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presented by a single specimen, part of a milk molar the British Pleistocene fauna, but is thought to have of Elephas antiquus; this again is peculiar, the been introduced to this country probably by the elephant previously met within Derbyshire being Romans. the mammoth (E. primigenius). The presence of There are two points, however, which have to be Elephas antiquus and Rhinoceros leptorhinus, as we settled before we can accept this addition to our learn from the discussion following the paper, led Pleistocene mammals :—(1) Are these remains cerProf. Dawkins to regard the deposits at Hoe Grange tainly those of fallow deer? and if so (2). Is the as belonging to the older Pleistocene group of caves. deposit in which they were found really of Pleistocene Among the numerous bovine remains there are

age? no horn-cores and frontal bones to indicate the It is to be regretted that there are no sufficiently species to which these remains belong, and the well preserved antlers to define the species clearly, measurements of several metacarpals given in the but the limb-bones and teeth are of such a size that paper show that limb-bones alone are not sufficient if there had been no question of age there would to indicate whether the remains are those of Bos or of have been little or no doubt in referring them to Bison.

fallow deer. In the circumstances the authors The Cervidæ are represented by four species, the have carefully measured the teeth and made com

parisons with both fallow and red deer, and feel compelled to regard these remains as parts of fallow deer or of a closely allied species. The only Pleistocene species of a size which might compare with these bones and teeth is the Cervus Browni described by Prof. Boyd Dawkins from Pleistocene

beds at Clacton, and this is only known by its antler, 6

which is distinguished from that of the fallow deer by the presence of an additional tine. It has been shown, however, that modern fallow deer sometimes have this additional tine (see NATURE, vol. xi., p. 210), and it thus becomes very doubtful whether C. Browni is really a distinct species. Although there are no antlers from Hoe Grange cave that can be compared with C. Browni, yet it seems almost. certain that the authors are correct, and that these Hoe Grange remains are representatives of the fallow

deer. 5 A

We have now to consider the age of the Hoe

Grange deposits. There can be no question as to 3

the Pleistocene age of the elephant, rhinoceros, hyæna, and lion, and there is no doubt as to the fallow deer bones being found with the remains of those animals; but it is just possible that the fallow deer was living in the neighbourhood at a time when a previously existing Pleistocene deposit was washed into this cave, and so the more modern animal got mixed with the older forms. In order that such a

re-deposition of large bones might take place there 5

must have been a considerable supply of water, and seeing that the cave at the present time is near the top of the plateau there is no collecting ground for water; and it becomes necessary to suppose that, at the time of the re-deposition of the bones, the land was much higher than it is now, and that it has since been denuded. But it must be remembered that this would mean a very large amount of denudation, and, if we are to accept the fallow deer as a Roman importation, this denudation

this denudation must have taken place since Roman times, which seems

extremely improbable. We think, therefore, that 1

the authors are justified in regarding these particular

cervine remains as those of fallow deer, and as good FIG. 2.- Mammalian Brnes from Hoe Grange Cavern. 1, Lion-cub, lower evidence that the species lived in this country in

jaw; 2 Wild Cat, femur ; 3, Wild Cat, huinerus; 4, Bear, molar tooth; 5, 54, Elephas antiquus, milk tooth; 6, l'allow deer, three molar teeth.

Pleistocene times.

A fallow deer's antler has been recorded recently

by Dr. Herlaf Winge from an interglacial deposit in great Irish deer (Cervus giganteus), the red deer Denmark; and this early extension of the species so (C. elaphus), the roebuck (Capreolus caprea), and far north on the Continent makes its occurrence in another form, intermediate in size between the last England in Pleistocene times still more probable. two, which is regarded by the authors as fallow deer It is remarkable that Cervus dama, or rather its (Cervus dama). Bones and teeth of the last-named equivalent, C. Browni, should have been so rarely form were very numerous, nearly 1600 specimens found, hitherto, in Pleistocene deposits, seeing that having been found. If these remains are indeed it is so abundant in the Hoe Grange cave. parts of Pleistocene fallow deer, and we see no way A word regarding the illustrations accompanying to any other conclusion, they are of the greatest this paper, two of which, by the courtesy of the interest. The fallow deer has not hitherto been council of the Geological Society, we are able to accepted, at least by modern writers, as a member of reproduce. The views of the cave are very creditable reproductions, but we have nowadays become can be claimed is that it is of the native pattern." accustomed to good things of this kind. It is rarely, The tales are interesting as stories, and have increased however, that we have seen such satisfactory repro- value when compared with other tales from Oceania, ductions of photographs taken directly from the but their greatest importance rests in their value as fossils as

[graphic]

we have in the two plates. Most of the evidence of the ideas and actions of the natives before good collotype reproductions of fossils that have the white man came. In the introduction Mr. Fison recently appeared are from photographs of water- gives a long discussion concerning cannibalism, and colour drawings, and some of them are certainly very he sums it up thus :effective; but there is the artist's equation to allow " It is impossible to establish a certainty as to the for. In the present case, no such allowance has to origin of cannibalism, and the question resolves itself be made, and the figures of the lion's jaw as well as into a comparison of probabilities, the balance being of the teeth of the fallow deer and elephant are in favour of the strongest motive. This is unadmirable. These plates do credit to all concerned in doubtedly Hunger. It is stronger than Superstition ; their production.

it is stronger than Revenge. Man is a carnivorous

animal, whatever the vegetarians may say; and in a FIJIAN FOLK-TALES.

savage state of society, if he cannot get the food for

which his stomach craves, he will kusima' (crave, ETI

THNOLOGISTS have all along suspected that or hunger after flesh) until he eats his brother."

Mr. Fison has plenty of unpublished information For, as Mr. Fison argues, the Fijians were formerly concerning, Fiji. They are grateful to him for what scantily supplied with animal food. The serious he has already published in the Journal of the student is occasionally tantalised by hints of further

[graphic][merged small]

Anthropological Inst but they clamoured for information, and by allusions to possible discussions more, and even now they will not remain satisfied of social and other questions, all of which are passed with the handsome book that has just been issued by by as not being suitable for a popular book; doubtthe De La More Press. This new book contains a less Mr. Fison was wise in restraining himself, but, dozen folk-tales capitally told; “ each contains a for the sake of science, it is sincerely to be hoped that genuine legend as its skeleton, for the flesh with he will give all his information to the world in some which that skeleton has been covered, the most that form or another. In the meantime we thank Mr. 1 "Tales trom Old Fiji." By Lorimer Fison. Pp. xlv +175; illustrated.

Fison for this publication, which can be recommended (London: A. Muring, Ltd., the De La More Press, 1904.) Price 7s. 6d.

to those who like interesting information about real

savages told in a pleasing manner.

net.

ment.

NOTES.

lifetime, and his representatives. The papers now pub

lished show that the difficulties in the way of a settlement On Friday last, March 17, the worlds of science and art

have been removed. Guarantees have been offered by the recombined to do honour to a man who has rendered to both

presentatives of the donor to secure the full income estimservices of the utmost value and of a nature that time

ated from the endowment properties, and the management cannot diminish-for so long as the human throat is cap

of the latter is vested in a board the chairman of which is able of emitting musical sounds, and so long as throats are

to be an officer selected by the Bombay Government. In liable to disease, the great invention of Manuel Garcia

addition to making a grant of 2 lakhs of rupees (16,6661.) will hold its place among vocalists and laryngologists.

towards the construction of the necessary buildings and The celebration of Señor Garcia's centenary was held in

provision of scientific apparatus, the Government will make the hall of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society,

an annual grant to the institute of half the local assets up Hanover Square, under the direction of Sir Felis Semon,

to a limit of 1š lakhs of rupees, provided that the institute chairman of the Garcia committee. Señor Garcia sat

is conducted on lines approved generally by the Governalone on a dais, while in front of him were ranked the

The scheme will provide for the reference of certain representatives of kings, governments, universities, scien

questions to the advisory committee of the Royal Society, tific societies, and his old pupils who had gathered to do

or to such other scientific authority as may be appointed him honour. Sir Felix Semon announced that that morn

for the purpose. The Governor-General in Council dising the King had invited Señor Garcia to Buckingham Palace, and with his own hands invested him with the

avows any desire to be intimately associated with the

actual administration of the institute, or to claim a deterinsignia of Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, and

mining voice in the settlement of the lines of research to had expressed a desire to be represented at the banquet in

be followed or the methods of instruction to be employed. the evening by his Lord-in-Waiting, Lord Suffield. The

The Government will exercise no more than that degree Marquis de Villalobar then delivered a congratulatory of influence and control which is justified by the grant-inmessage froni the King of Spain, and added, “In the

aid that has been promised. name of His Majesty and your motherland, I invest you with the Royal Order of Alfonso XII. as a reward of your

Prof. Emil WARBURG, of Berlin, has been appointed merits and the services you have rendered to mankind. I

president of the National Physical Laboratory at Charlotdesire also to make public the sentiments of my beloved tenburg, and his place in the university is to be taken by Sovereign and of his Government to King Edward VII. for Prof. Paul Drude, of Giessen. the distinction he has conferred upon our compatriot, and The magnificent collection of birds' eggs possessed by the the hearty gratefulness of Spain to all who have come

British (Natural History) Museum has been largely aughere to-day to honour Don Manuel Garcia.” Other tributes

mented by the gift of the splendid series brought together followed thick and fast during a crowded hour. Prof.

by Mr. W. Radcliffe Saunders, of High Bank, Tonbridge. Fränkel presented on behalf of the German Emperor the

This collection comprises close on ten thousand specimens great gold medal of science. Sir Archibald Geikie, Mr.

of the eggs of Palæarctic species, together with one Francis Darwin, and Prof. Halliburton, representing the hundred and sixty-five nests. Royal Society, presented an address, recalling the fact that their Proceedings for March 22, 1855, contained the

We regret to record the death at the age of seventy-six epoch-making paper in which Señor Garcia laid the found- of Mr. Jeremiah Slade, one of the founders of the Geoations of the experimental study of the voice. The Royal | logists' Association. Mr. Slade had for many years been Prussian Academy of Sciences, the University of Königs

a teacher of geology, mineralogy, zoology, and botany at berg. the Victoria University, the Medical Faculty of

the Working Men's College, the Birkbeck Institution, and Heidelberg, the Royal Academy of Music, and the Royal the City of London College. He was an ardent microCollege of Music sent distinguished representatives, who in scopist and member of the Quekett Microscopical Club. rapid succession laid before the

illuminated addresses in rich profusion, until the table in front of

The anniversary dinner of the Chemical Society will be

held on Wednesday, March 29. him was heaped. We have not space to give the long list of public institutions and societies, laryngological and other,

The sixth International Congress of Applied Chemistry which brought tribute ; but every quarter of the globe was

will be held at Rome next year, probably during the week represented, and during the proceedings a constant stream

following Easter. of telegrams poured in. After the addresses a portrait of The French Société d'Encouragement pour l'industrie Señor Garcia, painted by Mr. Sargent, R.A., and sub- nationale has awarded the Lavoisier medal to M. Héroult scribed for by friends and admirers in all parts of the in recognition of his electrometallurgical researches. In world, was unveiled and presented to him by Sir Felix recommending the award the committee refers to his work Semon. The proceedings were concluded by a remarkably in connection with the manufacture of aluminium, and the eloquent speech by Señor Garcia. In the evening Señor preparation of steel in the electric furnace. (now Don) Garcia was entertained at a banquet held in his honour at the Hotel Cecil.

Official statistics show that the production of natural

gas in the United States in 1903 was greater than in any We learn from the Times that further papers have been

previous year. The production had a value of 7,143,000l.,

or 16 per cent. more than that of 1902. Four States, published by the Government of India in respect to the late Mr. J. N. Tata's offer of an endowment in the shape together 94 per cent of the supply of gas. The total

Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Indiana, and Ohio, furnished of properties valued at 200,000l. for the creation of an

volume of the gas at atmospheric pressure was 6757 million institute of Indian research at Bangalore. Certain conditions in respect to Government assistance were attached

cubic metres, representing in heating value 12,129,468 tons

of bituminous coal. to the offer, which was first made six years ago, and these have been the subject of prolonged discussion and corre- Reuter's Agency has received some details of an expedispondence between the Government, Mr. Tata during his tion which went to British New Guinea in September, 1903,

maestro

an

and has lately returned to England. The expedition was characters in the male, and comes to the conclusion that organised by Major W. Cooke-Daniels, American such an hypothesis offers an inadequate and untenable estraveller, and it also included Dr. C. G. Seligmann, Dr. planation of the phenomenon. In place of this, the author W. M. Strong, and Mr. A. H. Dunning. The objects were suggests that such features in the male are the equivalents primarily ethnographical, but studies were also made in of maternity in the female, that is to say, the products other branches of science, and a number of general patho

which in the female are required for generative purposes logical observations were made. A collection of photo- are superfluous in the male, and are accordingly employed graphs was secured by Mr. Dunning, and the travellers for sexual ornament. If we mistake not, the same theory have brought back kinematograph pictures and a selection has been already promulgated by Captain Barrett-Hamil. of phonographic records.

ton. A CORRESPONDENT writing to the Times from Florence We have received copies of four articles from the third directs attention to the fact that the famous Tower of volume of “Marine Investigations in South Africa." In de Galileo, on the hill of Arcetri above Florence, is now scribing, in two of these, the polychætous annelids collected practically destroyed. This historic thirteenth century by Dr. Gilchrist, Prof. Melntosh directs attention to the building—known locally as the Torre del Gallo-has for community of type between South African and European some months past been concealed in scaffolding set up for marine annelids generally, many of the types from the two the purpose of raising its castellated tower by a third of its areas being specifically identical, while others, in a dvore former height, of placing in its walls new windows, of or less modified form, extend eastwards into the Indian and adding a loggia, and, in fine, of converting the world Pacific Oceans, and westward to America. A nearly similar famous “ Star Tower" into a pretentious modern erection. feature has been recorded in the case of crustaceans, and it To the Anglo-Saxon race Galileo's Tower possessed a thus seems that the distribution of invertebrates in these spas special interest, in that it was the scene of the classic meet- is governed by very different laws from those which obtain, ing between Milton and Galileo.

for instance, in the case of the commoner food-fishes. The

anatomy and variation of the Flabellum-like corals farm IN No. 1395 of the Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, Mr. C. D. Walcott continues his account of

the subject of the third article, in which Mr. J. S. Gardiner

has found himself compelled to dissent from the classification American Cambrian brachiopods, describing several new

of corals proposed by the late Prof. P. M. Duncan. In genera and species. It is explained that these notes and

the fourth fasciculus Dr. Gilchrist continues his investigation their forerunners are published in the hope that they may

into the development and life-history of South African fishes, be of service to students prior to the appearance of the full monograph promised on the subject.

describing and figuring a number of larvæ, some of which

cannot at present be specifically identified. We have received the reports of the Wellington College and of the Felsted School science societies for 1904. The

In the Monthly Review for March, Mr. W. E. Hodgson former, which is illustrated, contains summaries of a

discourses very pleasantly on certain problems connected with number of lectures delivered before the society, among

salmon-fishing. After pointing out the inaccuracy of the which one by Mr. H. W. Monckton on the geology of the

common opinion that the north of Scotland in spring is London district deserves special mention. In the Felsted necessarily colder than the south of England, the author report attention is directed to the lack of keenness displayed proceeds to discuss the reason why loch-fishing for salmon by the members of the zoological section, who failed to

is carried on with a minnow instead of with a fly. One take nature-study seriously. Although one prize was offered reason seems to be that salmon lie deeper in the water for an account of the birds of the district, and a second for

than trout, and will consequently, owing to the set of their the best collection of butterflies and moths, there were no

eyes, see the approach of a boat at a greater distance. A competitors.

minnow trolled behind a boat is probably, therefore, the

best lure for Salmo salar; but whether the boatmen are In addition to the Bulletin on the fauna and flora of the right in giving a sinuous course to the boat is very ques plateau of Baraque-Michel, already noticed (from

tionable. In the first place a boat may be rowed right over author's copy) in Nature of March 16 (p. 468), No. 12 of a deep-lying salmon without being seen by the fish; the Bulletin of the Belgian Royal Academy contains two secondly, there is considerable reason to believe that disbiological articles of considerable interest. In the first of turbed water is conducive to the salmon biting ; and thirdly, these, Miss J. Wery discusses the attractions offered to it is not unlikely that the fish which takes the trailing lure bees by flowers, and, as the result of direct experiments, has not been lying in the wake of the boat, but may have arrives at the following conclusions. Brilliantly coloured made a dash from the side. Mr. Hodgson, who is by no flowers offer much greater attraction when entire than means convinced that salmon fast during their sojourn in when the petals, &c., have been cut away; honey has no fresh water, thinks they take the minnow for a wounded attractive power; artificial flowers are just as attractive as fish, and dash at it owing to the impulse which makes most natural ones if both are under glass shades; flower perfume animals attack a cripple. by itself offers but little attraction ; while colour and form, apart from scent, are powerfully attractive; the mingling

Part Iv. of the third volume of Biometrika contains of the three factors, form, colour, and scent, constitutes the

several memoirs of interest. Mr. Punnett contributes a most powerful attraction of all. Finally, if the latter item

careful study of variation in Spinax niger, showing, from be reckoned as 100, the attractive power exerted by form

an analysis of the characters of 263 adults and 304 en and colour will be 80 per cent., while the other factors bryos, that a well-marked sexual dimorphism exists in this (pollen, nectar, and scent) will only rank as 20 per cent.

shark, and that the variability of male embryos considerably

exceeds that of male adults, this pointing to a more In the second of the two articles from the Bulletin of the stringent selection in the case of the male. Homeosis Belgian Academy referred to above, Prof. A. Lamcere rather than intercalation or excalation is held by the author discusses Darwin's theory of female sexual selection as the to be the more feasible explanation of the various relatire primary factor in the production of secondary sexual positions occupied by the structures examined-this sup

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