenberg studentship will be all schemes of education which ignore the claims of pracoffered for competition in the Michaelmas term of 1906. tical instruction in the fundamental facts of science has been The studentship will be awarded by means of essays. demonstrated repatedly; the connection between American Everv candidate must send on or before October 1, 1900), an and German industrial success and the scientific systems of Asas on one of the subjects printed below addressed to education established in these countries has become familiar Dr. James llard. Trinity College. The studentship, which to all interested in their country's welfare, so that no will be of the annual value of nearly gol., will be tenable excuse--not even the urgent need of economy in national for two years, upon the condition that at the end of the expenditure-can justify this action of the Treasury. It is tirst rear the student's progress in philosophical study is to be hoped earnestly that steps may yet be taken to avert deemed satisfactory by the board of managers. The subjects what would be nothing short of a calamity to Ireland, and firmssays are :-(1) a philosophical discussion of the doctrine that the work, which has begun so auspiciously under the of energy and particularly of the new theory of energetics; pr?sent organisers of science instruction, instead of being

a critical examination of Descartes' philosophy of stopped may be broadened and extended. nafure; (3) the relation of mathematics and the theory of

It is stated in the Times that the committee, presided probability to physics ; (4) the theory of psychophysical

over by Mr. Haldane, M.P., appointed to consider the alloparallelism; (5) the scope and methods of comparative

cation of the increased grant-in-aid of education of a p-schology: (6) the philosophical import of post-Darwinian university standard in arts and science has now finished Theories of natural selection.

its inquiry. Excluding goool, to be allotted later in the The principal and the professors at McGill University,

financial year, the committee proposes that the sum of Montreal have nominated Mr. L. V. King, a student in the

45.000l. (making a total grant of 54,00ol.) be allotted as furulty of arts, to the Canadian scholarship lately estab

follows :--Manchester, 6000l. ; University College, London, lished at Christ's College.

5000l.; Liverpool, 5000l. ; Birmingham, 4500l. ; Leeds, An exhibition of sol. a vear tenable for two years is otiered by the governing body of Emmanuel College to an

4000l.; King's College, London, 3900l. ; Newcastle-on-Tyne,

30001.; Nottingham, 2900l. ; Sheffield, 2300l. ; Bedford udvanced student commencing residence at the college in

College, London, 2000l. ; Bristol, 2000l. ; Reading, 17001. ; October, 1905. Applications should be sent to the master of Emmanuel (from whom further particulars may be ob

Southampton, 17001.; Dundee, 10001. The committee ex

presses the view that the time has come for making a new tained) not later than October 1.

departure in the principle on which State assistance is to The local examinations and lectures syndicate is about

be given to the highest education. It is recommended that to mlect an assistant secretary for the department of the

a moderate sum should be set aside for distribution by way local lectures. The appointment will be in the first instance The stipend will be 150l. in an ordinary year,

of payment to post-graduate students from the university and 2001, in those years in which summer meetings are

colleges who devote themselves for one, two, or three years

to special problems; and that to ensure the money being brld. Graduates of the university who desire to offer them- ! applied most efficiently to the stimulation of individual selles as candidates are requested to send their names study, as distinguished from the general purposes of the before May 8 to the Rev. D. II. S. Cranage.

college to the development of which other sums out of the

grant are directed, the distribution should assume the form The London School of Tropical Medicine has been ad- of a grant made directly to the student on the advice of initted as a school of the liniversity of London in the some impartial authority. It is also suggested that the Faculty ol inedicine in tropical medicine only.

grant-in-aid should in future be made to a committee, The committee of the Liverpool School of Tropical

instead of to the colleges direct, and that this committee Medicine has appointed Mr. R. T. Newstead lecturer in

should make an annual report to the Treasury, to be laid

before Parliament. In conclusion the committee urges the Economic entomology and parasitology.

necessity of leaving to the advisory committee discretion THE fourth annual students' soirée of the Sir John Cass to deal with particular circumstances as they arise. Technical Institute will be held in the institute, Jewry Street, Aldgate, E.C., on Saturday, March 18. Exhibits and demonstrations referring to the work of the various depart

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. mients form part of the programme.

LONDON. It is reported, says Science, that Mr. Andrew Carnegie huis offered to give 100,000l. to the University of Virginia

Royal Society, February 9. —"On the Stellar Line near

By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., and on the condition that the authorities of the institution raise

F. E. Baxandall, J.R.C.Sc. a similar amount from other sources, and that the late James C. Carter, the eminent New York lawyer, has be

In this paper the authors direct attention to

a well

marked line of unknown origin which appears in one of queathed 40,00ol. to Harvard University. Science also states that at the first of the winter convocations of the

the Kensington photographs of the helium spectrum near

14686. (seorge Washington University a gift of property, estimated w be worth 20,0001., was announced for the establish nent

It is shown that a conspicuous line near the same waveof a chair and course of graduate study on the history of

length occurs in the spectra of the chromosphere, nebule, civilisation. Various sums of money raised by the trustees

bright-line stars, certain Orion stars, and in s Puppis, the and alumni association, aggregating 55,000l., were also

star the spectrum of which was found by Prof. Pickering to

contain a new series of lines which he considered to belong announced.

to hydrogen. A Commission was appointed a few years ago to inquire The mean wave-length of the stellar line, as derived into the condition of manual and practical instruction in from the available published records, is shown to agree very Irish primary schools, and, as the result of the recom- closely with the wave-length of the line in the laboratory mendations made by this Commission, instruction in ele- spectrum, and the authors conclude that the identity of the imentary experimental science was introduced into the two lines is probably a real one. primary schools of Ireland. The results of this teaching Rydberg has shown that the line near 1 4686 is the first have, in the opinion of competent authorities, been in every line in the principal series of hydrogen, and the authors was satisfactory. Not only has the educational value of of the present paper consider that the strange

" line in NO. 1846, VOL. 71]

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the helium spectrum is probably none other than the same revived phosphorescence. These can be explained as due to line. They can, however, assign no reason for its appear- atomic changes in which chemical affinity is the controlling ance in only one of the numerous photographs of the factor. helium spectrum taken at Kensington.

(3) The phenomena of this type appear to support the

view that a species of electrolysis occurs in solids exprised no “Note on the Spectrum of u Centauri." By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., and F. E. Baxandall,

the B or kathode rays; that the products of electrolysis ust

insulated from each other, as in a viscous electrolyte and A.R.C.Sc.

In this note the authors give an analysis of some of the that it is the breaking down of this insulation wish the bright lines in the spectrum of u Centauri. This star

re-combination of the ions which causes revived phosphorbeing available at Kensington, an excellent reproduction by Prof. Pickering was used as a basis for the analysis.

When the canary-yellow crystals of barium platinov vanide The chief bright lines belong to hydrogen, as Pickering red, and their phosphorescence in the rays falls to & per ceni.

are exposed to the B and g rays for some hours, they turn and other observers have pointed out. The minor bright

of its original value. Neither the colour nor the phosphor. lines, however, have hitherto had no origin suggested for them. In this note it is shown that the most marked of

escence is restored by exposure to sunlight or to diffuso the minor bright lines agree very closely in position with daylight. The only way completely to restore these qualities the strongest enhanced lines of iron, and the authors con

is to dissolve the salt in water and re-crystallise it. In this clude that the stellar and terrestrial lines are probably yellow form, and there are no signs that the reddening has

way the reddened salt is completely re-converted into the identical in origin. It is pointed out that the same lines are conspicuous in the spectra of Novæ in their earlier stages.

been associated with any permanent chemical change. The

possible physical changes were, therefore, investigaied. “ The Arc Spectrum of Scandium and its Relation to

When the crystalline structure of the yellow salt is impairrni. Celestial Spectra.” By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., either by mechanical flowing or by dehydration by heat F.R.S., and F. E. Baxandall, A.R.C.Sc.

there is a very conspicuous colour change, the canarı-yellus In this paper a record is given of the lines in the arc

giving place to an intense brick-red colour, while the phone spectrum of the rare element scandium between 1 3900 and

phorescence in the radium rays falls to 2 per cent of its ^ 5720. The photograph used for reduction was taken with original value. By solution and crystallisation a large Rowland concave grating, having a ruled surface amorphous forms are restored to the yellow crystalline stare of 51x2 inches (141 x 5 cm.) and a radius of 21 feet 6

with its full phosphorescent value. The effects produced by inches. The scale of the photograph is such that the the B rays are, therefore, closely analogous to those produced distance between K and D is 30 inches, or 77 cm. This by the change from the crystalline to the amorphous state. is equivalent to 2.6 tenth-metres per millimetre.

In the light of the author's earlier observations on the An analysis of the lines is given with regard to their phase changes AZC in metals and salts, it was to appearance in the Fraunhoferic spectrum. It is shown that expected that the change C--A, produced by mechanial nearly all the stronger lines occur as solar lines, but the flow, would be reversed by raising the temperaturr at the great majority of the lines weaker than intensity 6 substance to the stability point of the A phase. Making dur (maximum intensity 10) are missing from the solar spectrum. allowance for the difficulty caused by the presence of water

Short analyses are also given of the relation of the of crystallisation and its partial loss on heating the salt, it scandium arc lines to the lines in the spectra of the was found that the change A-C could be brought about chromosphere, sun-spots, and stars. The strongest scan- in the mechanically-flowed salt at a temperature of abou: dium lines are shown to be specially prominent in the 90°, the colour being thereby changed from red to yellow, arw chromospheric spectrum, the same lines being conspicuous the phosphorescence raised from 2 per cent. to 33 prise eest in stellar spectra of the Polarian type (e.g: y Cygni). In of its original value. It was found that the crystals reddened the higher stellar type Cygnian (a Cygni), the strongest by the rays could also be partially restored to their former scandium lines are present, but only weak. At the still condition of colour and phosphorescence by quickly heating higher stages of stellar spectra the scandium lines are them in a sealed capillary tube to about 120°. B: this trojilacking

ment the phosphorescence was raised from Spis fent, vi With regard to sun spot spectra, the only solar-scandium 33 per cent, of its original value in the yellow (71.. line (1 5672.047) given by Rowland in the region F to D, The analogy between the phase changes caused is found to be nearly always well affected, and it often mechanical flow and the change which results from occurs amongst the twelve most widened lines recorded at posure to the B rays is thus complete, and it is conclude Kensington in spot spectra.

that the over-stimulation to which the vibrating medee was * On Europium and its Ultra-violet Spectrum”: Sir

of the platinocyanide crystals are subjected under the ai toist William Crookes, F.R.S.

of the B rays during the preliminary stage of bright pluis. Exner and Haschek have measured the

phorescence results in a state analogous to that of plast1 lengths of the europium lines' from material

fatigue in vibrating metal wires or glass fibres. lpm.

supplied by Demarçay. A comparison of their lines with

certain point, this fatigue may be recovered from that is the present author's shows that the material was by

to say, if the relative displacement of the molecules from no means pure. Urbain's europia is not quite so free from

their proper crystalline relations has not passed beyond impurities as his gadolinia. The author has been able to

certain stage ; but beyond this stage there is no powes detect in his photographs the following lines :-Gadolinium self-recovery, and heat is necessary to endow the molecules is represented by very faint lines at 3450.55, 3481.99, 3585.10,

with freedom of movement sufficient to enable them to return 3646.36, 3654.79, 3656.32, 3664.76, 3697.90, 3699.89, 3743.62,

to their crystalline positions. The final stage of perniar3768.52, 3796.58, 3805.70, 3850.83, 3851. 16, 4050.08, 4225-33.

fatigue or over-strain in the salt corresponds with my Yttrium is represented by the line at 3774-51, lanthanum by amorphous condition which results from mechanii aliv-pron the line at 3988.66, and calcium by the two lines at 3933.825

duced flow. The comparative instability of the cristallinn and 3968.625.

structure in this salt has thus been the means of director

attention to the part which may be played by phisa' February 9 and February 23.--" Phosphorescence caused

structure in phosphorescence. But the persistence of phie. by the Beta and Gamma Rays of Radium.” By G. T.

phorescence, even in the amorphous statr, gives an uudelt Beilby. Communicated by Prof. Larmor, Sec. R.S. Part

clear indication that a more general explanation o! it i. read February 9, part ii. read February 23.

phenomena is still needed. The conclusions arrived at in these papers may be sum- This further explanation was reached by a studs of the marised as follows:

action of the Band y rays on quartz, glass, calespari (1) Certain types of phosphorescence are due to the molecular moveinent or displacement which is produced by

the haloid salts. of potassium. In these substantes

addition to a primary phosphorescence, the ravs pr.n. heat, by mechanical stresses, or by radiant energy.

certain well-marked coloration effects ; quart is tarp (2) Certain other types are distinguished by their appear- brown, calcspar faint yellow, glass purple or UT: ance in three stages, called here primary, secondary, and potassium chloride reddish-violet, and bromide and ico:

"Wellenlängen-Tabellen für Spektralanalytische Untersu:bungen," blue to green. Further, whether the coloration laws F. Deuticke. (Leipzig and Vienna, 1902.)

months or only for a few moments, it is found that phosphor

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escence is revived when the substance is heated, while the as the bulb was rotated, though experiments were made colour fades or disappears. In quartz, glass, and calespar with primary radiations varying considerably in penetrating it is rasy to locate the seat of phosphorescence within the power. layers which have been penetrated and coloured by the rays. This penetration may iake place to the depth of several

Geological Society, February 17.—Dr. J. E. Marr,

F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Annual general meeting:millimetres, and in materials like quartz, glass, or calcspar it is certain that whatever changes occur in these layers

In his anniversary address, the president directed attention

to the classification of the sedimentary rocks, pointing out must be chemically sell-contained and quite removed from

that the arrangement of the events which, taken together, atmospheric influences. The view, therefore, that coloratior,

constitute earth-history, according to their proper sequence is due to the reduction of one of the elements of the sub

in time must ever remain the territory of the geologist in stance, e.g. potassium in glass, affords only a partial ex

which he will pursue his labours by exclusively-geological planation of the phenomena. It is necessary to suppose that the separation and retention of the metal ions must equally Smith, and mainly by the adoption of his principles, the

methods. He pointed out that, since the time of William involve the separation and retention of the ions of the ació

classification of the strata had progressed towards perfection radicle with which the metal had been combined. Further, by the method of successive approximations. He directed in order that the different ions may be kept apart, the un- attention to the many similarities between the records of the altered molecules must act as barriers or insulators to prevent

geological column and the records preserved in the their re-combination. But the molecules are not always

grams immovable barriers, for, as the temperature is raised, their impressed as zigzag and broken lines, though an additional

of meteorologists. In each case the records were inobility is increased, and their insulating power is corre- difficulty occurred in the case of the geological records owing spondingly diminished. Experiments were made on the to their frequently-blurred nature. Further, the meteorostorage of latent phosphorescing power at all temperatures logist had his chronometer, whereas the geologist must conbetween – 100° and + 300°. While for each substance there

struct his time-scale from the records on what might, for is a range of temperature over which its storage capacity

purposes of comparison, be referred to as the “

geograms, is at a maximum, yet the range over which storage can or strips of the geological sediments. In some cases the take place is sometimes very wide. In calcspar, storage lines of the geograms closely coincided with time-lines, in occurs over the whole range investigated, while in crystal- other cases they departed therefrom more or less widely, and lised platinocyanide of barium it was only observed between

it was one of the tasks of the geologists, from study of the 1ooo and - 50°

geograms, to attempt to draw in the time-lines. It was February 16.—“ Polarised Röntgen Radiation.” By Dr. to be remembered, however, that however closely the timeCharles G. Barkla. Communicated by Prof. J. J. Thom

lines and lines of the records coincided, they were not the son, F.R.S.

same lines. The principal variations in the records of the Experiments on secondary radiation from gases and light geograms are due to alternate formation and cessation of solids subject to X-rays led to the theory that during the deposit; to the differences in character of the deposits owing passage of Röntgen radiation through such substances each

to various local conditions ; to accumulation of contemporelectron has its motion accelerated by the intense electric

aneous volcanic material ; to variations in the nature of the fields in the primary pulses, and consequently is the origin

earth-movements; to changes in the nature of the included of a secondary radiation which is most intense in the organisms; and lastly to climatic changes, and proceeded to direction perpendicular to that of acceleration of the electron,

consider the significance of these records as bearing upon and vanishes in the direction of that acceleration. The the classification of the sediments. The president advocated direction of electric intensity at a point in a secondary pulse the adoption of a triple classification, such as had been is perpendicular to the line joining that point and the already tacitly adopted in the case of some of the sediments, origin of the pulse, and is in the plane passing through the

as, for instance, those of Jurassic age, where divisions were direction of acceleration of the electron.

made according to (1) lithological change, (2) organic A secondary beam the direction of propagation of which

change, and (3) time; and pointed out how such a classificais perpendicular to that of the primary will, according to this

tion could be adopted without any violent changes in an theory, be plane polarised, the direction of electric intensity existing nomenclature or in the rules of priority. He illusbeing parallel to the pulse front in the primary beam. If trated the suggested changes by a more detailed discussion the primary beam be plane polarised, the secondary radiation

of the classification of the Ordovician strata, and pointed from the electrons has a maximum intensity in a direction

out that we had names which might be used with chronoperpendicular to that of electric displacement in the primary logical significance in the case of the divisions of the rocks beam, and zero intensity in the direction of electric displace- of most of the great systems; and maintained that, as our

knowledge increased, we could refer beds of new areas to ment. In these experiments the secondary radiation from light

their places among the different series, marking periods of substances was too feeble to allow accurate measurement of

time with a confidence similar to that with which we have the intensity of the tertiary radiation.

long assigned strata of remote regions to one or other of the A consideration of the method of production of primary great systems. Röntgen rays in an X-ray tube, however, leads one to expect

February 22.-Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S., president, in the partial polarisation of the primary beam proceeding from

chair.-Exhibition of a series of Danish rocks illustrating the antikathode in a direction perpendicular to that of pro

(1) the share that Echinoderms may take in rock-building; pugation of the impinging kathode rays, for there is (2) the transition from the Secondary to the Tertiary Era in probably at the antikathode a greater acceleration along the

the Baltic basin near Denmark; (3) the special conditions at

the close of the Glacial Period, in the limited area where line of propagation of the kathode rays than in a direction

alone these rocks are now found as erratic blocks : Dr. F. A. ai right angles ; consequently, in a beam of X-rays proceed

Bather.-On the order of succession of the Manx slates in ing in a direction perpendicular to that of the kathode stream, there should be greater electric intensity parallel to

their northern half, and its bearing on the origin of the the stream than in a direction at right angles.

schistose breccia associated therewith : Rev. J. F. Blake. Using such a beam as the primary radiation, and a light

On the wash-outs in the Middle Coal-measures of south

Yorkshire : F. E. Middleton. substance, as air, paper, or aluminium, as the radiator, the

The opinion of the author intensity of a secondary beam as indicated by an electroscope

is that the wash-outs occupy the sites of winding streams, was found to reach a maximum when the direction of the

meandering through the alluvial tracts in which the coalkathode stream was perpendicular to that of propagation of

seams were being formed. the secondary beam, and a minimum when these two were Zoological Society, February 21 Mr. Howard Saunders, parallel

vice-president, in the chair.-A contribution to our knowA number of experiments made this evidence of partial ledge of the varieties of Lacerta muralis in western Europe polarisation of the primary radiation conclusive.

and North Africa : G. A. Boulenger.-The Nigerian giraffe When heavier metals, such as copper, tin, and lead, which (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) and the Kilimanjaro Giraffe emit a secondary radiation differing considerably in character (G. camelopardalis tippelskirchi): R. Lydekker.- Dolphins from the primary producing it, were used as the radiators, from Travancore : R. Lydekker. In this paper the author no variation in intensity of secondary radiation was observed made special reference to two specimens of the genus

NO. 1846, VOL. 71]

same.

Tursiops, drawings and particulars of which had been groups : the late R. E. Doran (compiled by .1. E. Dixon). supplied to him from the Trevandrum Museum.-A second – The influence of solvents on the rolation of optically collection of mammals made by Mr. C. H. B. Grant for active compounds. Part viii, Ethyl tartrate in chloroMr. C. D. Rudd's exploration of South Africa : Oldfield form : T. S. Patterson.-A further note on the addition Thomas and Harold Schwann. The collection, which of sodium hydrogen sulphite to ketonic compounds : A W. has been presented to the National Museum by Mr. Rudd, Stewart.- Action of hydrogen peroxide on carbohydrater was made in the Wakkerstroom district of the South-eastern

in presence of ferrous phate : R. S. Morrell und A. E. Transvaal, and includes examples of twenty-six species. Bellare. In this work attempts have been made to trace Several local subspecies were described, besides a new shrew the disappearance of different sugars by optical measurefrom Zululand.—The greater kudu of Somaliland : R. I. ments during oxidation, and from the initial and final Pocock. The author pointed out that the northern form reducing powers of the solutions. The simpler acids, farinig of Strepsiceros strepsiceros differed from the southern in and oxalic, resulting from the oxidation, were deserted, but having only about five white stripes instead of nine or ten the more important keto-acids could not be isolated, thigh on each side of the body. The northern form should thus evidence of their presence was obtained.-Studies in chlorir. rank as a distinct subspecies, for which the name chora ation. The chlorination of the isomerie chloroniirobere. was available. The difference in coloration seemed to be

enes : J. B. Cohen and H. G, Bennett. It is shown that correlated with a difference of habitat, the northern form

when the first two hydrogen atoms of benzene or toluene frequenting more mountainous and loss thickly-wooded have been substituted either by two chlorine atomis or in country than the southern, which was frequently found in one chlorine atom and one nitro-group the positions otruthe thick jungle along river-banks as well as in the hills. pied by subsequent chlorine atoms or nitro-groups are the Anthropological Institute, February 28 – Prof. W.

Linnean Sociery, March 2.- Prof. W. A. llerdman, Gowland, president, in the chair.-Group marriage, with

In the

F.R.S., president, in especial reference to Australia : N. W. Thomas.

the chair.-The Ashe-Finlayson course of his remarks the author pointed out that the i Comparascope”: D. Finlayson. The instrument displays

two objects in the same magnified field, this being attained theories of Lewis Morgan were without sufficient basis. In the place of Lewis Morgan's fifteen stages, later theorists by a secondary stage and objective at right-angles tu lhor had postulated first a period of promiscuity, and following primary instrument, the rays being transmitied up the huds on that group marriage, so-called, which in Australia is of the microscope through a right-angled prism, and clear.

ness of the two images preserved by means of a diaphragm only now being transformed into individual marriage. But here too no sufficient account had been given of the causes

placed longitudinally in the microscope-tube.-2cological which led to the abolition of promiscuity. The grounds on

nomenclature : international rules and others : Rev. T. RR. which it was assumed that promiscuity and group marriage Stebbing. The author's paper, introductory to a discusin.

insisted on the paramount importance of obtaining agrer. were stages in human development were first philological and secondly sociological. The philological grounds were ment among zoologists on this subject. Incidentally, Mr. shown in the paper to be wholly insufficient, and the facts Stebbing ventured to ask whether there were not many rules

of nomenclature on which it would be satisfactory and adof present-day Justralian life to be susceptible of other ex

visable for zoologists not only to agree among theinselves, planations.

but also to come to terms with their botanical colleagur Chemical Society. Morch 2 - Prof. W. A Tilden, F.R.S.,

In this regard he offered some remarks in favour of adopring president, in the chair.—The following papers were read :The relation between natural and synthetical glycerylphos- point and basis for what might be called the Linnean ria.

the year 1751 and the " Philosophia Botanica as starting phoric acids : F. B. Power and F. Tutin. The authors have shown that the discrepancies of statement respecting Entomologicus" of F. Weber, published in 1795, with the

A section of the paper was devoted to the Nomenclator the properties of the glycerylphosphates are due to contamination with salts of the di-ester. They have prepared object of showing that the generic names in that catalogus

are without value in questions of priority. While consignand analysed a number of these salts in pure condition.

ing various smaller details to an appendix, the body ur ihr Proof is also adduced that the conclusions of Willstätter

paper concluded with a proposal to get rid of tautonyny and Lüdecke that the differences between the salts of natural (derived from lecithin) and artificial glycerylphos, arrangements) by a plan distinguishing what was legal in

(as in Trutta trutta, Ipus (:1 pus) apus, or other chanical phoric acids are not those existing between mere optical

the past from what is to be legal in the future. - Bisrat. isomerides are not justified.— The transmutation of geo-plankton collected by H.M.S. Research in 1901, part is, metrical isomerides : A. W. Stewart. The author assumes Thaliacea : Dr. G. Herbert Fowler. as a phase of the reaction the formation and disruption of

Mathematical Society, March 9. Piol. For yib. a tetramethylene compound, which in the case of fumaric and maleic acids would be tetramethylene-1:2:3 : 4-tetra

president, and temporarily Dr. Hobson, in the chair.- Thr carboxylic acid, and this by disruption in two different

following papers were communicated :-On the projerrier

of two triangles on to the same triangle : Prof. M.] M. directions would give rise to either fumaric or maleic derivatives. Illustrations of the applicability of this ex

Hill, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, and Mr. H. W. Chapman. I

construction is given for projecting two given triangle planation to other cases are also given.-Linin: J. S. Hills and W. P. Wynne. Linin, CH,,o,, a crystalline sub

to the same third triangle when the plane of the latter is stance obtained by hydrolysis of a glucoside present in

given, and this construction makes it possible to determin Linum catharticum, melts at 203°, contains sour methoxy! | in the one and the four corresponding points in the oth:

the projective relation between two planes when four points groups, and is physiologically inactive.- The constitution of

are given. The lines joining corresponding vertices of the phenylmethylacridol : J. J. Dobbie Hantzsch's view that

two given triangles are generators of one system the substance formed when phenylacridine methiodide is treated with an alkali is a carbinol is confirmed by the

regulus, and the possible points of projection when both

projected on to the same triangle lie on a generator at the fact that the absorption spectra are different from those of

other system. As this line describes the regulus, the laun the parent methiodide, and similar to those of dihydro- of the point in the plane of the second triangle whir phenylacridine.—The ultra-violet absorption spectra of certain diazo-compounds in relation to their constitution :

corresponds to a given point in the plane of the first triangle

is a cubic curve with a double point. A construction fa. J. J. Dobbie and C. K. Tinkler.--The latent heat of evaporation of benzene and some other compounds : J. C.

the points of the cubic is obtained,—The Weddir

surface : H. Bateman. The surface is the focus of pui Brown.—The reduction of isophthalic acid : W. H.

of points which are conjugate with regard to all quadre Perkin, jun., and S. S. Pickles. When isophthalic acid passing through six given points. Any chord of the twist is reduced with sodium amalgam at 45° it yields two tetrahydro-acids, AP and cis-A", and from these two others harmonically by the surface. This result leads to a parit

cubic which passes through the six given points in our may be obtained, so that the four possible tetrahydroisometric representation of the points of the surfacr. The phthalic acids have now been prepared. The properties and reciprocal of the surface belongs to a family of surface reactions of these are described. The influence of tem- described by Darboux, which possess conjugatd systerris -* perature on the interaction between acetylthiocyanate and plane curves.-On the complete reduction of any transitio certain bases. Thiocarbamides, including carboxy-aromatic I permutation group, and on the arithmetical nature of in

NO. 1846, vol. 71)

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