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THURSDAY, MARCH 30, 1905.

Prof. Flint's new book should serve as a mediating inflúence between philosophical and scientific interests.

It brings together into one convenient source the THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SCIENCES.

leading attempts made, from Plato to Karl Pearson,

towards a classification of the sciences. This, it Philosophy as Scientia Scientiarum and a History of seems, is the first time in the history of the subject

Classifications of the Sciences. By Robert Flint, that an exhaustive endeavour has been made to D.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E. Pp. x+340. (Edinburgh collect these data. How invaluable a service Prof. and London : William Blackwood and Sons, 1904.) Flint has thus rendered to future investigators, can Price 10s, 6d. net.

be appreciated only by those who have tediously toiled T! HE relation of science to philosophy is, in theory, at the scattered literature of this subject. Its biblio

filial. It is, perhaps, no contradiction of the graphy appears hitherto to have been left unorganised filial relationship that in practice it has an un- / -having escaped even the ubiquitous zeal of German fortunate tendency to run to mutual recrimination. scholarship. As a special study, the classification of The man of science too often ignores the philosopher, the sciences has been singularly little cultivated in or despises him as an obscurantist who habitually Germany, though Wundt went too far when, first confounds abstraction with generalisation. To the taking up the subject himself, about a generation metaphysical philosopher, on the other hand, the ago, he declared that German sources were nil. typical specialist in science is a variety of day- In point of purely taxonomic requirement, the first labourer, dulled by the drudgery of occupational questions evoked by the problem of classification of routine. Amidst such conjugal plain-speaking on the sciences are :-(1) What order of phenomena is both sides, it is no wonder that we hear much of it that falls to be classified ? (2) Which (if any) what is called the divorce of philosophy and science; amongst existing sciences deal with this particular and yet there are many problems which for their order of phenomena? Can we, without leaving the adequate treatment surely require the combined assured ground of scientific method, adequately resources of both science and philosophy. Is not the determine the first of these two questions? Does problem of the classification of the sciences one of science itself yield criteria for determining its own these? Yet the comparative isolation of the scientific order of phenomena? Science, to be sure, when selfand philosophic approaches to this subject is a con- contemplative, is more often in a postprandial mood spicuous fact, well attested by some recent instances. than in a critical one. But when the man of science, One of the most eminent of European men of science in a metaphysical moment, does critically turn his eye quite recently brought forward, as an original con- inwards, and surveys the whole scientific domain, tribution, a scheme of classification which the does he not see a manifold complexity of very partially philosophical critics at

detected almost analysed phenomena? Truth to tell, the evolution of identical with that of Auguste Comte. Another very science itself—i.e. its rationalised history and its eminent man of science not long ago published a methodology-considered as a department of scientific critical survey of some of the best known schemes of research, is one that has scarcely begun to be classification. His criticsm of Comte's scheme was cultivated. It would be interesting, incidentally, to apparently based upon an allusion in the practical inquire whether the establishment of a chair of the treatise (the “ Positive Polity "), the critic himself “ History of Science” in the Collège de France (due being presumably in ignorance that Comte's treatment to positivist advocacy) has been followed by any of the subject can only be adequately studied in the similar initiative elsewhere; while as to methodology, “ Positive Philosophy," where indeed the general what chance would even the most eminent amongst theory of science is so elaborately worked out as to men of science have as a candidate for a chair of extend over several volumes.

logic? Then again, there is that stupendous work, the The few great men of science who have contributed * International Catalogue of Scientific Literature,” to these departments of study have done so itself a classification of the (natural) sciences in being. philosophers rather than as men of science. Personal For the taxonomic preparations antecedent to this, and individual views on the history and the methods the Royal Society was mainly responsible. It would of science-views of the first value and significance be interesting to know if the Royal Society, in -have time and again been emitted, but there has preparing its scheme, consulted either the Aris scarcely yet been initiated in this field, that system totelian Society (as the leading corporate of cooperative, impersonal, detached research which presentative of philosophy in England),

any

continuity and consensus--the essential individual philosopher, known, like Herbert Spencer, criteria of science. Not far short of a hundred to have made a special study of the classifica- systems of classification come within Prof. Flint's tion of the sciences. Had a precedent been wanting | survey. The great majority of these have been put for the explicit and formal cooperation of science and forward explicitly in the name of philosophy . philosophy, a not unworthy one might have been cited Perhaps less than a dozen may be counted as having in the collaboration of Whewell, sought and obtained issued from professed men of science; and of these, by Lyell, for the classification and nomenclature of each is, like the philosophical schemes, a personal Tertiary geological strata.

and individual production, generated in comparative

once

as

as

re

or

ensures

an

isolation from other similar endeavours. Hence it a type. The existing body of men of science make up, is, that while there is no generally recognised system at any given moment, the temporary and evanescent of arranging the sciences in any rational order, there personnel of one amongst abiding social institutions. is a whole series of competing pseudo-classifications, They constitute one of a number of competing and each characterised by the particular qualities and de- cooperating social groups, composed of types of fects of its individual originator. One of the un- personality which are material for observation and fortunate results, is that the problem itself has fallen study, like any other commensurable objects of natural into some disrepute. Prof. Flint's book will help history. And in this observational study of types of substantially to rescue the problem both from neglect scientific personality would, of course, be included the and obloquy.

corresponding study of their mental products-i.e. With existing resources, what tentative lines of their contributions to science. orderly development may be discerned in the evolu- Here, then, are three aspects of science, under tion of science which may help towards this pre- which it may approach the problem of its own liminary problem of classification ? Looking at the structures and functions, its own history and ideals. sciences collectively, and their field of investigation The first approach is that of the nascent science of as a whole, we may without transcending scientific methodology (inheriting the philosophical traditions limits take several standpoints in turn. These may of logic and epistemology); the second is that of be held to include the following :

the well-established science of psychology; and the (1) Science, collectively considered as a body of third, that of the nascent science of sociology (inheritknowledge, differentiated from other bodies of ing the traditions of philosophy of history and social knowledge (e.g. common knowledge on the one side philosophy). As each of these three sciences develops, and philosophy on the other) by its more systematic it must, in pursuit of the first of scientific idealscharacter, its greater quantitative precision, its more that of over-evolving order-work out an fully and explicitly known sources of origin and increasingly natural classification of the phenomena methods of growth, the more certain verifiability of with which it deals. The whole field of science would its generalisations, the greater exactitude of its fore- be surveyed from each of these points of view, and casts. Here, from this standpoint, science appears it would follow that in course of time there must as a system of symbolism, a methodised scheme of emerge several classificatory schemes, each with a notation, an organisation of interdependent formulæ scientific status and validity of its own. But, given -in short, a well-made language, as Condillac said. these several taxonomic systems-logical, psycho

(2) Science considered as a psychological process- logical, sociological, and perhaps also æsthetic and i.e. as a power or faculty which, under certain defin- ethical—there would, of course, remain the problem of able conditions of heredity, training, and environ- their unification. Here surely would be scope for the ment, the individual mind may acquire and utilise in activities of the philosopher; and yet the man of science the course of its normal growth. Here, from this would presumably decline to delegate that supreme standpoint, science appears as an artificial Psychic taxonomic survey of his own domain. As sociologist, Organ, a portable illuminant like the miner's lamp, he may even propose a scientific survey of the a racial eye adjustable to the individual brain-an eye philosophical field! For

not systems of that discerns the obscurities of the present, penetrates philosophy themselves to be observed and classified the past, and reveals the future. In short, science is as sociological facts, and interpreted as products and here a rational development of instinct, by means of factors in social evolution ? which the individual may be educated to possess him- What, then, is the right division of labour between self more fully of the accumulated social heritage; science and philosophy? Is it not expressed in the and, in turn, more fully contribute to it, from his simple and homely ideal—every man of science his personal experience--the individual being here own philosopher? Does not the existing fashion of postulated as unique.

exclusive devotion, either to speculation or to observ(3) Science considered as a social process, i.e. ation, tend to a multiplication of individuals who are a growth of racial experience, accumulated by an neither philosophers nor men of science, but infinitude of contributions from cooperating individuals degenerate variants known to American psychologists and generations in endless succession. It is a social as respectively "lumpers ” and “splitters "? Is it process differing in its development from parallel not an alternation of speculation and observation, of growths of racial experience, chiefly in being more the philosophical and the scientific mood, that most capable of consciously directed control and guidance, prolongs and intensifies each of these two compleand therefore able to yield more verifiable ideals.

mentary phases of mental activity? That surely is Here, from this third point of view, science appears the lesson to be learned from the lives of the great as a Social Institution, aiming at the organisation initiators in science-of Faraday and Darwin, of of communitary experience by a collective process Virchow and Helmholtz, of Bichat and Claude Ber. which the intervention of any given individual is a nard. The ordinary working man of science is ready negligible quantity. The personality of the individual enough, like Claude Bernard, to put off his imaginaman of science is here to be observed as a social fact tion with his coat when he enters the laboratory. of a definitive order, and interpreted as itself the Only let him remember, like Claude Bernard, to put product of past and contemporary social evolution. it on again when he leaves, for without it he cannot The individual is here postulated, not as unique, but as cultivate philosophy.

are

as

viii + 242.

ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS.

thick, thin, and dotted lines on a systematic plan (1) Elementary Pure Geometry, with Mensuration. to distinguish more readily between the data, the

By E. Buddon, M.A., B.Sc. Pp. viii+284. construction lines, and the result. The use of variable (London and Edinburgh: W. and R. Chambers, type serves to differentiate parts of greater or less Ltd., 1904.) Price 3s.

importance. In fact, the book on every page bears

witness to the great care and thought bestowed (2) Lessons in Experimental and Practical Geometry.

on its production. There is a stimulating freshness By H. S. Hall, M.A., and F. H. Stevens, M.A.

in the matter and its method of presentation. Some Pp. viii +94 + iii. (London: Macmillan and Co.,

will doubt the wisdom of carrying on at school the Ltd., 1905.) Price is, 6d.

study of pure geometry to the extent covered in the (3) The Elements of Geometry, Theoretical and book; others may wish that the geometry of vectors Practical. By B. Arnett, M.A. Books i., ii., and

had been included; but all will agree that the author iii. Pp. viii + 195, viii +238, and

has produced one of the most important of the new (London : Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and elementary text-books, and one that should be known Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 2s, each volume.

to every teacher interested in the subject. (+) The Elements of Trigonometry. By S. L. Loney, (2) The “ Lessons in Experimental and Practical

M.A. Pp. xii + 339+ xiv. (Cambridge: The Uni- Geometry” by Messrs. Hall and Stevens might very versity Press, 1904; London : Macmillan and Co., fittingly be incorporated in the authors' “ School Ltd., 1904.) Price 3s. 60.

Geometry," to which it forms an excellent introduction (5) Elementary Algebra, Part II. By W. M. Baker, as well as supplement. The subject is treated in the

M.A., and A. A. Bourne, M.A. Pp. viii +277 to masterly way that is found in the mathematical text+63 + lxxvi.

(London: George Bell and Sons, books of these writers. Young pupils are fortunate 1904.)

who obtain their first notions of geometry from a 10) Clive's Shilling Arithmetic. Edited by W. Briggs, course such as the one outlined in its pages. They LL.D., M.A., &c. Pp. viii + 154. (London : W. B.

will become accustomed to the use of compasses, Clive, 1905.) Price is.

squares, scales, and the protractor by interesting (7) Graphic Statics. By T. Alexander, C.E., and quantitative and experimental work, fundamental

time inductively A. W. Thompson, D.Sc. Pp. viii + 50. (London : propositions being at the same Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1904.)

Price 2s.

established. They will have practice in the applica

tion of geometrical problems; will learn how to 1) THE geometry of Mr. Buddon is a notable addi

measure areas; and will be introduced to the simpler tion to the elementary text-books which owe

geometrical solids. The authors make good use of their appearance to the freedom of the last few years. The subject is introduced by experimental which they give might with advantage have included

tracing paper. The list of instruments and apparatus work, very suggestive in character, and leading by the drawing and compass pencils, with a caution induction to fundamental definitions and theorems.

added against the employment of soft blunt leads. Thus from the sliding and folding of flat cards and the like the author arrives at his definition of a plane Arnett states that the work

(3) In the preface of his elementary geometry Mr.

• has been written for as " a surface, infinite in extent, which can be folded the use of candidates who are being prepared by a about any two points of the surface so that one part

master for the different examinations conducted by the lies entirely on the other.” The definition of

universities and the Civil Service Commission." The straight line naturally follow's the infinitely extended fold of a plane. A plane angle is clearly subject-matter is confined to plane geometry, and is and rationally defined. Parallel lines are those having definitions and axioms, and investigates some of the

almost wholly deductive. The first book gives the same direction in a plane, direction being measured properties of lines, angles, parallels, triangles, and by the angle made with any reference line. It is quadrilaterals. The second book deals mainly with thr pointed out that a planė, a plane angle, and a

circle and with ratio and proportion, and the last book straight line can in each case be reversed on itself,

treats of areas and of similar figures. The principal and thus symmetrical properties are satisfactorily feature of the work is the very large number of established in which the two halves are alike but of exercises provided, a few of which are numerical or opposite aspect. Then follow general

of

graphical, the great bulk, however, being of the nature congruence. In dealing with ratio and proportion of geometrical riders. The text-book is not at all suitthe idea of a continually subdivided decimal scale is able for beginners, for general school work, or for introduced; this enables all numbers which can be private study except under the direction of a tutor expressed as continuous decimal fractions, e.g. who could direct the student as to which parts should 1.4142. ..., to be included, and to any degree of be read and which omitted, and who would probably approximation. In later chapters the subject-matter re-arrange the order in which the theorems and comprises a very full treatment of the properties of problems should be taken. circles; elementary trigonometry; an introduction to (4) Mr. Loney's “ Elements of Trigonometry” is projective geometry; conic sections treated by modern mainly taken from part i. of the author's “ Plane methods; and solid geometry with the mensuration Trigonometry,” and is designed as an easier text-book. of the simple geometrical solids. The book con- The subject is treated in the usual way, and there tains in profusion sets of graphical and deduc- is nothing to call for special mention. The first tive exercises. The figures

drawn with chapters relate to acute angles and right-angled NO. 1848, vol. 71]

a

as

cases

are

are

triangles. The definitions are then extended to angles necessary to set limits to the investigation. This of any magnitude, and formulæ are established for was effected by confining attention to the principal the sum and difference of angles, and for multiple constituents of the salt-beds. These are chloride and submultiple angles, &c. There is a chapter on of sodium, in great preponderance, and the chlorides logarithms, and a number of four-figure tables are and sulphates of magnesium and potassium with given. This work leads up to the properties and solu- their water of crystallisation. The latter forma tion of triangles with applications. Inverse functions series of more complex bodies which appear and dis are introduced, and general expressions established for appear with the changing equilibrium of the solution. angles having given trigonometrical ratios. There are After these come the calcium salts, such as anhydrite a large number of examples, any necessary answers and polyhalite; but they are held over for treatment in to which are given at the end of the book.

the next fascicule. (5) Part ii. of Messrs. Baker and Bourne's excellent The work is a gigantic exercise in physical chemistry. algebra begins by formally establishing the laws of which the author carries through on strictly scientific operation of algebraical symbols. It contains chapters lines, while at the same time touch is kept with the on surds and indices, proportion, logarithms, pro- | important applications of his results in the economy gressions, series, scales of notation, permutations and of nature, and chemistry is thus vindicated as a branch combinations, the binomial theorem, interest and of natural history. annuities, exponential and logarithmic series and The experimental part of the work is of esperia' partial fractions. There numerous groups of interest to physical chemists, and the publication of examples, and special sets of revision papers at it in a connected and condensed form will be welcomed intervals, the answers being all given in an appendix. by them. It is proposed here to notice only the aşA special feature of the book is the frequent use of plication of it to the occurrence of salts in nature in graphs and of geometrical illustrations. This text-book beds and in solution. must give satisfaction wherever used.

The experimental basis of the work is the deter(6) Clive's shilling arithmetic is intended for the use mination of the solubility, at certain temperatures, o! of teachers who adopt almost entirely the oral method the common salts of the sea, in water and in solutions of instruction, and who only require a class-book con- of each other. With the information so obtained, ** taining concise statements of rules, with graduated is possible to follow exactly the crystallisation o a sets of exercises, and with the formal proofs of theorems solution containing all these salts, as it gradually omitted. Thus a small volume is sufficient to cover loses water by evaporation at the temperature of the the range of subjects usually taught in schools, and experiment. The temperature most used is 25° C., which this manual contains. The book can be ob- which is fairly representative of the temperature of tained with answers included at an extra cost of

sea water evaporating in salt gardens, such as thow threepence.

of Hyères or Cadiz in summer. (7) In the graphical statics of Messrs. Alexander

When average sea-water has been evaporated down and Thompson the authors first give a set of sixteen to the point at which chloride of sodium begins to graduated problems on coplanar forces, solved by crystallise, the liquor contains (in molecular propormeans of force and link polygons; these include tions) 100 NaCl, 2.2 KCI, 7-8 MgCl, 3.8 MgSO; couples, centres of area and moments of inertia of and this mixture of salts is associated with,.roughly, beam sections. Then follows a set of seventeen ex- 1000 mol. H,O exactly 1064). On allowing this amples showing applications to roof trusses, girders, liquor to evaporate at 25° C., the crystallisation follow walls, and masonry arches. The treatment is some- a definite route, which can be traced exactly, and what fragmentary and arbitrary, but, if supplemented without difficulty, on one of those marvellous charts by the teacher, the course would prepare a student representing the march of physical and chemica: for a systematic study of graphic statics, and the phenomena with which the resourceful inventivenes book is intended more particularly as an introduction of van 't Hoff has familiarised us. to the author's “ Elementary Applied Mechanics."

The crystallisation takes place in four acts corn sponding to the regions in the chart.

(1) Rock-salt : separation of chloride of sodium :SALT-BEDS AND OCEANS.

great abundance. Of the 100 NaCl present wher Zur Bildung der ozeanischen Salzablagerungen. By crystallisation began, only 4.6 NaCl remains dissolvec. J. H.

't Hoff. Pp. vi +85. (Brunswick : the remainder, 95 NaCl, has been deposited. Vieweg and Son.) Price 4 marks.

(2) Kieserite region : separation of chloride THIS 'HIS work will be welcomed alike by chemists, sodium, sulphate of magnesium, and kainite geologists, and oceanographers. It forms the

(MgSO,KCIZH,O). first instalment of the collection into one publication The salt separated in this act consists of 4+2 120 of the results of some forty memoirs of the author 2.02 KCl, and 3.07 MgSO,; or, 4:42 NaCl, 1-03 MgSo. and his collaborators on the formation of double salts. and 2.02 kainite.

The principal object of the work was the study of (3) Carnallite region : separation of chloride the problem of the natural salt beds. As these beds sodium, carnallite (KMgCl2,6H,O), and kieserihave in all probability been formed by the evaporation (MgSO,.H,0), and the amounts separated of a body of water comparable with the existing oceans, 0.03 NaCl, 0.1 carnallite, and 0-35 kieserite. which certainly contain some of everything, it was (4) Final liquor : what remains solidifies to vis

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NaCl, 7.62 MgCl, (bischofite), 0:08 carnallite, and 0-38 A few points call for criticism. The author is kieserite.

occasionally betrayed into a slipshod or unmeaning Rock salt

Kainite

Bischofite expression, as when he speaks of the sun " moving (1) ... 954

along its appointed daily course under the control of (2) 442 (3) 0'03 0:35

gravitation.” A sentence on p. 31 is entirely mis0'15 0*38

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leading, unless the word “ artificial ” be substituted

for “natural.” The factors to which special attenIo78

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tion has been directed by Osborn, Baldwin and 7.8

Lloyd Morgan, though not ignored, are rather in-
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adequately treated; the author, moreover, falls into Within the limits of a notice of this kind it is im- some confusion between individual and specific plaspossible to give an adequate account of so important ticity. On p. 134 Fritz Müller's interpretation of a work. It is hoped, however, that the above extract " synaposematic" resemblances is erroneously will show that it has an interest for others as well attributed to Bates. Indeed, the whole subject of as for chemists.

J. Y. B.

common warning colours, which is one of the most

interesting and complicated in the entire range of EVOLUTION FOR BEGINNERS.

evolution, deserves more extended and more accurate

treatment than it receives at Dr. Metcalf's hands. An Outline of the Theory of Organic Evolution; On plate Ixxvi. Papilio merope (caeneae) is somewhat

with a Description of some of the Phenomena uncritically assumed to be edible, and on plate lxxvii. which it Explains. By Dr. Maynard M. Metcalf,

we meet with the astonishing statement that the Professor of Biology in the Woman's College of

male of Perrhybris (Mylothris) pyrrha is edible, and Baltimore. Pp. xxii + 204. (New York: The

"imitates the inedible Heliconidæ,” while the female Macmillan Company; London : Macmillan and Co., of the same species “is not a mimic”; the fact being Ltd., 1904.) Price 1os. 6d. net.

that it is one of the best mimics known, probably of THIS HIS is one of the best popular accounts of the the Müllerian kind. The lettering of many of the theory of evolution that have come under our plates stands in need of revision.

F. A. D. notice. The author makes little or no claim to originality, but he has on the whole succeeded in his aim of providing a clear and intelligible statement

OUR BOOK SHELF. of evolutionary doctrine in most of its recent developments. Technicalities have been largely avoided; Précis de Chimie physiologique. By Prof. Allyre

Chassevant. but, as the author truly says, “ the subject is some

Pp. iv + 424; illustrated. (Paris : what intricate, and cannot be presented in so simple This is a very excellent text-book of physiological

Félix Alcan, 1905.) Price 10 francs. a manner as to require no thought on the reader's chemistry, and it presents the subject in an attractive part.” With regard to controverted points, the posi- way. It treats first of the chemical substances found tion taken is generally sound; Dr. Metcalf has no in the body, then of the various liquids and tissues difficulty in recognising the supreme importance of of the organism, and finally of function. natural selection, or in rating at their true value branch of science, without going exhaustively into

The work contains all the essential facts of this the speculations of the Lamarckian school, whether details; references are given throughout to the names new or old. He rightly lays stress on the great of investigators, but not, as a rule, to their writings. fact of adaptation as affording the most conclusive | The subjects treated most fully are the urine, the evidence of the controlling power of selection; milk, and diet, for the work aims at being not only " adaptation,” as he remarks, " is the key-note of academic, but also of practical use to the clinical

investigator. organic nature.” To some readers his faith in the

The author is well known for his original work in beneficial character of certain modifications will seem

chemical physiology, and he will be personally known a trifle too robust; but for the most part he treats also to many in London, as he was one of those who this branch of the subject with sound judgment and joined in the recent visit of French medical men to the force born of reasoned conviction.

London. He possesses what is rarely absent in An excellent feature of the book is its wealth of

French writers, a power of clear and lucid exposi

tion. He is fully conversant with recent progress in pictorial illustration. Many of the figures are already science, as evidenced by the way he deals with well known, but it is of great advantage to the questions in which physical chemistry is involved. ordinary reader to have them grouped together in The line between physiology and pathology is never such a way as to throw fresh light on each other,

a well defined one, and thus we find in the book and thus materially to assist his comprehension of subjects like immunity, serum diagnosis, and serum

therapy to the fore. It is inevitable that this should the subject. Many of the reproductions of original be so, for a proper understanding of ferments and photographs are particularly good; to“ find the anti-ferments, the prime factors in animal chemistry, woodcock” in plate 1. makes an interesting puzzle. cannot be attained except through the knowledge and The representation of the snow grouse in plate lvii.,

new ideas which were in the first instance the out. and of the sargassum fish in plate Ixv. are also

come of study in pathological fields. admirable, while the copies in colour of Tegetmeier's ing work. He has furnished the student, the

M. Chassevant is to be congratulated on his interestfigures of fancy poultry, though a little rough in investigator, and the teacher with what will be useful execution, are amply sufficient for their purpose. to all of them.

W. D. H.

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