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to the basal ganglia in general by Maudsley and Carpenter, to the septum lucidum and to the third
ventricle by others, to some undefined region by PSYCHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY.
Herbart and Lotze. Under the powerful impulse of
this supposed necessity others, notably G. H. Lewes, Grundsüge der physiologischen Psychologie. Von E. v. Hartmann and Ed. Montgomery, have made
Wilhelm Wundt. 5th edition. Vols. ii. and iii. the whole brain the sensorium commune, assuming Pp. viji +863, ix +796 and 133; and Gesamtregister. that the specific mode of vibration initiated in each (Leipzig : Engelmann, 1902-3.) Prices 138., 145., kind of sensory nerve thrills throughout the whole or and 35.
the greater part of the mass of the brain. Principles of Physiological Psychology. By Wilhelm In the Psycho-physik (1860) Fechner clearly exposed
Wundt. Translated from the fifth German edition the untenable character of all such assumptions and by E. B. Titchener. Pp. xvi + 347. (London : Swan showed that “the psychically unitary and simple are
Sonnenschein and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 125. resultants from physical manifolds, the physically WITH
ITH these two volumes Prof. Wundt concludes manifold gives rise to a unitary or simple (psychical)
what in all probability is the last edition of resultant." This principle was accepted by Helmholtz, this great work prepared by his own hand. The and by Lotze in his later writings; and the progress of single volume of the first edition of 1874 is now our knowledge of the brain achieved since that time has expanded to three large volumes comprising 2168 made patent to all the impossibility of assigning the pages. Founded, as it is, chiefly upon the author's psycho-physical processes, the processes immediately own researches and those of his pupils, the treatise correlated with psychical processes, to any one part or forms a splendid monument to his life-long labours “ centre " of the brain. in a field in which he has been for long a pioneer and Nevertheless, in dealing with concrete instances of the most prominent figure.
unitary psychical resultants from multiple sensory The main part is an expansion and development stimulations, as in the case of the compound colour of the views expounded in earlier editions in accord- sensations or of the fusion of the effects of stimuli ance with the data that have accumulated so rapidly applied simultaneously to corresponding areas of the in recent years. For, as Wundt points out, psychology two retinæ, many, perhaps most, physiologists and has now happily achieved methods of research by psychologists still postulate a fusion of the underlying which any intelligent and industrious worker may neural processes to a unitary physical resultant. It is add something, however small, to the mass of more difficult to refute this view in such special cases empirical data on which the future science is to be than to prove the erroneousness in principle of the built up, and in so doing has assured its place among conception of a sensorium commune, but fortunately the progressive sciences. To this edition final Prof. Sherrington's recent research on the functional section is added, in which the veteran thinker sets relations of corresponding retinal points' demonstrates forth his matured conclusions the general in the clearest manner the separateness of the physioprinciples of psychology and on its relations to other logical effects in the brain-cortex of stimuli simulsciences. To the exposition of one of the most im- taneously applied to corresponding retinal areas, the portant of these principles this article may profitably instance of fusion of effects to which the doctrine of be devoted. Not many years ago most writers who physiological fusion has been most confidently and discussed the functions of the brain postulated what plausibly applied; and many pathological and experithey called a sensorium commune, a central nervous mental observations bear out this view, both in this organ or "centre" in which the afferent nerves of all
case and in other similar cases of fusion of effects of the sense-organs were supposed to come together, sensory stimuli. The principle laid down by Fechner and to the substance of which each such nerve was in the words quoted above may therefore be regarded supposed to communicate its specific mode of activity, as well established. This principle Wundt adopts, and generally assumed by those writers to be some he extends its application in a thorough-going manner peculiar form of molecular vibration. It to the relations of neural and psychical processes in supposed, therefore, that when two or more sensory general. Assuming that every psychical element nerves of different functions are simultaneously stimu- . is related in a constant manner to an accompanying lated, this "centre" becomes the seat of a complex ' neural process, he asks (vol. iii., p. 775), Is there any resultant physical process, embodying the specific ! corresponding constant relation between the conneccharacters of the two or more kinds of neural process. , tions (l'erbindungen) of those elements and the conInd this hypothetical physical resultant was held nections of these processes? “ It goes without sayto be the immediate correlate or excitant of the ing that this question must be answered affirmatively complex affection of consciousness. In this way it in the sense that to all the psychical elements that are was sought to explain the unitary character of the comprised in a complex affection of consciousness, the state of consciousness resulting from the simultaneous corresponding physical processes must also be given stimulation of different sensory nerves. To every in simultaneous connection.” But that is by no part of the brain that is median and therefore has
to say that these physical correlates will no symmetrically disposed duplicate, this position of constitute a unitary resultant, which would correspond honour has been assigned by one or other writer to to the psychical resultant. “ The complex psychical the pineal gland by Descartes, to the pons by Spencer,
i See British Journal of Psychology, put i. 1004.
formations are further removed from their physio- results which the direct employment of the method logical correlates (than the psychical elements), and has yielded, and of the refinement of psychological this removal is greater
the more complex the observation which their employment induces." psychical compounds become. And it is just at
W. McD. this point that psychology as an independent science in the proper sense of the word takes up its task.”
RADIUM AND RADIO-ACTIVITY. That is to say, it is the task of psycho-physics to discriminate the elements of our psychical processes and Radium Explained. By Dr. W. Hampson, M.A. to discover their physiological correlates, but it is the
(Jack's Scientific Series.) Pp. x+122. (Edinburgh task of psychology proper to discover the purely psy
and London : T. C. and E. C. Jack, 1905.) Price
is. net. chical laws of the synthesis of these elements—a task which would remain to be carried out, though the
HIS little book, which is sold for the modest workings of the brain “stood as clearly exposed to
price of one shilling, will, we think, serve a our eyes as the mechanism of a watch.”
useful purpose in giving an elementary acquaintance Wurdt then formulates four such fundamental
with the subject of radio-activity, so far as that is psychical laws or principles, of which the first and most accessible to those with little scientific knowledge. important is the “ principle of creative resultants,” the The explanations given of the experimental properties principle “ that the product arising from any number of radium are, so far as we have observed, clear and of psychical elements is more than the sum of those accurate, and the get-up of the book, though not elements . . . . it is a new formation incomparable in superb, is respectable. Probably one of the most all its essential attributes with the factors that con
valuable chapters in the book is that on the medical tribute towards it.” So “a clang is more than the aspects of radium, and its possible uses in the cure sum of its partial tones.” “In the same way every
of disease, for few writers on radio-activity generally spatial percept is a product in which certain elements
are competent to discuss this part of the subject. Dr. (the local signs) have yielded up their independence to Hampson is of opinion that the medicinal value of impart to the product an entirely new property, This question, we think, should easily be susceptible of
mineral waters is connected with their radio-activity. namely, the spatial ordering of the sensations.
a definite and conclusive answer. In binocular vision the separate images of the
There would not kuva two organs of vision disappear, to give rise in
the slightest difficulty in giving baths of weak radiurn the common resultant image to the immediate per waters. Why not test the medicinal value of these
solution more potent by far than the richest mineral ception of solidity and depth.” On the other hand, the neural correlates of these elements remain
It is really urgent that this experiment should be tried spatially ordered manifold, exhibiting no corresponding
by competent hands. fusion or synthesis. The acceptance of this principle has plunged into an attack on modern views of the
It is, we think, to be regretted that Dr. Hampson is of the first importance for the progress of physio-constitution of matter, as expounded by Prof. J. J: logical psychology, but whether it is compatible with Thomson, Sir Oliver Lodge, and others. We have read adhesion to the doctrine of psycho-physical parallelism, these criticisms with the attention due to a worker as Wundt maintains, may be seriously questioned, like Dr. Hampson, who has done good service in the as also whether it can properly be called a principle
cause of science, but cannot admit that they possess of psychical causation. It seems clear that if with Wundt we recognise this and the other psychical laws he raises would take us beyond the limits of this
any validity. To go fully into the questions which that he formulates, whether or not we admit them notice, but we may briefly discuss one or two of the as principles of psychical causation, we cannot main-points. At the outset, Dr. Hampson objects to the tain the principle of psycho-physical parallelism in
definition of mass by means of inertia. Mass, he the rigid form in which it is so widely current at the says, is quantity of matter; inertia is dependent on present time.
velocity as well as on mass. It is a pleasure to welcome the appearance of the
It is true, no doubt, that the definition of mass first part of an English translation of this great work.
as quantity of matter may be found in some oldProf. Titchener has accomplished this part of his fashioned text-books of repute. But such a defindifficult task with all the care and skill which his tion has no value, for how is the quantity of previous labours in this line have prepared us to expect. matter to be ascertained? The choice practically
In spite of the title of this work, it is as much a lies between defining mass by inertia at a given speed treatise experimental
physiological or by gravity. So far as is known, exactly the same psychology, and in view of the common misconcep- ratio between two masses of ordinary matter will tions of the relations of experimental to other methods result, whichever method of comparison is adoptel in psychology the following quotation may fitly con- As, however, gravity depends on local circumstances. clude this brief notice :—“We now understand by 'ex- while inertia (at given velocity) does not, the latter perimental psychology' not simply those portions of property is preferred for the definition of mass, * psychology which are directly accessible to experiment, being more fundamental. but the whole of individual psychology. For all such No doubt, before it can be granted that the electro psychology employs the experimental method : | theory fully accounts for the observed properties of directly, where its direct use is possible; but in all matter, it will be necessary to show that it will explain other cases indirectly, by availing itself of the general the phenomena of gravitation. This, at present, is